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The Link Between Sanitation and MalnutritionWorldwide, about 844 million people live without access to clean water and about 2.3 billion people lack adequate sanitation, according to WaterAid. Along with the lack of clean water access, about 155 million people worldwide experience stunting caused by acute malnutrition.

WaterAid has recognized the importance of tackling water, sanitation and health (WASH) deprivation as a tool to end chronic malnutrition. It believes that by addressing the link between sanitation and malnutrition, malnutrition will decrease in proactive countries. According to WaterAid, nearly half of all malnutrition cases are caused by WASH conflicts.

WaterAid argues that an array of diseases contribute to malnutrition, all of which are associated with a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), those diseases include diarrhea, intestinal nematodes, trachoma, schistosomiasis and others, all of which are preventable.

According to the WHO’s report, about 50 percent of all childhood malnutrition is caused by chronic diarrhea and infectious intestinal nematodes. This results in about 860,000 children under the age of five dying each year from malnutrition directly caused by clean water, sanitation and hygiene conflicts.

“The truth is that food alone will never be enough to tackle the problem, we have to target its underlying causes too,” said Megan Wilson-Jones, WaterAid’s policy analyst on health and hygiene. “Clean water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene are also vital ingredients for good health.”

WaterAid released a “Recipe for Success” that urges governments and organizations to:

  • Implement WASH and nutrition plans in local governments
  • Increase the amount of government funding for WASH-oriented programs
  • Focus first on mothers and babies, who are most affected by sanitation and malnutrition
  • Target areas within countries (such as rural areas) that show high numbers of malnutrition
  • Promote nutritious foods and daily hand hygiene
  • Create sustainable WASH programs by educating health workers, teachers and parents on proper hygiene and nutrition

One country that illustrates the link between sanitation and malnutrition is Paraguay. According to WaterAid, access to clean water in Paraguay’s rural areas increased by about 43 percent from 2000 to 2015, causing WaterAid to declare it the most improved country. According to The Guardian, the reason for Paraguay’s success was because of the government’s improved efficiency. The sanitation and water agency was placed within the department of health, making the issue a much higher priority. This, along with many more steps taken by the government toward becoming more sustainable and efficient, is what helped Paraguay achieve success.

The results in Paraguay can be seen in the World Bank’s DataBank statistics:

  • Percentage of population with access to sanitation
    1990: 87 percent
    2015: 96 percent
  • Percentage with access to clean water
    1990: 93 percent
    2015: 99 percent
  • Percentage affected by malnutrition
    1990: 18 percent
    2012: 11 percent

By looking at Paraguay’s statistics, WaterAid’s assertion of the link between sanitation and malnutrition can be confidently supported.

WaterAid continues to voice its concern for WASH to eliminate worldwide malnutrition, but success cannot be achieved without governments also recognizing the link between sanitation and malnutrition as well as providing efficient and sustainable programs.

– Austin Stoltzfus

Photo: Flickr

Sustainable Agriculture in Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau, a former colony disputed by Portugal, France and Great Britain, is located on the west coast of Africa. The country is bordered by Senegal and The Gambia and is a mostly low-lying country. Its economy relies largely on agriculture, yet much of the land remains uncultivated due to unsustainable practices and unstable political conditions. Because of this, sustainable agriculture in Guinea-Bissau is more vital than ever.

Background and Past Issues

The economy of Guinea-Bissau is mostly agricultural but also includes forestry and fishing. Guinea-Bissau produces its own food, and farming is largely based on local subsistence. Some of the most common crops grown in the country are rice, vegetables, beans, cassava, peanuts, potatoes and palm oil. They also raise livestock and catch fish and shrimp, which are used locally as well as exported.

Due to the vast subsistence farming and importing, crop failure and rising prices can be devastating to the population. Guinea-Bissau was hit hard by the global food crisis in 2008 when they could not afford international prices and lacked the resources to keep up with food production. The country has also been affected by the practice of slash-and-burn agriculture, which causes soil fertility to decline. Lastly, a lack of resources has allowed much of the fertile land in Guinea-Bissau to go uncultivated.

