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Development Projects in Indonesia
Indonesia, a country known for its large economy and diverse population, is home to 243 million people. Previously, the country dealt with an autocratic leader and has had many issues with corruption. However, the country’s newest president, Joko Widodo, wants to make the country more democratic. With 
poverty affecting 11 percent of the population and many people living in “near poverty”, several development projects in Indonesia have been working toward solutions.

Here are five development projects in Indonesia that are addressing different issues in order to make the country better for its citizens.

The National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM Mandiri)

PNPM Mandiri works within the poorest communities in Indonesia to help develop villages. By engaging in these projects, community members have access to employment and help their community’s infrastructure. It is a flagship community organization for the government. The program also teaches others how to plan communities and apply the practices elsewhere in Indonesia. The program is now operational in 70,000 communities throughout 33 provinces.

Asian Development Bank’s Microfinance Program

As a way to invest in communities, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) started a microfinance program to help small businesses in North Sumatra. The program was originally intended to help businesses after the 2004 earthquake and tsunami. Instead of having a bank, representatives visit communities and give presentations where business owners can get loans. This enables businesses to expand and allows people to get loans that they thought they could not have gotten before. The microfinance program provides “finance that changes lives.”

Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) in Jakarta

The MRT is an infrastructure development project aimed to relieve traffic congestion. It is being built by the Jakarta government and it will be completed in 2027 with a construction cost of over $1 billion. This project is going to impact almost 500,000 people daily so they can travel efficiently to their jobs and improve the economy.

IFAD in Indonesia

Similar to the ADB microfinance program, IFAD invests in the rural sector. IFAD focuses on investing in remote and vulnerable areas. It has invested over $400 million into Indonesia since 1980 and helps establish public-private partnerships. It places an emphasis on smallholders in these communities.

The Legal Empowerment and Assistance for the Disadvantaged (LEAD) Project

This program works to ensure that the most marginalized in Indonesia are given the proper rights and treatment. The LEAD Project aims to spread awareness of legal rights regarding government services and legal claims. As a result, policies have been strengthened and government officials have been more responsive to marginalized communities claiming rights and bringing up legal issues.

Indonesia has issues that span the rural and urban areas as well as in the spheres of legal and human rights. These 5 development projects in Indonesia will benefit the people as the country continues to progress.

– Emilia Beuger

Photo: Flickr

Iraq, a country attempting to rebuild itself after decades of war, has implemented various projects to help stabilize the country. The five development projects in Iraq that are among the forefront include a decrease in the number of citizens diagnosed with tuberculosis, a crisis response program, a water improvement project, oil and gas development projects and a reconstruction project that spans various Iraqi cities.

To address the many health concerns in Iraq, the country partnered with UNDP, who created the Global Fund TB Grant. The grant provided emergency cell phones for tuberculosis patients to ensure they can reach centers to avoid treatment interruptions that threaten to increase drug resistance. Since the implementation of the grant and enhanced TB testing, 36,800 cases of TB were successfully treated, resulting in a 92 percent treatment success rate in 2014, and the detection and treatment of 25,900 new smear-positive TB cases.

The second of the development projects in Iraq was the creation of the Iraq Crisis Response and Resilience Programme (ICRRP), another project supported by the UNDP. The ICRRP was created to address the large humanitarian crisis in the country.

More than 10 million people were affected by development gaps, and more than 3.3 million had to flee their homes. This crisis led the UNDP and Iraq to create the ICRRP to prevent human rights violations, reduce the risk of gender-based violence and develop cohesion among diverse communities. Using a gender mainstreaming approach, the program also aims to address the practical and strategic needs of affected women. The ICRRP has helped create jobs for 14,000 people, gave 94,000 enhanced livelihoods in eight governorates and gave 5,000 Syrian refugees and displaced residents legal support.

On the energy resource side, the Rumaila field, the world’s fourth-largest oilfield, has helped increase the number of producing wells by 50 percent. The field has produced more than three billion barrels since 2010 and in December 2016 was producing 1.45 million barrels a day, generating over $200 billion. In addition, the Rumaila oilfield project has helped create numerous jobs and generated more revenue and energy for Iraqi residents.

One of the most significant development projects in Iraq is the Bismayah construction project, which aims to house half a million people within four years. The $8 billion project faced a six-month setback after the project’s land was lost to Islamist militants and the obstacles of providing clean water and electricity to the housing units.

This is due to the fact that Iraq is still trying to make up for the years lost to war, so they rely on foreign investments in electricity, as well as refineries, transport, telecoms and health. The clean water supply obstacle is due to the fact that the water has not been delivered to the city’s purification plant, making the available rooms unlivable. Despite the drawbacks, the project has surged on.

