infrastructure in the Central African Republic
With a GDP per capita of only $639, the Central African Republic is ranked as the poorest country in the world. In a study undertaken by the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic project, infrastructure in the Central African Republic was found to have contributed much to the country’s economic growth.

Between 2005 and 2009, despite the decades of conflict that have riddled the Central African Republic, the total contribution to the country’s per capita growth by telecommunications, electricity and road infrastructure was 0.9 percentage points. Though this was significantly lower than other central African countries, the study made it clear that infrastructure development in the sub-Saharan context led to faster growth per capita in several countries.

This strong potential is also beset by a dire reality: the central African region has the worst infrastructure on the African continent. According to a report by the African Development Bank (AfDB), the “region stands out on the continent as one with the least infrastructure network, particularly transport and energy, which impacts negatively on production capacities and regional trade as well as social conditions and welfare.”

Infrastructure in the Central African Republic, in particular, is in a very poor state. For instance, only 10 percent of the population — mainly in the capital of Bangui — has access to electricity, which is not available to the rural population.

Other services like telecommunication and banking are either lacking or nonexistent beyond Bangui. Corruption within the government not only fuels instability but also hinders developmental and growth efforts in the country as natural resources like diamond and gold are exploited within the inertia of instability.

Despite the many challenges, transport, water, power, and information and communications technology infrastructure in the Central African Republic have seen significant progress with $134 million in annual spending, $37 million of which is lost to inefficiencies.

The World Bank has estimated that a sustained expenditure of $346 million per year over the next decade can address the challenges that remain. Just by improving efficiency in infrastructure operations, around $34 million of additional resources can be unlocked.

Alternatives to the government’s poor budgetary situation have also been proposed, including extending the time horizon for meeting the infrastructure targets, prioritizing infrastructure spending and exploring additional resources from outside the budget. These are all ways infrastructure in the Central African Republic can be improved.

2017 saw some economic recovery in the Central African Republic, with GDP growth estimated to be around 4.5 percent, which fell short of the projected 5.3 percent. In 2018-19, the AfDB foresees a rise in average annual growth to 5 percent or higher. This growth “will hinge on improved domestic security, which is crucial to agricultural recovery and implementation of investment plans and economic reforms supported by international partners.”

– Mohammed Khalid

Photo: Flickr

Infrastructure in the Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands are at risk of sinking, flooding and other natural disasters. The nation must develop better infrastructure to combat the approaching threats and has planned a number of projects for improving infrastructure in the Marshall Islands.

In 2014, a major project was completed on the island of Majuro, which is the nation’s most populated island. The Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC), which focuses on building resilience to climate change in Pacific communities, directed the project.

The project focused on providing water security to the islands’ inhabitants and renovating the island’s biggest reservoir. The capacity of the reservoir was increased by five million gallons. Improvements to the reservoir system were much needed as it had not been significantly updated to match population increases since its creation in the 1970s.

The country’s National Strategic Plan 2015-2017 outlined a number of other projects dealing with the improvement of infrastructure in the Marshall Islands. The infrastructure development sector comprised of five strategic areas:

    1. Energy
    2. Information Communications Technology
    3. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management
    4. Transportation
    5. Water and Sanitation

Transportation is a major concern for the government and citizens of Marshall Islands, as only one airline services the nation. Air and water transportation are also important for its tourist economy.

The plan’s call for a revision of the National Energy Plan promotes sustainable, clean, reliable and affordable energy for the residents of the islands. Having access to green electricity and energy is important for dealing with natural disasters. The National Strategic Plan outlines many more reforms to infrastructure in the Marshall Islands and other areas of governance, many of which are currently being carried out.

Infrastructure in the Marshall Islands is a priority. Disaster preparedness is important for the citizens of the nation, and improving infrastructures like energy production and transportation are crucial. The government has outlined comprehensive plans for reforming outdated systems and hopefully, it will continue to be diligent in the future.

– Liyanga de Silva

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in MauritiusWith a growing population in recent years, Mauritius’ M2 motorway from BioPark to Port Louis is frequently clogged by traffic. Employees who travel far from home struggle to find parking spaces and walk along unpaved roads. Mauritius’ traditional power supply methods have also played a role in hindering the country’s finances, costing $561 million in 2010 for imported fossil fuel. Improving infrastructure in Mauritius is now key to reducing the country’s annual costs and improving its economy.

