life expectancy in the philippinesFactors such as educational status and public health expenditures have impacted life expectancy in the Philippines, a tropical nation located in the Pacific Ocean. Here are 10 things to know about life expectancy in the Philippines.

10 Things to Know About Life Expectancy in the Philippines

  1. General statistics: Life expectancy in the Philippines at birth increased to approximately 71 years in 2018. The mortality rate among both adult men and women has similarly decreased over time. The mortality rate for adult men decreased from about 308 deaths per 1,000 in 1960 to 235 deaths per 1,000. In addition, the mortality rate for adult women also decreased over time from approximately 262 deaths to 131 deaths per 1,000 adults.
  2. Socioeconomic and educational status: Many older Filipinos have reported better health, enhanced community participation and greater financial stability. Older Filipinos also explained that they had the ability to have enhanced stability later in life. Yet those with higher socioeconomic status reported more enhanced quality of life than those of lower socioeconomic status.
  3. Disease: The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that the leading cause of death in the Philippines was cardiovascular disease. This caused about 35% of all deaths. Communicable maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions caused approximately a quarter of all deaths. Cancer caused another 10% and injuries 7%.
  4. Premature deaths: The risk of premature deaths as a result of non-communicable diseases (NCDS) has remained fairly constant over time at more than 30% in males. The risk of premature deaths in females was more than 20%. The WHO expects a similar trend over time until approximately 2025.
  5. Risk ractors: Risk factors specifically relevant to life expectancy in the Philippines include obesity, raised blood pressure and tobacco use. The percentage of the population that is obese has increased slightly over time, with higher projected linear trends by 2025. In contrast, the percentage of the population with raised blood pressure has remained mostly constant over time, with a similar projected linear trend. However, the percentage of the population that smokes is expected to decrease over time, with the greater change being predicted in males.
  6. National system response: The Philippines has implemented drug therapy in order to prevent both heart attacks and strokes. More than half of all health facilities reported implementation of cardiovascular disease guidelines, and many primary health care centers explained that they offered cardiovascular disease risk stratification. Four out of six of all essential NCD technologies were “generally available,” whereas 40% of essential NCD medicines were “generally available.” This is an example of how medical care can improve the life expectancy in the Philippines.
  7. Housing quality: A study conducted in Iloilo in the Visayas region of the Philippines analyzed what impacts childhood survival. The researchers examined factors like housing construction supplies and toilet services. Children from housing of higher quality had a higher likelihood of living to five years old than children from housing of relatively lower quality. As such, socioeconomic status determines life expectancy in the Philippines to some extent.
  8. Public health expenditures: From 1981 to 2010, health expenditure per capita increased by approximately 6.49%. GDP also increased by about 11% on average. At the same time, infant and under-five mortality rates decreased. In addition, life expectancy increased. 
  9. Education expenditures: In a study conducted in 2009, only 3% of government expenditures were allocated toward education. The researchers found that “Philippine provinces could use 52% of their budgets to attain current levels of human development indicators.” Ultimately, the researchers determined that increasing government spending toward education would increase life expectancy in the Philippines.
  10. Immunizations: An essential factor in lowering both morbidity and mortality is the sufficient implementation of universal childhood immunizations. In 2003, only 69% of Filipino kids were sufficiently vaccinated. Mothers with less education and who attended only four antenatal visits were found less likely to fully immunize their children.

Life expectancy in the Philippines is a complex issue. Greater awareness of the factors that affect it could contribute to better health outcomes and, consequently, higher life expectancy in the Philippines.

— Aprile Bertomo
Photo: Flickr

journalism and global wellbeingSince the media boom of the 1990s, journalism has entered an academic discussion that questions a writer’s role in their community and beyond. There are core objectives of journalism that have always remained true: providing readers with unbiased information, holding those in power accountable, and educating and advocating for the people. What these objectives do not address, however, is the relationship between journalism and global wellbeing.

Researchers assert that the media today holds a “social responsibility” to the public. Journalists must reach out past their nuclear community and consider the impact good and insightful reporting can provide. Foreign correspondents are essential to society; these journalists uncover conflict and tragedy happening on the other side of the world and explain to readers why they should care by offering insight and finding the humanity in every story. Most countries and communities are willing to lend a hand, and they just need to know where to look. That’s where the relationship between journalism and global wellbeing in terms of poverty, health, safety and equality becomes imperative.

A Conversation with Mallory Saleson

Global communications and media specialist Mallory Saleson has been on the scene at all the right times. Working as a broadcast journalist and radio correspondent for Voices of America (VOA), Saleson spent a lot of time covering South Africa’s post-apartheid elections and other instances of conflict within the region. Saleson sat down with The Borgen Project to discuss her role as a journalist during a time of humanitarian crisis and social upheaval and the connection between journalism and global wellbeing.