Finding Solutions

Sustainable agriculture in Guinea-Bissau has become vital to solving these problems. In a direct response to the crisis in 2008, the revitalization of agriculture and specifically rice production became priorities. Several regions within the country have suitable land for rice production, yet these lands were uncultivated and caused citizens within these regions to fall into poverty, as they are isolated from other areas of food production.

With new sustainable practices, rice production has now doubled in these areas. The European Union has also created a financing program to rehabilitate 300 kilometers of road in the area, allowing for a more efficient transport of goods. More sustainable practices and projects like these are also vital to combating climate change, a problem the country has been facing the effects of for years.

Future Projects

Guinea-Bissau has also turned to cashew nuts to enhance production. In 2013, cashew nuts accounted for 87.7 percent of the country’s total exports. The industry has been increasing since the late 1990s, and now 85 percent of people living in rural areas depend on these orchards in some way for their livelihoods. This has allowed for great economic improvement, yet the lack of biodiversity involved with this monocultural practice leaves citizens extremely vulnerable. If crops failed or were struck by disease, hundreds of thousands of citizens would be negatively affected.

The most important feature of sustainable agriculture in Guinea-Bissau is now education. Non-governmental organizations like Agrisud International are working with people within the country to promote and teach more sustainable practices. They have also been working with the country’s government to make these practices public policy. With the continued support of international organizations and the government, Guinea-Bissau’s agricultural practices will only continue to improve.

– Megan Burtis

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in Timor-LesteTimor-Leste is a young nation facing many difficulties, but it is also a nation striving to advance itself daily. One of the areas in which the nation is making strides is in the development of its infrastructure.

On August 30, 1999, the people of current day Timor-Leste voted on whether they wanted to remain part of Indonesia or become an independent nation. Ultimately, 78.5 percent of voters voted for independence. During this time, violence broke out and approximately 70 percent of the infrastructure in Timor-Leste was destroyed.

The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste officially became a sovereign nation on May 20, 2002. Since then, the nation has been working to resolve the problems it faces. The damaged and underdeveloped infrastructure in Timor-Leste is one of the major challenges that the country has been working on in recent years.

The government of Timor-Leste created and released a strategic plan that it aims to complete by 2030, which it hopes will improve quality of life, health and education standards. Included in this plan is an entire section on developing the nation’s infrastructure. In this section, plans to improve roadways, bridges, waterways, sanitation techniques, electricity, seaports, airports and telecommunications are laid out.

Recently, the government of Timor-Leste opened the nation’s second airport, the Suai Airport, on June 20, 2017. The opening of this airport was included in the strategic development plan and is an example of one of the many ways the infrastructure of Timor-Leste is being improved upon.

In addition to the opening of the Suai Airport, there are future plans to upgrade Timor-Leste’s other airport, the Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport. This airport currently handles around 80,000 to 100,000 passengers each year, but after renovations are completed, the airport should be capable of handling up to one million passengers per year.

Another example of the infrastructural developments being made in Timor-Leste is the road expansion project that the country is undergoing. The World Bank is currently helping to fund Timor-Leste’s road expansion project. In April 2017, a $35.2 million credit was given to Timor-Leste from the World Bank to expand the nation’s transportation project.

This project will make roadways safer for travelers and increase travel opportunities between the northern and southern parts of the country. Having dependable roadways will aid Timor-Leste in developing other aspects of its infrastructure and lead to increased economic opportunity within the nation. These roadways will promote rural development and support the growth of healthcare and education in Timor-Leste.

The development of infrastructure in Timor-Leste is still ongoing, but advances can be seen. The opening of a second airport and the major transportation project are just two examples of the work being done on the infrastructure in the country. The government of Timor-Leste plans to continue to build on these advancements in hopes that a developed infrastructure will improve the standard of living for every one of its citizens.

– Nicole Stout

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in MicronesiaNASA has stated that the Earth’s carbon dioxide levels have risen dramatically since 1950, from 320 parts per million to more than 400 parts per million. This has caused many critical issues, including rising temperatures, melting glaciers, abnormal natural disasters and rising sea levels. This problem poses a great threat to every country on Earth. However, it is a particular danger for Micronesia, a country of 607 tiny islands that are on average one to five meters above sea level.