In June 2014, the African Development Bank approved a $116.7 million loan to the Mauritius Central Electricity Board for a project intended to redevelop Port Louis’ power plant. The electricity produced by the project’s installations will be distributed to all the corners of Mauritius’ main island, where 97 percent of its population resides. Residents of residential areas, including workers of industrial zones, will benefit from reduced emissions and noises.

Mauritius also has a dwindling water supply due to old pipes and infrastructure. In February 2015, the country’s government revealed plans to renew and replace these pipes and ensure an annual water supply. A new dam will be built at Rivière des Anguilles, improving Mauritius’ water supply in the southern region as well. New water treatment plants will also be constructed at La Nicolière and Bagatelle.

Wastewater infrastructure in Mauritius is also in need of care. The Mauritian government promised to review a program that could ensure a competitive wastewater disposal technology for the environment. The program will also address sanitation problems in the former CHA housing estates and regions that are vulnerable to environmental hazards regarding water disposal.

In March 2016, plans were announced to develop Mauritius’ airport, meaning traffic could increase throughout the country’s roads as well. Construction for an access road to Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport began, marking the first major infrastructure project for Mauritius that year. The road would provide a bypass to reduce traffic congestion, enhance road safety in residential areas and offer an alternative route to the airport in case of emergencies.

Nandcoomar Bodha, the Minister of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport, highlighted three guiding principles for the construction work: no cost variations, no delays and high-quality work. Bodha commended the company Omnicane for providing 50 arpents of land to the road project as well. Jacques d’Unienville, Omnicane’s CEO, says the new road has to promote the country because it will be a gateway between Mauritius and visitors from abroad.

Mauritius’ Prime Minister Pravind Jugnauth realizes that traffic jams cost the country four billion rupees annually. In September 2017, Mauritius began a $560 million project for a new light rail system that could cut these traffic jams and the country’s business costs. The rail system will connect Curepipe, a central Mauritius town, to the Port Louis capital. Officials say the project’s first stage where Port Louis and Rose Hill are connected is expected to reach completion by September 2019.

Projects for the country’s power source methods, water supply and decreasing traffic will continue to improve infrastructure in Mauritius. The country’s economy will also benefit from reducing the costs of energy expenses and traffic jams. Mauritius’ infrastructure can continue improving so long as more projects are started to help the country’s restructuring process.

– Rhondjé Singh Tanwar

Photo: Flickr

Focus on Farm Development Projects in Togo
Two out of five Togolese live on less than $1.25 a day and a quarter of all children under the age of five are malnourished. In addition, one-third of the population is in need of clean drinking water. Adopting a democracy in 2012, Togo has expanded its parliament ideals with a focus on developing the country for the betterment of its people. As the country crafts various projects for maturation of the economy and land, one of the main development projects in Togo is farm development. But why?


Why Agriculture is Important to Togo

Agriculture is the cornerstone of Togolese economy. Developing agriculture is critical in the fight against poverty and food security since about eighty percent of the people live off farming.

In 2015, 55 percent of households were below the poverty line, mostly those in rural communities. Due to the high rate of rural poverty, the World Bank and the Global Agriculture and Food and Security Program (GAFSP) invested in Agriculture Sector Support Project (PASA) to help almost 14,000 smallholder farmers and 3,300 livestock farmers enhance their livelihoods and provide a better future for themselves and families. The GAFSP was established in 2010 as a multi-donor trust fund to improve food security in the world’s poorest countries.


Going Green for Agriculture

Since 2014, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development started the Green Innovation Centres which focus on enhancing Food and Nutrition Security in Togo.

The objectives of the first project have been to increase the incomes of small farming enterprises, improve the regional food supply in rural target regions and boost employment. For the second project, the objective is making sure members of households at risk of malnutrition, even during a food crisis, have sufficient supplies of healthy food in their possession at all times. With this being part of the development projects in Togo for the next six years, the country could see a significant decrease in their malnutrition rates.


Other Development Projects in Togo

Other development projects in Togo have also risen throughout the years. For instance, the $26.2 million Urban Development project concluded in 2002, and assisted helping the urban development policy with several objectives, including laying the groundwork for innovations needed to reform the management of urban development in Togo and strengthening local governments ability to administer the city.