Looking back over her nearly twenty-year career in Africa, Saleson says that what she remembers most is the people. She states, “Journalists don’t write about issues, we write about people, we write about circumstances, we write about humanity.” As a broadcast journalist working under VOA, she witnessed war, civil unrest, disease and poverty.

Although it was her job to interview and report, Saleson strove to understand the people she spoke with—most of all, she listened. Yes, there are breaking news stories that must be short and laden with urgent information, but “that’s not why you become a journalist … if you can’t write about people then you don’t really have a story,” says Saleson.

In terms of media coverage on global poverty, Saleson believes the United States could do more. This is not an unpopular sentiment among members in the field. Media ethicists are looking to broaden the conceptual base of global journalism and asking writers to consider their audience as an international public. In other words, journalism and global wellbeing are inherently connected.

What Is Media Ethics?

So what is media ethics? This theory urges journalists to remove themselves from the borders of their home country and report using a multifaceted approach. Researchers suggest that articles should be written with diversity in mind and a keen perspective on every angle. Due to the general globalization of technology and access to information, do journalists now hold a higher responsibility to citizens across the world?

Media ethicists argue that the answer is yes. If all reporting were to become completely universal with no previous bias, diversity would be normalized. This would create a connection between cultures as well as unity and a global identity.  It also creates a direct link between journalism and global wellbeing. Saleson suggests that journalists who write locally but relate their coverage internationally can help readers understand and empathize with people and their struggles, despite living thousands of miles apart.

Beyond a Free Press

In broad terms, a free press allows journalists in the region to report freely without censorship from governmental officials. A free press paves the way for policy change by alerting stakeholders to issue they may be unfamiliar with. From this transparency, journalists can hold governments accountable on finances, legislation and international affairs. Free press also opens a forum for debate where opinions can be expressed without fear of punishment. While a free press is the baseline of journalistic values, the idea of globalizing the field takes the job description much further.

A free press brings awareness, but a dedication to a diverse population and common humanity brings something more: empathy. If journalists can diminish all distance between the reader and the coverage of conflict, researchers believe it could create tremendous change. This intimately connects journalism and global wellbeing. Saleson suggests that American media focuses on an international issue only once it has begun to affect the U.S. directly. She states, “You need to go to those countries and understand these people, their struggles.” Emphasizing the humanity in every story can make people removed from the circumstance care and offer resources to those affected by global poverty.

It is important to note that invoking the sentiments of empathy and compassion are all grounded in facts that elaborate on the circumstances, future developments and possible solutions. Writers must draw a line between sympathy and empathy. To feel sympathy is to feel helpless remorse, but to feel empathy is to understand and acknowledge another’s daily struggles. That kind of strong reporting can do more than inform: it can create emotional stakeholders.

The Future of Journalism and Global Wellbeing

This modern view of a journalist as an employee to the global population with a social obligation to inform and unify could be a newfound push for international aid. If a journalist can make two readers on opposite sides of the world feel like neighbors with the same struggles and needs, international aid will become much easier. This focus on journalism and global wellbeing proves promising, because to change people is to change the world.

– Alexa Tironi
Photo: Flickr

pandemic-induced inequality in latin americaFrom 2002 to 2018, Colombia, “one of the most unequal countries in an extremely inequitable region,” cut its poverty rate in half. This reduction of poverty accompanied massive economic uplift throughout Latin America that saw wealth inequalities diminish rapidly. Before the arrival of the coronavirus pandemic, economic and social inequality in Latin America had reached its “lowest point in recorded history.” Millions of families lifted themselves out of poverty, job opportunities soared and the quality of education increased. However, the COVID-19 pandemic threatens to destroy this new progress toward equality. Although the situation is dire, there are simple steps that anyone around the globe can take to help reverse the trend of pandemic-induced inequality in Latin America.

Economic Inequality

The World Bank predicts that due to the pandemic, the economies of Latin American countries will contract by 9.4%. This will cause 53 million Latin Americans to fall below the poverty line of less than $5.50 earned per day. With further reduction of jobs, COVID-19 will undoubtedly continue to destroy opportunities vital to the incomes of Latin America’s poor. This “setback of two decades” will further inequality between the rich and poor in Latin America, because it eliminates many jobs that poor daily wage workers depend on while hardly touching the incomes of the rich.

Francisco Ferreira, Professor of Inequality Studies at the London School of Economics, stated in an interview that “the inequality of COVID doesn’t just take place between the states of nations, but rather in neighborhoods of the same city.” Francisco commented further that “when this type of disaster arrives, poverty necessarily rises because the rich are better equipped financially to deal with it, and this causes inequality.”

Manual laborers in Latin America constitute 53% of the overall employment force. However, these individuals face especially high unemployment risks because of COVID-19. If they do manage to keep their jobs, these workers also face a higher risk of getting infected with the virus. Infection could lead to medical bills that can plunge people further into poverty and thus increase pandemic-induced inequality in Latin America.