Climate Change-Related Natural Disasters

The EM-DAT International Disaster Database indicates that climate change-related natural disasters are predicted to increase and become more intense. Micronesia is especially vulnerable to these disasters due to its location and the fact that much of the infrastructure in Micronesia is located in close proximity to the coast, inducing infrastructural damage and putting many lives at a growing risk.

Rising Sea Levels

The islands of Micronesia are endangered by rising sea levels. A recent Journal of Coastal Conservation article stated that the sea level surrounding the island of Pohnpei is rising by 10 to 12 millimeters per year, a dramatic increase compared to the global average of 3.1 millimeters per year. Other islands such as Nahtik and Ros have already lost 70 and 60 percent of their landmass respectively.

Political Action

Micronesia has already taken steps to lead on climate change policy. In 2007, they ruled out the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), the fastest growing greenhouse gas, in refrigeration and cooling units. As a result, other countries followed in banning HFCs. The Climate Change Act was passed in 2009 to use the knowledge of climate change and predictions to prevent island damage. Amended in 2013, the act now requires the government to adhere to climate change policy when risk planning.

Infrastructural Response

With knowledge of Micronesia’s challenges, the department of geology and geophysics at the University of Hawaii has developed suggestions that will improve the durability and safety of infrastructure in Micronesia to ensure adaptation to rising sea levels and natural disasters. New roads should be built a meter taller in many of the islands, including Chuuk and Yap, to mitigate the rise in sea levels that will occur during the infrastructural project. To maintain these roads, they will be elevated a foot every 25 years. They suggest this is a cost-efficient way to improve roads in the midst of increasing sea levels.  

To prevent natural disaster damage, the University of Hawaii suggests that buffers should be built along the coast to increase elevation. Further, new drainage systems should be established to prevent flooding and road decay. The drainage systems should be built beneath the roads with a shutoff valve to avert marine incursion.

If this advice is adopted, the infrastructure in Micronesia will be better equipped to withstand the increasing climate change challenges that face them in the near future.

– Mary McCarthy

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in MalawiMalawians have faced many obstacles to the growth and development of their country. Malawi has struggled with successful infrastructure development due to economic and natural disasters and currently has plans in effect to reduce poverty and increase urbanization for its people. Because of its rapid population growth, urbanization and infrastructure in Malawi are crucial for the nation’s survival and success.

Scandal

Malawi’s poverty rate has barely changed from 2010 to 2016, falling from 70.9 percent to 69.6 percent. In 2014, Malawi faced an economic scandal known as “cashgate” in which government officials were laundering millions from government reserves. The cashgate scandal caused many donors to withdraw their funding, which resulted in more detriment to the nation because 40 percent of Malawi’s wealth comes from independent donors. While it was very publicized, it was not the first time donors withdrew from the Malawian government due to the corruption within it. This kind of scandal has affected Malawians, as well as infrastructure in Malawi.

Flood Crisis

Infrastructure in Malawi faced a large-scale flood in January 2016 which severely impacted the country’s development. The widespread flood wiped out several villages and much of the country’s agriculture. This has left Malawi in the largest food crisis in a decade. With a significant amount of damage to the country’s people and agriculture (part of country’s economic gains), the economy in Malawi has struggled to prioritize infrastructure development. Many solutions included providing short-term shelter for Malawians who had suffered from the disaster.

 

Non-Agricultural Development

While efforts to reboot the economy and its agricultural efforts continue, Malawi cannot keep up with its steady population growth. Due to the increasing population, farms are shrinking and limiting economic productivity. As agricultural jobs decrease, infrastructure in Malawi leans toward the creation of non-agricultural jobs in education, finance, and energy. Malawi currently uses hydro-power, and due to climate change and sporadic rain, the country often experiences water shortages and blackouts. Creating more infrastructure, especially providing additional resources for electricity, will benefit Malawi and increase the economy. The plans to develop in the non-agricultural sector will speed up the urbanization process for Malawians.

 

MGDS

The creation of jobs encourages the creation of infrastructure and vice versa. To combat the nation’s poverty, The Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) was created in 2006. The goal of the MGDS is to encourage continued economic growth and infrastructure in Malawi. The MGDS is meant to create long-term jobs for Malawians in mining, trade, and tourism and culture. Another goal is to encourage the use of the environment and natural resources. Utilization of Malawi’s culture and wildlife will increase tourism to create more economic growth. Creating jobs within Malawi’s government, such as in the health and safety sectors, will also provide more growth for the nation’s economy and help the people of Malawi to overcome poverty. In addition to practical job creation and tourism growth, the MGDS will consist of urban improvements such as in airports, more media/telecommunications sources, and housing developments.