Approved in 2015, the development projects of Togo have focused on mining, university education and public administration. These projects totaled $15.20 million and have a closing date of December 31st, 2020.

Though other development projects in Togo may bring improvement to infrastructure and education, soon many more citizens can sleep with a full belly and retain profits from their farming labor.

– Tara Jackson

Photo: Flickr

5 Development Projects in Suriname

There are several important development projects in Suriname that are currently taking place to help the country positively progress. The United Nations Development Programme, the Caribbean Development Bank and the Inter-American Bank all currently have active development projects in Suriname.

Suriname’s economy is dependent on mineral resources such as oil, gold and bauxite as well as natural resources, due to the fact that four-fifths of the country is covered by tropical rainforest. The country as a whole, however, still needs help to keep its economy from faltering and to improve climate control.


The UNDP’s Projects

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is one of the organizations that has implemented different development projects in Suriname to assist in the country’s needs when it comes to climate change. The UNDP currently has three active development projects in Suriname called National REDD+ Strategy, Suriname Global Climate Change Alliance and Strengthening the National Assembly of Suriname.

The National REDD+ Strategy project’s purpose is “to ensure success in continuing to preserve Suriname’s natural capital, enhance the value of forest-related services and benefits for its peoples and contribute to the international fight against climate change and the preservation of healthy ecosystems.”

The Suriname Global Climate Change Alliance project’s purpose is to support Suriname in improving its current climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts by providing more knowledge on the effects of climate change and developing tools that target adaptation measures, as well as strengthen capacities for mangrove conservation.

The Strengthening the National Assembly of Suriname project’s purpose is to provide best practices in parliamentary development, good governance, policy guidance and initiate capacity building initiatives.


The CDB’s Projects

The Electricity System Upgrade and Expansion Project is another development project in Suriname that has been created by the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) and the government of Suriname. The project’s objective is to deliver a more reliable, efficient and sustainable electricity supply in Suriname.

When discussing the importance of the project to Suriname, Vice President of Suriname Ashwin Adhin said, “Our government will leave no stones unturned to achieve the objectives necessary to improve the energy sector. We will do this together with CDB and other important people and institutions.”


The IDB’s Projects

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), which is the largest source of development financing for Latin America and the Caribbean, has also partnered with Suriname to create a developmental project to assist the country’s needs. The IDB Group Country Strategy with Suriname 2016-2020 project’s objective is to support Suriname’s economic stabilization.

This project is complemented by a longer-term view on the modernization of the public and private sectors in the country. Reducing subsidies, lowering public spending while protecting the social safety net, strengthening public administration and strengthening human capital are all important parts of the project’s focus.

Development projects in Suriname like the ones these organizations are implementing will continue to help the country of Suriname in its goal to become a thriving country.

– Kennisha L. Crawford

Photo: Flickr

Energy Infrastructure in Tanzania Must Meet Growing Needs
Tanzania, located just below the equator in East Africa, is rich in natural resources, has a vibrant, diverse culture, and is making positive leaps in economic development. The global consulting firm PricewaterhouseCooper published reports stating that if infrastructure in Tanzania improves, the nation has the potential to be a leader of development in East Africa.

The energy sector in Tanzania is currently under expansion, and aims to meet the growing power needs of its citizens. According to a World Bank report in 2011, only 15.5 percent of the 55.5 million people that make up Tanzania’s population had access to reliable power sources; since then, the country has made serious progress in developing its energy sector. Listed below are three of the growing sources of energy infrastructure in Tanzania.


1. Natural Gas

As of 2016, 49.8 percent of energy produced in Tanzania comes from natural gas infrastructure. The Tanzanian government continues to expand its natural gas projects in an attempt to ensure reliable power to its citizens. For instance, in 2016, repair of three gas turbine plants and construction of a new gas plant at the Songo Songo gas fields near the country’s largest city, Dar Es Salaam, contributed to a 30 percent growth of natural gas production in country.

Overall, natural gas expansion is increasing electricity access to urban civilian populations within the country.


2. Hydroelectric Power

Approximately 34.2 percent of power generated in Tanzania is created using hydropower. Multiple hydroelectric dam expansion projects were approved in 2017 by Tanzanian president Jon Magufuli to help provide power to Tanzanian communities in serious need.