Unequal wages also lead to worsened living conditions, like a lack of piped water and sanitation. In Brazil, as much as 50% of the population has no access to improved sanitation. For Bolivia, 30% of the population has no access to piped water. A lack of adequate sanitation facilities has the potential to start a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health conditions. This is especially concerning during a pandemic.

Gender Inequality

The pandemic also has the potential to severely reduce gender equality in Latin America. Women hold 55% of the most vulnerable informal jobs in Latin America. This means that when economies crash, women may be among the first to lose their financial independence. Unemployed women may be forced into care roles in communities, which may lead women to permanently leave the labor market. In the long term, this will greatly damage the economic capabilities of Latin American countries.

Overall, the pandemic stands to cause catastrophic long-term damage to the progress of equality in Latin America. By eliminating jobs and reducing the number of financially independent women in Latin America, the COVID-19 crisis has begun to retrench economic gains and further steepen earnings gaps between the rich and poor. However, those outside of the region can quickly and easily contribute to the reversal of pandemic-induced inequality in Latin America.

How to Help

Even though the pandemic stands to undermine decades of progress towards social and economic equality in Latin America, there are simple steps that every person reading this article can take to help reduce the impact of pandemic-induced inequality in Latin America.

  • Raise Awareness: By spreading awareness of pandemic-induced inequality in Latin America, anyone with a phone or social media account can draw attention to how decades of economic progress are being reversed. Taking this step towards combatting inequality is as simple as posting a link to this article. Making more people aware of how the coronavirus stands to eliminate jobs in Latin America makes policy and aid attention toward this problem becomes more likely.
  • Contact Congress: By contacting Congressional representatives and telling them to support foreign aid initiatives, anyone reading this article can help direct funding toward reducing pandemic-induced inequality in Latin America. Only by contacting senators and representatives can individuals demand increased foreign aid spending. This money would go toward creating economic stimulus, expanded shelters and better healthcare.
  • Donate to The Borgen Project: By donating to The Borgen Project, one can contribute to a cause working to increase foreign aid spending and by extension working to reduce pandemic-induced inequality. Donating to The Borgen Project means contributing to an organization that will continue to fight for U.S. legislation that will increase foreign aid spending and funding. This is vital to eliminating social and economic inequality in Latin America.

Overall, COVID-19 threatens to reverse decades of progress toward equality in Latin America by eliminating jobs that create social mobility. Nevertheless, anyone can quickly and easily help reverse the trend of pandemic-induced inequality emerging in Latin America. It’s as easy as spreading awareness, contacting their congressional representatives and donating to The Borgen Project.

– Nolan McMahon
Photo: Flickr

marshall legacy instituteCountries recovering from war face countless challenges, including their land being contaminated by landmines. Landmines hidden underneath the ground can be active up to 50 years and only take a small amount of pressure to set off. Around the world, landmines kill or injure someone every 40 minutes. The Marshall Legacy Institute is employing dogs to de-activate landmines around the world to help societies move forward from war.

How Landmines Harm Post-War Places

Landmines hinder economic development, as well as the health and safety of populations in post-crisis places. In particular, landmines threaten rural populations. Unlike urban areas, the dangers of landmines deter the building of infrastructure in rural areas. This also prevents the emergence of new opportunities to stimulate the local economy. Landmines also stop agriculture production, resulting in food insecurity.

Every day, landmines kill 12 people globally and threaten the livelihoods of citizens already trying to recover from war. People walking to work, to school or even on their own land may be injured or killed when they step on an unmarked landmine. Those in war-torn countries who become injured by explosions have a harder time escaping poverty than ever before. This is particularly devastating because half of landmine deaths are children. In this situation, hospitals are vital to providing surgeries, rehabilitation and psychological help to victims. Unfortunately, most hospitals that treat landmine injuries are in the cities, while a majority of these accidents affect rural areas. Not receiving help has a lifelong impact on a person’s health, and they face social discrimination and physical challenges when finding work.

Landmines also pose challenges to aid organizations. Refugees are more likely to return home if the land is mine-free and safe. However, aid groups working to assist populations only help safe places and cannot help these rural places in need. Aid groups that do travel to contaminated areas risk their life, as evidenced by the two polio workers who were killed by a landmine blast in Pakistan.

The Marshall Legacy Institute and Mine Dogs

The Marshall Legacy Institute aims to deactivate landmines so that nations can become landmine-free. Founded in 1997 in honor of the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan, the Marshall Legacy Institute promotes long-term peace and stability by saving lives in nations affected by conflict. Though wars may be a distant memory, millions of landmines are still a deadly problem in more than 50 countries around the world. The Marshall Legacy Institute addresses this through programs such as Survivors’ Assistance, Children Against Mines Programs (CHAMPS) and the Mine Dog Protection Partnership Program.