While the recent history of Malawi has not been hopeful, the country’s prospects predict a brighter tomorrow for Malawians.

– Courtney Hambrecht

Photo: Flickr

Infrastructure in Sao Tome and Principe

Sao Tome and Principe, Africa’s smallest country in terms of geographical size, relies heavily on the production of cocoa, which has been steadily declining due to droughts and mismanagement. Despite the decrease in production, the economy has been growing at a rate of around 4 percent, but it is not enough to alleviate the country’s widespread poverty. An estimated 62 percent of the population lives in poverty.

About 100,000 people, almost half of the island nation’s population, live without electricity and one-third of the available roadways remain unpaved, which makes road travel difficult.

Investing in projects like paved roads and other areas encompassed by infrastructure in Sao Tome and Principe has the potential to jumpstart the alleviation of poverty across the country. Improving the country’s infrastructure opens up other doors for Sao Tome and Principe’s economy to grow and flourish. The World Bank and the government of Sao Tome and Principe are working together to introduce a multitude of reforms promoting growth in the financial sector and infrastructure.

The Urban/Rural Divide

The urban/rural divide is often a driving force for inequality. As countries urbanize, many people move towards the cities and leave rural areas behind. The people left in rural areas often have trouble keeping up with the shift and fall into a pattern of poverty. This is the case for Sao Tome and Principe.

Infrastructure in Sao Tome and Principe is worst in rural areas, but many initiatives have been implemented to improve the infrastructure so that it is equal to urban areas. The African Development Bank Group, a development finance institution, has a goal to diversify rural infrastructure to keep up with Sao Tome and Principe’s growing agriculture strategy.

Sao Tome and Principe’s Location

Oftentimes, poor developing countries fall into a poverty trap based on their geographical location. Many of the most impoverished countries in the world are landlocked. Sao Tome and Principe, being an island nation, is in a much better position to escape poverty than many other countries with a less fortunate geographic location. The islands are situated in a strategic location for international trade via waterways.

Sao Tome and Principe’s government is seeking international investors for the creation of a deepwater port. The government hopes that with the emergence of the deepwater port, Sao Tome and Principe will become an international shipping point connecting central Africa with the United States, Asia and Europe.

The International Development Association

The International Development Association (IDA) is the World Bank’s sector dedicated to helping the world’s poorest countries. Nearly 50 percent of the IDA’s funds go towards programs in Africa. Currently, in Sao Tome and Principe, the IDA is funding projects that total $22 million. The projects are currently focused on the country’s social support sector, advocating for equality for all citizens of Sao Tome and Principe.

Despite its size, infrastructure in Sao Tome and Principe has the potential to make the country a major player on the world’s stage. Continued development in this area can help the country improve living conditions for its most vulnerable citizens.

– Sonja Flancher

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in Swaziland

Swaziland is a small, middle-income country in southern Africa that was once heavily influenced by British and Dutch rule in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Since it was granted its freedom in 1968, the Swazi government has worked hard to create a stable and thriving community for its inhabitants, one of its main focuses being infrastructure in Swaziland.

Swaziland has a GDP of approximately $3.73 billion and a population of 1.1 million. It is estimated that 63 percent of the Swazi population lives under the poverty line and lives in areas that lack adequate access to basic needs, such as reliable roads and a constant food source. To address these issues surrounding citizen well-being, the Board of Directors of the African Development Bank Group (AfDB) drafted a Country Strategy Paper (CSP) for 2014 to 2018 that focuses on promoting economic growth and improved quality of life in Swaziland.

This document, while tenacious, hopes to address the country’s status as a lower-income country with moderate to high poverty and inequality rates. The board drafted two main goals in its legislature:

  1. Supporting Infrastructure Development for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth
  2. Strengthening Governance and Institutional Capacity

Within the first goal of the legislature, the board’s plan was to address infrastructure in Swaziland by improving the country’s amenities to match those of surrounding countries. This was meant to aid the integration of disadvantaged groups of society by giving them better access to opportunities coming from improved infrastructure. Since the CSP was drafted in 2014, there have already been progressive steps taken in addressing these issues.