These infrastructure projects also have a history of creating joint energy production throughout the East African community. In 2013, the World Bank approved a $340 million dam project in the Lake Victoria region that boosted the electrical power grids of Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania.

While they do reduce greenhouse gas emissions, hydroelectric dams are at times extremely unreliable. During a drought year, major cities in Tanzania endure severe rolling blackouts, as the lack of water prevents the expected amount of electrical generation. For now, hydroelectric dams serve as a relatively effective way to provide Tanzanians’ power, while simultaneously capitalizing off of resources available in the country.


3. Solar Power

According to a Rural Energy Agency of Tanzania report in 2016, 65 percent of rural communities with access to electricity utilize some form of solar generation. One NGO in particular has been seriously successful in improving the solar energy infrastructure in Tanzania — Energy 4 Impact is a Sub-Saharan non-profit, that provides technological and financial solutions to improve solar infrastructure in rural parts of the country.

With the help of NGOs such as Energy 4 Impact, rural communities as well as some urban Tanzanians are becoming more energy independent over a shorter period of time, skipping the formal procedure of connecting to the nationalized power grids. This technological leapfrogging is not only connecting rural Tanzania to communities within the country, but also the rest of the world.


Electricity, Energy and Tanzania

Overall, electricity is vitally important to economic development and global access will continue to open up some of the last untapped markets on Earth. Energy infrastructure and access to reliable energy will benefit Tanzania greatly, as an estimated 28.2 percent of the country is “below basic poverty needs,” by the World Bank’s standard.

Given that status, researchers have determined that increased access to energy and technology will continue to bring economic growth and social hope to the continent. It is clear that Tanzania has infrastructural obstacles to overcome before it can reach its potential as the leader in East African development, but in spite of these obstacles, there are significant and interesting energy sector projects currently underway within the country.

– Danny Levy

Photo: Flickr

Infrastructure in the Solomon Islands
Although the infrastructure in the Solomon Islands has improved with financial support gained from minor tourism and the help of other countries invested in the islands, there is still much more that can be done.

The country lies on the Pacific’s “Ring of Fire.” Frequent volcanic and tectonic activity produce earthquakes and tsunamis plague the islands, and destructive events like these mean that the infrastructure in the Solomon Islands often requires maintenance and rebuilding.


Boat and Road Networks

Since the country is composed of many islands, the main transportation used in the Solomon Islands is by boat, but there is a small road network throughout much of the islands as well. Much of this road system is unpaved and often requires maintenance and rebuilding due to both heavy rainfall and natural disasters. Although the building and maintenance of this road system are controlled by the government, much of its funding comes from foreign support.

As of 2012, the road network on the Solomon Islands is moving towards a more weatherproof system. Funded by the country’s government as well as foreign aid from countries such as Australia and New Zealand, some roads have been paved and bridges made from material that can better withstand the rainy climate and extreme weather conditions. In addition, the rebuilding of road infrastructure also provides the people of the Solomon Islands with many jobs.


Structural Instability

Much of the structures on the Solomon Islands are minimal and basic. Homes and buildings are also threatened by the frequent natural disasters that hit the island.The towns where these homes and structures reside often lack any form of electricity. Only major towns such as the capital, Honiara, have access to power; even then, electricity is minimal and mainly provided by diesel generators.

Lack of electricity also means that the many of the people living in the Solomon Islands do not have access to what other countries would consider necessities i.e. communication via telephone and cellphone, and the ability to use the internet, watch television or even listen to a radio.


Electrical Need

Having one of the lowest access rates to electricity in the world, power has been something the Solomon Islands has been trying to implement in their communities for many years. Often, the only way the Solomon Islands are able to improve access considerably is with the aid of other countries.

Many improvements to the small power grids in the country have been made through foreign investment. A notable instance of this occurred in 2014 when the U.S.-based organization, the World Bank, financed $13 million for electricity improvement in Honiara. This money was given to the Solomon Islands Sustainable Energy Project (SISEP) to help improve the efficiency and reliability of the already existing power grid, as well as expand its reach.


Essential and Impactful Foreign Aid

With the support and investment of other countries, the infrastructure in the Solomon Islands is slowly improving and persevering against harsh natural conditions. Not only does financing infrastructure on the islands help its people by improving their living conditions, but it also provides them with jobs and more stable incomes.