The Mine Dog Protection Partnership Program uses 900 dogs to sniff out and identify landmines in 24 countries. Most landmines contain barely any metal pieces, which makes them challenging to detect. While human de-miners use metal detectors during searches, dogs can smell both plastic and metal to discover landmines. This strong sense of smell allows these explosive-sniffing dogs to search the land 30 times faster than manual teams.

The program trains dogs for three to five to months. They are motivated to find mines through rewards like toys. Donations from people and companies sponsor the dogs, and organizations care for them during their working lives. None of the Marshall Legacy Institute’s dogs have been hurt during a clearance operation. So far, the Mine Dog Protection Partnership has cleared 49 million square meters of contaminated land.

A Future Without Landmines

The Marshall Legacy Institute has been successful in establishing “Mine Free” countries like Bosnia-Herzegovina with help from dogs. The war from 1992 to 1995 in Bosnia-Herzegovina caused 100,000 deaths and scattered millions of landmines throughout the country. After the war, the country had some of the highest number of land mines in the world, placed over an estimated 247,000 acres. More than 8,000 deaths have occurred from landmine accidents in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

To promote safety and development in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Marshall Legacy Initiative created the “Mine Free Sarajevo Project.” In this project, the Mine Dog Protection Partnership Program aims to clear 8 million square meters of landmines in the country. It has already cleared 14,000 square meters of land, which can now be developed into tourist sites and sports facilities. In short, the “Mine Free Sarajevo Project” can help Sarajevo and surrounding regions to finally become mine free.

The Marshall Legacy Institute is currently aiding countries with an immediate call for assistance such as Yemen and Colombia. The Marshall Legacy Institute’s Development Director, Indre Sabaliunaite, shares that “The Marshall Legacy Institute aims to free war-torn and post-conflict countries of landmines. Mine-free land improves the livelihoods of so many people by expanding their financial opportunities and by ensuring that no more children, women, or men will get injured or killed. MLI’s mission is to help countries help themselves. Once the organization removes landmines and other explosives, it returns the land back to the people. This has allowed communities to employ the land for farming, economic development, tourism purposes, and housing development.” By continuing to free land with the help of mine dogs, people can advance from the challenges of war and start their new lives.

Hannah Nelson
Photo: Wikimedia

tourism and COVID-19COVID-19 has caused major disruptions for travel on a global scale. The tourism industry has already experienced a loss of over $300 billion in the first five months of 2020, and that number is projected to increase to as much as $1.2 trillion due to the pandemic. Additionally, 100 to 120 million jobs associated with tourism are at risk. Tourism and COVID-19 have struggled to co-exist amidst the turmoil of 2020, especially in three major tourist countries. However, organizations are working to protect the future of the travel industry.

Global Tourism and COVID-19

Tourism is considered the third-largest export sector. It is an essential component of the global economy, comprising 10.4% of total economic activity in 2018. Some countries rely on tourism for 20% or more of their total GDP. Many countries rely on capital from tourists, ranging from small, low-income island countries to larger, high-income countries. However, according to a U.N. policy brief, there will be an estimated 58-78% decrease in tourists in 2020 compared to 2019. Three countries that have been especially affected by COVID-19 and tourism are Spain, Thailand and Mexico.

  1. Spain: Spain experienced the second-largest overall economic loss in tourism due to the pandemic, behind the United States. The country lost $9.7 million in revenue due to travel restrictions and decreased tourism. Because Spain is a high-income country and has various other contributors to its economy, it is expected to recover with greater resilience than similarly impacted, lower-income countries.
  2. Mexico: In 2018, Mexico gained a total of 7.15% of its GDP from tourism. However, Mexico’s income from tourism in April 2020 was a mere 6.3%. Additionally, the tourism sector accounts for approximately 11 million jobs in Mexico alone, many of which are now at risk.
  3. Thailand: Thailand has lost nearly $7.8 million due to travel restrictions since the start of the pandemic. The country has taken these limitations seriously in order to prevent the spread of COVID-19. However, this action has come at the cost of earning a ranking as one of the countries hit hardest by economic losses associated with tourism. The tourism sector is responsible for about 10% of the country’s total GDP.

Government Response to Tourism and COVID-19

Although COVID-19 has introduced an unprecedented economic strain on a global scale, governments are working to help countries recover. Spain released an aid package allocating €400 million to the transport and tourism sectors, €14 million to boost the local economy and €3.8 million for public health. Mexico’s government is distributing 2 million small loans of 25 thousand pesos (about $1000) to small businesses. Lastly, Thailand has approved three tourism packages to assist the local economy and small businesses.