First, in 2014, the Board of Executive Directors of the AfDB approved a $47 million loan to improve the quality of the Manzini-Mbadlane highway, a highly trafficked roadway. This job not only provided 250,000 Swazis with economic benefits regarding reduced travel cost and time, but it also provided a more stable route to and from South Africa, a popular tourist destination and stable trading partner.

Additionally, in May 2016, Swaziland received a $63 million loan in order to finance the second phase of the Lower Usuthu Smallholder Irrigation Project in the southeastern part of the nation. This loan provided an opportunity for small, poorer farmers to use the natural resources provided by the Lower Usuthu River Basin to get involved with the commercial agriculture sub-sector, which is an excellent opportunity for both the underserved citizens of Swaziland as well as the country’s overall economy.

However, contrary to the active work being done to improve infrastructure in Swaziland, the country has not seen much development in terms of official action being taken to strengthen governance and institutional capacity. But, in recent years, the country’s lawmakers have drafted plans that focus on bettering healthcare and the decentralization of hospitals in Swaziland.

The Swaziland Ministry of Health National Health Sector Strategic Plan, which was drafted for 2014 to 2018, has outlined some key procedures surrounding the improvement of responsiveness, sustainability and creating a distinctive organizational culture within Swaziland’s healthcare sector. These plans will be funded by the World Bank and the European Union, and are being led by the Health Partners Southern Africa, which will be working with the Health Information Systems Program, the Institute for Health Measurement as well as the Strategic Development Consultants. The hope is that the goals stated in these drafts will come into effect in the next few years.

While there is still a long way to go in terms of improving infrastructure in Swaziland, the country’s lawmakers are working with their economic resources to find ways to better the lives of their country’s inhabitants. With loans and foreign support, the hope is that Swaziland will acquire the means to reach its goal of becoming a first world country.

– Alexandra Dennis

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in Montenegro

The Balkan nation of Montenegro has undergone rapid economic development in recent years. While Montenegro has been largely successful in the 10 years since it declared independence from Serbia, infrastructure in Montenegro continues to face problems of inefficiency. Nowhere are these problems more apparent than in the highway system and the building stock. That being said, steps are being taken to address these problems and ensure that these issues do not hinder Montenegrin progress as time goes on.

The first major issue is the fact that Montenegro’s roads and highways are not all up to the task of connecting all the areas of the rapidly developing country. Existing roads are in disrepair and often take long or inefficient routes to connect two points. Additionally, there remain certain areas of the country that are not yet serviced by major road networks.  This wastes fuel and makes travel to other parts of the country virtually impossible for some Montenegrins.

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development aims to fix these issues by providing a total of €25 million to, directly and indirectly, support an overhaul of the country’s roads and highways. These improvements will make travel safer, easier and more accessible to more of the Montenegrin population.

The second challenge that Montenegro will face going forward is its aging building stock. Montenegrin cities are often full of Soviet-era “panelak” or panel-style buildings. These were almost all built prior to 1990 and were only built to last for about 30 years, and many of the buildings were already in varying states of disrepair by the time the regime collapsed.

These buildings are also incredibly inefficient to heat. While replacing them all at once is virtually impossible, alternative ways to retrofit them, prolong their lifespans and make them more energy-efficient are taking hold. Along with traditional improvements, adding green roofs to these buildings is becoming popular.

In addition to being nice amenities, studies have shown that green roofs are able to significantly reduce the amount of heat that radiates from a building via the roof. This helps to keep most of the heat in the residences, where it should be, and reduce overall energy usage. This promises to go a long way towards promoting green infrastructure in Montenegro as well.

Some infrastructure in Montenegro has a long way to go before it catches up with the rest of the country. That being said, improvements are underway. While still less than ideal, Montenegrin infrastructure can be expected to undergo major improvements as the economy continues to develop, making it more environmentally friendly while still improving everyday life and bringing greater convenience to many Montenegrins.

– Michaela Downey

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in TongaTonga is an archipelago of more than 170 islands in the South Pacific Ocean. This Polynesian country, formerly known as the Friendly Islands, relies on agriculture, fishing and remittances from Tongans living abroad, many of them in New Zealand. Unemployment is high, while the main source of income is in the developing tourist industry.