As the infrastructure of the islands improves, it also allows the country to become more open to tourism. Receiving profit from tourism means that the island can continue to grow and aid both its people and many other investor countries.

– Keegan Struble

Photo: Flickr

Global warming has received a lot of attention of late as we see its detrimental and damaging effects around the world. Unfortunately, countries who often do not aid in the cause of global warming are often the ones hit the hardest by its effects. Tajikistan is no stranger to the problems this crisis is causing. With a population of 8.5 million in this heavily mountainous region, Tajikistan is extremely vulnerable to droughts, landslides, and floods.


Current State of Tajikistan

The year 2015 brought high temperatures that caused massive glacial flooding and mudflows, damaging critical infrastructure in Tajikistan and forced 10,000 people to evacuate. Tajikistan’s development progress is extremely threatened with the risk of more such disasters. The nation has cut their poverty rate in half since 1999, which is an amazing accomplishment; but with major disasters wreaking havoc across this country, the nation is vulnerable once again.

In order to protect the socioeconomic gains and continue the development effects of infrastructure in Tajikistan, the World Bank and USAID have stepped in, partnering with the Tajikistan government on necessary and vital projects.


Bridges and Transportation

Strengthening the project Critical Infrastructure Against Natural Hazards aims to strengthen the country’s capacity to prepare for, mitigate and respond to natural disasters while reconstructing and upgrading critical infrastructure in vulnerable regions of Tajikistan. Bridges in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO) will be improved to offer more resistance against flooding and mudslides.This will also allow more fluid traffic and secure access for emergency transportation.

Reconstruction of selected river embankments to improve river flow in the Khatlon region will increase household safety and prevent erosion. This project also seeks to develop a disaster risk financing strategy in order for Tajikistan to aid with post-disaster response, recovery and reconstruction.

According to the World Bank, this project is especially important “considering that, over the next 20 years, we will collectively build more infrastructure than over the last 2,000 years – locking in either risk or resilience for future generations.”


Irrigation and Clean Water

This considerable water damage has also affected Tajikistan’s clean drinking water. Almost 60 percent of the population lacks fresh water, and polluted irrigation water often substitutes for potable water in village households. In addition, waterborne diseases are increasingly high in many communities.

To help combat these issues, USAID works with the local government to deliver water services and works with farmers to better manage their irrigation water while educating families how to improve sanitation and hygiene behaviors. This effort has helped over 100,000 people in nine communities gain access to safe drinking water as infrastructure in Tajikistan continues to improve in aid.

Through strategic and climate-smart investments, and a more active and safe approach to emergency response and safe infrastructure, Tajikistan can better protect the lives of its citizens and continue to make strides in development as a nation.

– Kailey Brennan

Photo: Flickr

The Benefits of Digital Infrastructure in Georgia
The Republic of Georgia — located between Europe and the Middle East — is home to a population of over nine million citizens. The nation ranks 116th in GDP per capita with a poverty rate of about 30 percent.

Infrastructure in Georgia has slowly improved over the last few years, and according to research done by the World Bank, Georgia has also worked to facilitate trade and increase their value proposition as a transit country.


Electricity and Infrastructure Improvements

Electrical transmission lines cover up to 11,297 kilometers in Georgia already, and plans to expand capacity are underway. Georgia is also adding 1,700 Km of new lines by 2022 while simultaneously upgrading cross-border transmission capacity that could reach up to 5,000 MW by 2022.

Infrastructure in Georgia is becoming the central focus of the government’s plan to improve economic conditions in the country. In fact, the nation contains an abundance of untapped resources that explicitly appeal to the booming digital sector.


Financial Aid and Investments

The 1996 U.S financial backing of the local startup Sanet Network led to the first internet service provider of the modest nation, as well as the rise of four others. Since 2008, however, telecommunication infrastructure investment has plateaued while software piracy has also reached alarming levels that frighten away foreign investment in technology.

Lack of IT investment also holds back other industries like hospitality, energy, manufacturing and real estate. In the digital age, these industries rely on data centers, telecom hubs and energy distributors, who in turn rely heavily on infrastructure that can operate on scalable and flexible distribution models.