To benefit the Iraqi people apartments are available for a down payment of just $6,300, which is equal 10 percent of the total cost of the smallest 100 square meter homes. The monthly rent is less than the minimum government wage, making them extremely affordable.

To address the ongoing water concerns, Australian firm Protechnique has helped start the $80 million Basra Project. The project aims to provide engineering, procurement and construction services for the project’s transmission reservoir and transmission pump station. The pumping station will also concentrate on chlorine building, blending chambers, electrical substation, generator building and more.

The project is expected to be completed by December 2018 and will operate with neighboring pumping and circulation stations to pump water from a desalination plant to Basra.

As Iraq continues to rebuild itself, the country will see an increase in jobs, revenue, housing, clean water and other resources. The above development projects in Iraq are the country’s first stepping stones on a long road to recovery.

– Amira Wynn

Photo: Flickr

Development Projects in the Dominican RepublicThe Dominican Republic has many ongoing development projects occurring throughout the country. Some projects are government-funded, while others are funded by nonprofits or international organizations, like the World Bank. In a country with 10.2 million people, there are still many living in poverty and many who are underprivileged. The tourist economy does a lot to benefit the nation, but more needs to be done to meet the needs of the people. Here are five development projects in the Dominican Republic that aim to help the people of the country. 

The World Bank’s Dominican Republic Youth Development Program

The stated goal of the program is to “[improve] the employability of poor, at-risk youth by building their work experience and life skills and expanding second chance education programs to complete their formal education.” The program aims to improve job opportunities, access to education and social protections.

Through participating in the project, youth learn basic workforce skills and attain an education. The program has been fairly successful as it has met most of the intermediate result indicators. Thus far, not all the goals have been met: one goal is that 70 percent of students obtain a new degree, but so far only 63 percent have. However, the initial results indicate that the program has had a positive impact on youth and has taken a significant step forward to bolstering the job force in the Dominican Republic.

The Peace Corps’ Education Program

The Peace Corps has been working on improving Spanish among children in the Dominican Republic. This program has led to the collaboration between teachers and Peace Corps volunteers to help students succeed. Specifically, the project aims to address Spanish literacy, with a primary goal to involve the community so that students can learn to read and write in their language.

The DREAM Project

The DREAM Project was founded in order to make up for the lack of resources in schools of the Dominican Republic. Their programs consist of working with children in early childhood education and primary school education, as well as contributing to a holistic youth development. They also have summer camps and vocational training. According to the DREAM Project’s website, the organization “provides more than 800,000 hours of quality education to more than 7,500 children through 14 different programs across 27 communities in the Dominican Republic.”

USAID’s Dominican Republic Sustainable Tourism Alliance

Although the Dominican Republic has a large tourism industry, the industry has had negative impacts on the local community and environment of the island. In order to combat poverty and environmental issues, USAID created the Dominican Republic Sustainable Tourism Alliance (DSTA) to develop a more sustainable tourism industry.

The DSTA works to improve environmental management capabilities as well as stimulating tourism efforts through sustainable operations and the development of marketing and sales strategies. The “all-inclusive” model that the tourism industry currently has is changing quickly under this development project.

Project HOPE

Project HOPE works to combat the high maternal and infant mortality rates in the Dominican Republic. The organization just opened its third maternal child health clinic in 2017. The organization regularly works with the Dominican Association of the Order of Malta to train workers to care for mothers and children.

Thousands of women and children have been positively affected by the care provided by the organization and its partners. In addition to its work with maternal mortality, the organization has worked on village health bank programs and provided HIV/AIDS education and counseling.

Many organizations are concerned with developing job opportunities for the citizens of the Dominican Republic. They aim to bolster the economy and train a future working class. These five development projects in the Dominican Republic operate across several sectors to help the nation achieve long-lasting self-sufficiency and prosperity.

– Emilia Beuger

Photo: Flickr

development projects in ChinaIn recent years, five major development projects in China have made significant progress. Consider the proposal for the international Belt and Road Initiative in China, which will not only build trade connections between China and other nations in the world, but also create strategic alliances for military applications. China’s development projects spread outward from the nation to connect it to neighboring countries and continents.

The China Railway Express to Europe is the largest investment project in China’s five-year (2016-2020) plan, with a cost as high as $242 billion. Multiple railways are under construction between China and many cities in Europe, sending freight to London, Madrid and Warsaw, among other cities. Xinhua News Agency has reported that 51 international lines have been laid out from 28 Chinese cities to 29 cities in 11 European countries.

The longest railway service, covering more than 9,000 km, will go from Yiwu, China to Madrid, Spain. Another cross-continent railway connecting Beijing and Moscow will be put into operation in 2025, and it will take 30 hours to make the 7,000 km journey between the two capital cities.