The island’s small size and geographical isolation result in limited internal, regional and international transport and communication linkage. With few natural responses and vulnerability to external economic shocks, these areas are crucial to Tonga’s economic development and social well-being. Its roughly 105,000 people face decaying infrastructure in Tonga, which when combined with financial constraints poses a challenge of meeting domestic and international transport safety security requirements.

 

The Ministry of Infrastructure

The Ministry of Infrastructure was created to assist the government with improving infrastructure in Tonga. It began as the Ministry of Transport, whose goal to improve compliance of the civil aviation and maritime entities with international safety and security standards. It was then merged with the Ministry of Works to form the Ministry of Infrastructure. So far, the Ministry of Infrastructure’s successes have included:

  • The creation of a domestic road contracting industry for Tonga which employed 88 people, including 12 women, working on road maintenance throughout Tonga.
  • A total of 171 km of roads maintained or rehabilitated.
  • Improved safety standards for passenger vessels under an improved regulatory framework with the government of Tonga’s Marine and Ports Division.
  • Improved infrastructure in Tonga, including the fire station at the airport and an extension to the airport transit lounge.
  • The establishment of a Road Maintenance Fund to ensure sustainable financing of future investments.

 

Urban Development Sector Project

Another source of aid to infrastructure in Tonga is the Integrated Urban Development Sector Project, funded by the Asian Development Bank, who stated that rapid population growth has put pressure on the infrastructure in Tonga’s capital, Nuku’alofa. Along with the Australian government aid agency AusAID, this multi-million dollar project focused on six different components of Nuku’alofa’s urban services, including water supply, solid waste services and development of roads and drains. Its goal is also to raise awareness in the community about issues such as household management of solid waste and public health benefits for safe waste disposal. Since 2016, 30 kilometers of expressways, national highways, fully access-controlled roadways and provincial, district and rural road networks have been built or upgraded.

The improvement of infrastructure in Tonga will aid the country a great deal in its economic development. Infrastructure plays such a vital role in every nation and with the projects working hard to sustain Tonga, there is a chance for employment rates and incomes to rise.

– Kailey Brennan

Photo: Flickr

Infrastructure in TogoTogo, a West African nation on the Gulf of Guinea, shares a border with Ghana and has an estimated population of 7.6 million as of 2016. Togo is working towards improving its economy and relations by improving the country’s infrastructure.

Infrastructure is a crucial platform that supports countries, whether it be via economic or social means. Oftentimes, basic infrastructure such as power and water are lacking or in need of upgrades to sustain communities and development.

Power infrastructure in Togo is being improved with support from investors and consultation from the International Finance Corporation (IFC). ContourGlobal, a power company, is helping Togo meet the growing demand for power. The IFC is investing 20 percent equity in ContourGlobal for the development and operation of a 100-megawatt power plant located in Togo’s capital, Lomé. It now produces enough electricity for the city and will soon be enough to sustain regional power supplies. Electricity infrastructure in Togo has proven reliable and efficient in assisting communities as well as encouraging investment in infrastructure that will prove successful for Togo in the long run.

The World Bank has also assisted Togo with infrastructure development. The Emergency Infrastructure and Electricity Rehabilitation Project (PURISE) will support the Togolese government in restoring and expanding infrastructure in Togo. This project will improve urban mobility and access to remote locations as well as provide temporary work for workers in Togo.

PURISE is split into four categories, each one focused on areas needing improvement. One of the categories will focus on the drainage of unclean drinking water and replace outdated gutters with sustainable drainage networks. The water infrastructure in Togo is also seeing improvement via projects. One of the categories in PURISE is set to increase water access and improve the quality of drinking water. This will be achieved with networks of water systems between communities and installing pipes and water kiosks.

UNICEF states that 39 percent of Togolese do not have access to clean water and a quarter of the Togolese population does not have access to water within walking distance. The government of Togo has made commitments to improving water and sanitation, including eliminating open defecation and establishing sanitation and hygiene resource departments.

Infrastructure in Togo is slowly growing throughout the country. With investments being made in basic resources, Togo is sure to see beneficial modernization.

– Jennifer Serrato

Photo: Flickr