Georgia’s Location as Potential Hub

Although challenges exist, Georgia is geographically well-positioned and could, in theory, become a mega-hub for interconnectivity and a major power provider for its neighboring countries. Potential for growth definitely exists in the energy sector from hydro resources, wind, solar, geothermal and biomass sources. These untapped businesses could lead to ample financial gains for foreign investors who could then accurately implement energy, data center and telecom infrastructures.

Technology companies are now also interested more than ever in being closer to their end-users. Georgia’s multi-bordering capability can cede mass future cloud deployments. Cloud providers would have more flexibility and reliability, and also add the highly sought out redundancies to their cloud.


Mega-Moves in the Digital Infrastructure in Georgia

Deployment of Magti telecom infrastructure gave internet connectivity to 2,000 schools — a move that brought over 700,000 new users to the web. Cross partnerships between providers and government agencies (such as the Ministry of Education in Georgia) has improved academia in urban and rural areas, which also serves as an important advance in alleviating poverty.

BitFurry, a global bit-coin blockchain service provider, recently had success with data centers located in Gori; Georgia anticipated spending over 100 million dollars in infrastructure to deploy its next hub at a new technology park that was funded in part by Georgian Co-Investment fund.

But the new 100 Mega-Watt bitcoin mining data center is expected to develop on 185,000 square miles of land procured by the Georgian National Agency of State Property called the “Special Technology Zone,” aimed at attracting foreign research and development.


Infrastructure Betters the Nation

Poverty decreased for a fourth consecutive year in the country, although one-third of Georgia still lives under the poverty line; favorable business activity has been the driving force of that reduction.

With only 25 percent of its renewable energy resources exploited, Georgia could also see improvements through sales of excess energy. Georgia’s beautiful high-mountains and fast-flowing rivers are low-cost generation sources.

The digital frontier has opened possibilities for many around the world, and helping countries find ways to self-cure poverty is an excellent tool for sustainable poverty reduction.

Investment into infrastructure in Georgia can have significant positive effects for the sprawling country. Mutually beneficial business ideas can open doors for further innovation and propagate an inclusive digital world economy.

– Hector Cruz

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in BeninBenin’s road and bridge network was initially built in the 1990s with vast economic and sociopolitical expansion in mind. The government of Benin wanted to connect all rural and urban areas to enhance overall national development by connecting everything and everyone together with an expansive and intricate network of roads and bridges. Infrastructure in Benin was a key element to accomplishing this goal. It would provide all areas of the country with basic needs, including education, electricity, potable water and better communication.

Unfortunately, this goal of integrating the entire country through a quick and vast spurt in road and bridge networks led to the creation of inadequate structures that often make travel along them inefficient. It is easy to travel across the entire country within a matter of hours, but many of the roads were so poorly built in the first place that they have suffered from rapid deterioration, making travel along them nearly impossible.

Road maintenance is another impediment to safe and passable infrastructure in Benin, being practically nonexistent in most rural areas. Some roads are only passable during certain periods during the year, and even then, only by vehicles obtained at high operating costs. This creates imperative issues during periods of planting and transportation of supplies in rural areas.

Poor maintenance has created increased travel and vehicle costs, heightened accident rates and has promoted the further isolation of rural areas. This last issue is particularly threatening: with increased isolation in rural areas, the possibility of obtaining a decent education and health services decreases.

Approximately 93 percent of goods, including those brought in at ports, are sent along this faulty road and bridge network. Economic growth depends on this system, with raw goods, finished products and information all being transported. Infrastructure in Benin faces massive challenges to its proper and safe expansion. The roads and bridges are a pivotal aspect of maintaining and supporting the country’s continually growing population and economy.

Of the 4,660 miles of road in Benin, only 20 percent are paved, the remaining 80 percent being dirt or mere tracks that are mostly impassable. Creating a uniform road and bridge network within infrastructure in Benin is imperative and the country has allocated funds towards this goal. Of the $452 million spent per year on road rehabilitation and expansion, however, nearly $101 million is lost to inefficient management.

This mismanagement of funds is due to constant changes of chairmen in the local and national branches of government. Every time the chairmanship changes, so do the government’s priorities in infrastructure in Benin. Despite this mismanagement, Benin has rebuilt some roads and bridges, expanding them further into rural areas for greater integration.

– Kayla Rafkin

Photo: Flickr