NGO Policy Response to Tourism and COVID-19

With government and NGO action, experts predict that the travel sector will return to 2019 economic levels by around 2023. Many organizations are stepping in with policy solutions, providing hope for the industry’s revival. The U.N. World Tourism Organization released the COVID-19 Tourism Recovery Technical Assistance Package, highlighting three main policy areas: “Managing the crisis and mitigating the impact,” “providing stimulus and accelerating recovery” and “preparing for tomorrow.” Similarly, the International Labour Organization released a policy framework with four main pillars to protect workers, stimulate the economy, introduce employment retention strategies and encourage solutions-based social dialogue.

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development provides “Travel in the New Normal,” a series of six policy areas. These include helping businesses to implement “touchless” solutions, sanitation supplies, health screenings and other protective measures to prevent COVID-19. The OECD states that domestic travel will be vital for the recovery of tourist nations, contributing to 75% of the tourism economy in OECD member countries.

These efforts, along with other policy strategies, are vital to the recovery of the tourism industry. They will be particularly important for small- and medium-sized enterprises, industry-employed women and the working class as a whole. These policies will also further U.N. Sustainable Development Goals like No Poverty, Reduced Inequality, Partnership, Sustainable Cities & Communities and Decent Work & Economic Growth.

The tourism sector has suffered major losses in response to COVID-19, with a significant amount of revenue and jobs lost or at severe risk. Countries of all regions and income levels have been affected by the pandemic, including Spain, Mexico and Thailand. However, these setbacks provide unique opportunities to both transform the tourism industry and promote the Sustainable Development Goals.

– Sydney Bazilian
Photo: Flickr

Effects of Poverty on Orphans in Uganda
In Uganda, Africa around 12% of children are orphans. Many of the children have either lost both or one of their parents due to high rates of cholera and tuberculosis, as well as the high price tag of medical treatment in Uganda. In addition, the number of orphans in Uganda is increasing. UNICEF estimates that there are over 2 million orphans living in Uganda. The Amani Baby Cottage, located in Uganda, Africa, has dedicated itself to helping orphans. It makes sure that these children receive proper care, reunite with their families or become adopted by new ones.

How Amani Baby Cottage Helps Fight Poverty in Uganda

The Amani Baby Cottage started in 2003. The orphanage is located in Uganda, Africa, specifically in Jinja. The facilities allow Amani to take in around 60 children at a time, catering to children who are newborn to 5 years old in particular. The orphanage focuses on taking in abandoned children. Many of the children’s parents died due to AIDS. This means that many of the children are HIV positive. Amani has helped an estimated 400 children since its start in 2003.

The owner and founder of Amani Baby Cottage, Danyne Bharj, says that she had the inspiration to start Amani when she was 23 years old. The African Children’s Choir, a traveling children’s choir of 7 to 10-year-old’s who travel the world to perform and sing, came to her church. Danyne says that the choir’s performance moved her and after housing five of the children in her home, became very connected and invested in the African Children’s Choir. Danyne ended up touring with the group and forming a great relationship with the children and individuals who ran the choir. According to Danyne, this experience inspired her to start the Amani Baby Cottage in Uganda.

Amani also employs many women in neighboring districts. Approximately 45 Ugandans work at the orphanage. They care of the children as nurses, work to keep the grounds in good condition and work in the main office aiding with adoptions and social work. While many people work tirelessly to help support Amani, it always appreciates donations. Donors can donate money generally or can even sponsor a specific child. Additionally, they are able to donate certain supplies that Amani needs at the moment. Its website lists those supplies.

Amani’s Volunteer Programs

For those interested in doing more than just donating to Amani, the orphanage provides an internship program. Individuals from around the globe are welcome to go to Amani in Africa to spend quality time with the children and staff there. Interns can do a short-term internship of six weeks to three months or a long-term internship of three months to a year. Individuals can participate in the program as a group or alone. While there, interns have the opportunity to work in the nurseries or cottages, or with the older children or at the preschool. In addition, the interns can nurse and help with social work or other projects that might need to be done around Amani, such as building projects. Amani chooses its interns through an application process on its website. Amani’s Instagram page features many interns playing with and taking care of the children.

Schools at Amani

Amani has started a preschool for the older children at the orphanage. The children who are old enough attend classes during the week, learn things such as the alphabet, numbers, shapes and months of the year. The classes also include snack time and lots of fun educational games. Amani has staffed an onsite teacher to teach the children, with help from other volunteers as well.

For the children who become too old to stay at Amani, either, a family adopts the child, or the child’s parents come back. Regardless of the outcome, there are social workers who check in to make sure that the family and child are doing well. However, in the rare case that this does not happen, Amani will set the child up with a family in the surrounding area that they have bonded with and who Amani has a strong relationship with.

More to Do

Though Danyne has done much to try and help care for children in Uganda living in poverty through Amani Baby Cottage, more effort is required to decrease the number of children living in poverty. The Ugandan government has implemented the Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Uganda.