The central government of China aims to improve the network of freight trains in order to deliver products as quickly as possible. Even though the costs of shipping may be higher using this method, analysts predict that China will consolidate its international trade status through these large railway projects.

The second largest of the development projects in China is the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, costing over $62 billion. This economic corridor involves a series of Chinese investments in Pakistan. The expansion of Gwadar Harbor, one of the most important Chinese investments, will benefit China as it ships its products from western provinces to the Middle East and Africa without having to go through the Strait of Malacca. Gwadar Harbor is also adjacent to the Persian Gulf and as such has the added benefit of being able to import crude oil from the Middle East. The distance overland from Gwadar to Xinjiang is merely 3,000 km.

The next largest investment is China’s Africa project, which has a budget of $13.8 billion. The footsteps of Chinese railways “going global” also reach Africa, and railways in Nairobi and Mombasa are under construction. This plan is part of the future transportation network in East Africa, connecting Uganda, South Sudan, Rwanda and other countries. The network also includes Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. China will also finish the construction of a railway connecting Djibouti to Addis Ababa. A U.S. maritime expert regarded this project as a crucial strategic development for China, allowing it to expand its maritime power in Africa.

The fourth-largest of the development projects in China is called the Asian Train Network, with an estimated cost of $13 billion. At least two projects are worthy of global attention. One is the Trans-Asian Railway, which expects to connect Kunming to Laos then extends to Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. Other routes will connect Vietnam, Cambodia and Myanmar. It is expected that the entire transportation network will eventually merge together. The other is the 140 km high-speed railway for Indonesia, connecting the capital city of Jakarta to the third-largest city, Bandung. It has attracted global attention since it is the first overseas high-speed railway project to be built by China.

The fifth-largest ongoing project is the Colombo Harbor in Sri Lanka. China also has a goal of building overseas harbors, since the new Silk Road is not just restricted to the continent. However, there are quite a few voices of opposition in Sri Lanka. While the new government threatened to end Sri Lanka’s dependence on China after it came to power in 2015, due to financial hardships it yielded to practical needs.

There are many more large infrastructure development projects in China that are fast developing. Through these investments, China has shown itself to be a large, strong and friendly nation. China’s goal is to sustain a stable, reliable and healthy economic order, and to reshape the world for a better future.

– Xin Gao

Photo: Flickr

The Islamic Republic of Iran is a bit of a paradox. On the one hand, it is a theocratic state and a heavily sanctioned international pariah ruled by a supreme Ayatollah. On the other, it is the heart of the former Persian Empire, and has been a trading hub between the East and West for millennia. Because it is the second largest economy in the Middle East with growing ambitions, infrastructure in Iran has become a major point of focus for the country’s public and private sectors.

The 2015 nuclear deal that was reached between Iran, the U.S., and several European nations including Britain, France and Germany lifted crippling economic sanctions against Iran. In return, Iran has agreed to reduce its centrifuges and enriched uranium and render its nuclear program useless for producing weapons. The lifting of sanctions has sparked the interest of foreign investors and companies looking to do business in Iran. In turn, this has also presented new challenges and opportunities for infrastructure in Iran.

China, in particular, has designs on Iran. Chinese workers have been working in eastern Iran to build up its rail infrastructure, modernizing railroads and standardizing track gauges. This will connect Iran by rail to Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. To the west, Iran is doing the same thing to its railroads, which will be connected to Turkey, and ultimately Europe. China has also been busy building factories, mines, and highways in Iran as part of its increasing investment in the country.

The government of reformist president Hassan Rouhani has been just as involved in ramping up infrastructure in Iran. In addition to the rail projects linking Iran to its eastern and western neighbors, Iran is also in the process of building railways linking its five provincial capitals and its southern port cities to the national capital, Tehran. The Iranian private sector has spent 11 billion dollars in domestic development projects, while the government has spent 9.6 billion dollars on infrastructure in Iran since Rouhani took office in 2013.

Infrastructure in Iran will still need to be developed further to meet the increased foreign investment demands that have been brought on. Yet overall, things are looking bright for Iran, a country known as an ancient crossroads of trade.

– Andrew Revord

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in EthiopiaEthiopia is home to Africa’s second largest population and is the oldest independent country on the continent. The surface and transport infrastructure in Ethiopia are particularly poor and underdeveloped, demonstrated by the fact that the country has the lowest road density in the world and only 13.3 percent of all roads have been paved.

Road infrastructure in Ethiopia is of particular importance, as the country is five times as large as the United Kingdom. There has been a massive increase in the allocation of funds for road construction, with the state spending on roads accounting for a quarter of each year’s infrastructure budget.