These programs specifically target children who are living in poor areas. Additionally, the program helps to better educate the youth living in Uganda. The number of children in this program continued to grow greatly since the introduction of the program in the 1990s. According to the World Bank, Uganda has been successful in driving down the poverty rate within the last decade as the percentage of individuals living below the poverty line declined from 31.1% to 19.7% in 7 years. However, new troubles have arisen due to the COVID-19 pandemic as many families do not have access to medical care and money from tourism has decreased significantly. In regard to COVID-19, one can have hope that the rate of poverty in Uganda will continue to decrease.

Olivia Eaker
Photo: Flickr

innovations in poverty eradication in slovakiaIn 2008, 1.11 million Slovaks were at risk of poverty. Today, that number is closer to 872,000, while Slovakia’s steady economic growth is at almost 4%. However, uncertainty looms again as 70% of Slovakian employees are in danger of losing their jobs due to automation. Thankfully, innovations in poverty eradication in Slovakia make poverty eradication possible.

Slovakia: The Heart of Europe

Entrepreneurs succeed in Slovakia because the country is a central hub enclosed by Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine and Hungary. This gives the country high exporting potential. For example, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and The Norwegian Barents Secretariat have signed agreements with Slovakia to continue cross-border cooperation with Ukraine to promote economic development.

Slovakia also has a rich cultural heritage, history and modern art. The country’s Culture Program aims to bring attention to these facets of Slovakian culture. Through this program, the Slovakian government hopes to increase income and jobs through art creation and performances. This is one of many innovations in poverty eradication in Slovakia that would significantly reduce poverty in disadvantaged communities.

Partnerships Are the Key to Success

The Slovakian government also encourages partnerships between students and professionals to address poverty. These programs help those in need as well as provide experience to students. Overall, they focus on technological advancements, thus creating innovations in poverty eradication in Slovakia.

One of these partnership programs is the Butterfly Effect. A digital start-up, this organization assists young, tech-savvy leaders of tomorrow by offering full-time courses geared toward developers and inventive leaders. Additionally, the program encourages students to innovate for the future of Slovakia in the ever-changing digital world. For example, students developed a ride-sharing app specifically for those traveling to and from work through this program.

Similarly, LEAF focuses on developmental programs for those just starting or those who are already in their career field. They help all those who hope to build a more successful Slovakia, regardless of personal finances. LEAF also has programs specialized for teachers and skill-based volunteering that focuses on living conditions. Additionally, LEAF offers paid internships to students committed to staying in Slovakia, thus providing guidance and job security to the next generation. These programs all abide by LEAF’s four core values: ethics, excellence, entrepreneurial leadership and civic engagement.

Investors Help Equality Progress

Fueling many innovations in poverty eradication in Slovakia is the country’s influx of investors, creating a demand for skilled workers. To keep up, Slovakia is dedicated to improving educational and entrepreneurial opportunities to increase its ability to adapt to new technologies. International investors have the chance to network with Slovakian startups at Innovation Day, hosted by the German-Slovak Chamber of Industry and Commerce (GSCIC).

One such digital technology startup to watch on Innovation Day 2020 is Meet ‘n’ Learn. Meet ‘n’ Learn is an app allowing parents and students to find tutors in their neighborhood. They can arrange to meet up in person or virtually through the app for lessons. Additionally, the app provides a free option where students can post questions and receive replies from multiple instructors. This app has the potential to bridge the gap between children of different economic backgrounds. Slovakia is embracing these investors that are backing these innovative ideas to give everyone equal advantages.

The Future of Innovations in Poverty Eradication in Slovakia

To facilitate poverty reduction, Slovakia encourages citizens to welcome the technological and digital world through modernization and entrepreneurship. The country’s efforts have been rewarded with a historically low unemployment rate of 7%. OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría says, “Living standards are gradually catching up with the higher-income …. [T]o ensure this growth is more inclusive, [we need to] move towards more sophisticated and innovative products and ensure that everyone has the skills and training for the jobs of tomorrow.” In doing so, innovations in poverty eradication in Slovakia will continue to further the country’s progress on this front.

Sam Babka
Photo: Flickr

Poverty in the PhilippinesThe Philippines has a fairly high poverty rate with more than 16% of the population living below the poverty line. Because of the many people reliant on agriculture for an income and inequality in wealth distribution, about 17.6 million Filipinos struggle to afford basic necessities. From 2015 to 2020, the rate of poverty declined from 21.6% to 16.6%. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte aims to reduce the rate of poverty to 14% by 2022. Through its strategy, AmBisyon 2040, the Philippine government plans to eradicate extreme poverty by 2040. Furthermore, the government has implemented various programs and reforms to reduce poverty by targeting education, healthcare and the overall economy. Here are five ways the program is combatting poverty in the Philippines.

Combatting Poverty in the Philippines

  1. Greater Access to Education: A factor of systemic poverty is a lack of access to education in impoverished areas. People gain basic skills and increased job opportunities through education, which can help to combat poverty in the Philippines. Therefore, the Philippines signed the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act in 2017 to encourage more people to enroll in higher education and to address the issue of education inequality. The government subsidizes the cost of tuition for State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) students as well as other expenses such as school supplies. Private institutions also have access to a tuition subsidy. The Act aims to decrease the number of dropouts in higher education and promote the idea that higher education is available to all.
  2. Greater Access to Healthcare: In an effort to improve the healthcare system, President Duterte signed the Universal Healthcare Act in February 2019. The UHC Act provides access to the full spectrum of healthcare by enrolling citizens in the National Insurance Program and granting health coverage to all. While healthcare is not completely free, those in poverty will have more access to health services. To ensure the effectiveness of healthcare, the Act will form the Health Technology and Assessment Council (HTAC). The Council will consist of health experts who will assess health developments, such as technology, vaccines and other advancements. Additionally, the Philippines will allocate more funds to PhilHealth, which will improve the quality of service and lower the cost of medicine.
  3. Family Aid: To further efforts to support citizens, the government implemented the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) in 2007. The 4Ps is is a conditional cash transfer program for impoverished households. The program gives households grants so long as they meet certain requirements, including keeping the children in school, having regular health check-ups and having parents or guardians attend Family Development Sessions. The 4Ps program benefits about 20 million Filipinos, 9 million of whom are children. Therefore, the program reaches about 20% of the population with the goal of greater poverty reduction.
  4. Economic Improvement: With the goal of reducing poverty by strengthening economics, President Duterte signed the Rice Tariffication Law in February 2019, amending the Agricultural Tariffication Act of 1996. The Law places a 35% tariff on imported rice with the goal of prioritizing local rice production for the population by stabilizing the supply. The tariff also aims to benefit local farmers by creating a more efficient and competitive agricultural system.
  5. Build, Build, Build: Additionally, the Duterte administration created the “Build, Build, Build” infrastructure plan in 2017. The initial goal of the program was to complete 75 projects, but Duterte revised the plan to instead target finishing 100 projects. Some projects include new public transportation and airport renovations. The government has put about 34% of the projects into action and is expecting to complete 56% by 2022. By 2019, the government had completed two of the initial 75 projects. With support from loans, the Philippines will rely on Build, Build, Build as a strategy to aid the country in recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic. The government’s hope is that combatting the effects of the pandemic by improving the country’s infrastructure will stimulate the economy and create more jobs. However, the program has received criticism due to its slow execution as a result of underspending.

Unfortunately, poverty is expected to increase in the Philippines because of the coronavirus crisis. This will lead to a decrease in consumption growth and further income losses. Therefore, greater efforts are necessary to combat poverty in the Philippines amid the pandemic, which has hit the impoverished the hardest.

Zoë Nichols
Photo: Flickr

healthcare in mauritaniaThe Islamic Republic of Mauritania is a vast desert country with a significant nomadic population. These facets of Mauritania’s geography present challenges for creating healthcare infrastructure. In particular, physical distance and large rural populations make distributing care a massive undertaking. Accordingly, there are only 0.19 practicing physicians per 1,000 people in Mauritania. Here are five facts about healthcare in Mauritania.