Unlike their surface infrastructure, Ethiopia features new and upgraded airports which facilitate the transport of goods and encourage greater investment. There are two international airports, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa, both of which have seen an increase in passenger and freight transport over the last several years. To encourage tourism, five major airports were selected to be upgraded, with the opening of the Arba Minch airport leading to a wide range of economic opportunities for the south of Ethiopia.

Ethiopia has continued to focus its economic policies on the development of new and improved infrastructure by planning to allocate $89 million on infrastructure spending. This has continued the trend of upgrading the national road network, following previous commitments to improve road connections to Kenya and South Sudan.

Improving the road network in Ethiopia is essential, as it will make it easier for farmers to transport their produce to bigger markets, and it supports the growth of the sugar industry in south Ethiopia. The government has hopes that with improvement to the road network, Ethiopia will be able to develop coal mines in the region, allowing the nation to supply cement producers and bolstering the economy.

-Drew Fox

Photo: Flickr

development projects in AngolaAngola has an extremely diverse population of approximately 29 million people. It is a developing country with over 40 percent of its population living beneath the poverty line. There are various projects underway to develop the country. Here are 5 development projects in Angola.

  1. Institutional and Sustainability support to Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Service Delivery. Fifty percent of the population does not have access to clean water and sanitation facilities. This program would finance 5 Provincial Water and Sanitation Utilities in order to increase sanitation, increase water connections and promote hygiene.
  2. Local development project. According to the World Bank, the purpose of this project is to improve access of poor households to basic services and economic opportunities and to enhance local institutional capacities among Angola’s municipalities.
  3. Smallholder Agriculture Development and Commercialization Project. This project would increase smallholder agriculture productivity, production and marketing for selected crops in the project areas. This is beneficial since 10 percent of the population works in agriculture. Smallholder agriculture is key to food security in the region.
  4. Fisheries sector support project. The project will result in an increase of income from artisanal fishery and fishery-related activities, like fishing, processing, marketing, servicing and trade, according to African Development Bank. Since one of the agricultural products Angola is known for is fish, this is an exceptional development project in Angola.
  5. The Lauca Dam. The Lauca Dam is one of the largest projects underway in Africa. The dam will greatly affect Angola’s economy as it will provide access to more reliable energy and has provided jobs to 8,000 workers.

Due to the creation of these projects, Angola is moving forward and sparking development within the country. Angola is usually dependent on its oil, but as demand for oil changes so too does Angola’s market. With these development projects in Angola, the country can decrease the poverty faced by citizens.

– Dezanii Lewis

Photo: Flickr

Lower Mekong InitiativeThe Lower Mekong Initiative (LMI), established in July 2009, expanded its original focus to include a Sustainable Infrastructure Partnership in response to this year’s historic drought that devastated the Mekong region. With support from the U.S., the new partnership aims to promote economic development, environmental conservation, and climate resilience.

Through LMI, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and the U.S. collaborated to create sub-regional cooperation that fosters economic growth and aims to narrow the development gap between the Lower Mekong countries.

At this year’s annual meeting, LMI designed the Sustainable Infrastructure Partnership, a training platform with two main goals: to help LMI countries identify training deficiencies in infrastructure planning and to develop a strategy to enhance the planning process and improve efficiency. This new partnership comes as a result of a crippling drought in the Lower Mekong. The region produces 13 percent of the world’s rice, centering its economic stability on agriculture. However, the current Mekong River levels are at their lowest point of the past century, putting millions of farmers that depend on this water source at risk.

The Sustainable Infrastructure Partnership aims to lessen the region’s vulnerability to climate change and strengthen its infrastructure. This new element adds to the existing six pillars of LMI: agriculture and food security, connectivity, education, energy security, environment and water, as well as health. The success of LMI can be attributed to the targeted approaches of each pillar’s program.

The Lower Mekong Initiative fosters agriculture and food security by expanding trade and investment in the region. Encouraging community engagement in the industry is also key. Similarly, the connectivity pillar draws upon U.S. strengths to promote physical, institutional, and people-to-people connectivity across the region.

The education pillar encourages the sharing of best practices between countries; supporting programs that encourage English language proficiency and teacher training. LMI health pillar combats transnational challenges, such as infectious diseases, as well as supporting the enforcement of International Health Regulations.

Both the Energy Security and Environment and Water Programs work to develop a regional strategy to create sustainable environmental management and access to energy.

The U.S. has played a central role in the success of LMI, having founded a U.S.-Singapore Third Country Program that has trained regional officials on cybercrime and water management. The U.S. has also helped Cambodia launch a women’s business center, with plans to launch another in Vietnam this year.

Through the Lower Mekong Initiative, the region has seen growth in several sectors. The adoption of the Sustainable Infrastructure Partnership will further benefit Lower Mekong countries, continuing to narrow the development gap across the region.

Anna O’Toole

Photo: Pixabay