5 Facts About Healthcare in Mauritania

  1. A lack of proper infrastructure devastates public health in rural, vulnerable regions. Problems stemming from poor sanitation and a lack of clean water plague Mauritania. Many areas of Mauritania go completely without consistent water sources due to geographic barriers. Overall, the capital city of Nouakchott is the only region with adequate water supply and treatment. This lack of water leads to serious consequences for healthcare in Mauritania. According to the World Health Organization, 2,150 Mauritanians die from diarrheal disease per year. Ninety percent of these deaths are linked to a lack of sanitation and insufficient access to clean water. In addition, droughts and desertification are preventing rural populations from accessing water at all. This is yet another challenge to improving healthcare in Mauritania.
  2. Many political barriers inhibit attempts to improve healthcare in Mauritania. The country suffers from a shortage of doctors and treatment facilities in rural areas of the country. While there are potential avenues for funding expansion, the Mauritanian government tends to keep infrastructure projects centralized to the capital region. Although the capital is the largest city and presents the most promise for economic growth, this neglects rural citizens. For example, the national insurance program prioritizes a portion of the urban population, as it only covers government officials and those who are formally employed. Poverty-stricken people are further disadvantaged by the astronomical cost of healthcare without any insurance. Thankfully, groups like the Institute of Tropical Medicine are working to provide a concerted effort to expand healthcare in Mauritania.
  3. Mauritania struggles with reproductive and neonatal care. According to the World Bank, Mauritania has a birthrate of 4.62. Combined, the birthrate and lack of adequate neonatal care lead to high infant and maternal mortality. However, the International Development Association is dedicating $23 million to expanding the reach and quality of maternal, neonatal and reproductive healthcare in Mauritania. The initiative also aims to combat childhood malnutrition by investing in further healthcare and nutrition services for children. These efforts, part of the Mauritania Health System Support project, aspire to alleviate issues in healthcare beyond the capital city. This will provide much-needed relief to rural and refugee populations.
  4. International aid is going toward healthcare in Mauritania. The International Development Association of the World Bank is providing funds to help local governments build sanitation and water treatment infrastructure. These funds will address the gross centralization of public utilities and expand access to water and sanitation services into rural areas. With tools to manage public services provided through the Decentralization and Productive Intermediate Cities Support project, localities will have the means to create a substantive foundation for healthcare in Mauritania.
  5. The Institute of Tropical Medicine is also promoting healthcare in Mauritania. In her 2018 article for the Institute of Tropical Medicine, public health expert Kirsten Accoe details how the ITM intends to establish a local health system team in the country. This team would tackle healthcare on the district level in conjunction with centralized efforts to improve healthcare. The initiative aims to create sustained quality care by increasing the retention of healthcare workers in each district, which has previously been an issue due to lack of funding, equipment and trained personnel. ITM’s effort can therefore allow more to people get the relief they deserve.

Improving healthcare in Mauritania is certainly a complex task. But the government and aid organizations can come together to cultivate a coordinated effort to improve infrastructure, assist healthcare professionals at the district level and expand the reach of care. In doing so, they will begin to create an equitable healthcare system and provide all Mauritanians with the care they deserve.

Olivia Bielskis
Photo: Flickr

Vietnam's COVID-19 response
COVID-19 has presented the world with new problems, set against the backdrop of a globalized economy. Some nations have opted for strict shutdowns, while others have taken a more gradual approach via staged lockdowns. Regardless of the initial steps taken, nations have seen astronomical numbers of new coronavirus infections. Some nations have been able to control outbreaks better than others. Vietnam’s COVID-19 response won praise from the World Health Organization for its swift implementation and effectiveness. Regardless of a relatively low GDP and proximity to China, Vietnam was able to keep COVID-19 cases below 300 while other nations surged in April 2020.

Early Response

After nations throughout Southeast Asia and other locations around the world began reporting cases, Vietnam’s COVID-19 response (initially) was to issue a nation-wide address to quell the spread. These regulations, though extensive, were quite effective. Vietnam fell victim to both the SARS outbreak of 2003 and the H1N1 outbreak in 2009. These experiences meant the government was on high alert, as soon as reports began to trickle out of Wuhan, China in January 2020.

Part of their methodology included banning all flights, either domestic or international. This helped to reduce travel between nations as well as between different areas of Vietnam. Additionally, the government has placed more than 44,000 people in quarantine camps. Also, Vietnam’s COVID-19 response included widespread economic shutdowns to decrease person-to-person contact. While these measures were effective in reducing the number of cases, it has taken an economic toll on the markets around Vietnam.

Complications

The nation overall is well below the world’s average GDP, coming in at $261 per capita. This indicates that the Vietnamese economy will be less flexible when placed under economic stress. While these widespread restrictions and quarantines are effective at limiting exposure to the virus — economic ramifications accompany them as well. According to the Vietnamese Labor Ministry, 7.8 million people have been left unemployed as a result of the pandemic.

Amid economic pressure, the government and people are coming together to help move past these hard times. NPR reports that some entrepreneurs within cities have established “rice ATMs” to ensure that all people can access food, regardless of income. In addition to an economic toll, a second wave of the virus is also threatening the Vietnamese people. Since the initial outbreak of COVID-19 in March — Vietnam was able to avoid community spread through the early measures it took. In mid-July 2020, the nation still has no evidence of community transmission. However, in late July 2020, more cases began cropping up to bring the nation’s case count up to 867 cases. This represents an increase of more than 600 cases and the nation’s first 10 COVID-19 deaths accompanying them.

These cases are a warning to the nation about how easy the virus spreads. Regardless, the nation is responding swiftly and responsibly as 80,000 visitors have already flown out of Danang as the city shut down once again to prevent more infections.

The Takeaway

The Vietnamese COVID-19 response began with strong policies to protect its citizens against COVID-19. Though these restrictions posed economic challenges, the nation was able to shelter those who posed a risk in reportedly well-maintained and staffed quarantine camps while other citizens worked to ensure those who faced lay-offs were still able to feed themselves and their families. The spike in cases is indicative that the pandemic, though controlled, is not over.

Allison Moss
Photo: Flickr