healthcare in the republic of congo
The Republic of Congo, also known as Congo-Brazzaville, is a central African country with about 5.2 million residents. Since most of the country is covered in tropical forests, more than half of the population lives in two large southern cities, Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. It’s one of Africa’s top 10 oil producers and has extensive untapped mineral resources. Despite this, The Republic of Congo faces high rates of extreme poverty due to economic crises from oil price drops as well as ongoing conflicts since the 1990s. The economic declines have diminished state funds and the conflicts arising from political unrest led to the government no longer prioritizing healthcare in the Republic of Congo.

This has created an inadequate healthcare system characterized by a lack of resources, lack of healthcare professionals, insufficient access to and inability to deliver health services. The Republic of Congo is currently facing high rates of TB, HIV, malaria and maternal mortality.

Steps Forward

Fortunately, despite these earlier challenges, the government began reprioritizing healthcare in the Republic of Congo with the help of various aid organizations. This revamped investment started in 2009 with a partnership with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to reduce maternal mortality.

UNFPA worked closely with UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank to help the Republic of Congo government outline a maternal mortality reduction program. This program was boosted by the 6 million dollars that UNFPA made available to the country. In cities, free cesarean sections were made available as well as more family planning resources. This resulted in a 45% decline in maternal mortality from 2005-2012.

This decline was extremely promising; however, there is still much that needs to be done in Congo because its maternal mortality rates are still in line with other less-developed countries. The government acknowledged this and once again partnered with UNFPA in 2019 to further invest in a maternal mortality reduction program.

UNFPA Collaboration

This new program is focused on boosting healthcare infrastructure, facilities and services by utilizing innovative technologies. It is particularly focused on providing women in rural communities the best care possible. Some of the aspects of the program include providing solar power systems to ensure health facilities can function consistently as well as equipping midwives and doctors with portable ultrasounds and other monitoring devices to help handle high-risk pregnancies. Backpack kits filled with childbirth equipment are given to community health workers along with mobile phones to receive technical support if necessary.

While maternal mortality is a targeted intervention, the Republic of Congo has also done extensive work focusing on the healthcare system as a whole. This began in 2012 with the implementation of performance-based financing (PBF) with the help of Cordaid, an international development organization. PBF is a system in which healthcare providers are funded based on their performance and ability to meet specific objectives. It is utilized as a way to help introduce specific ways of purchasing that help health systems move towards universal health coverage.

PBF greatly improved healthcare in the Republic of Congo because it helps incentivize health workers to provide more and better care, such as assisting more births or providing more vaccinations. This, in turn, makes patients feel better and safer because their doctors are working hard, which increases the likelihood of people going in for consultations. More patients mean that rates for services will go down. Overall, with PBF, healthcare workers and facilities function better, and patients are happier and healthier.

While today, healthcare in The Republic of Congo is still facing challenges, it is vital to recognize how the government is investing and prioritizing the lives of its citizens. Creating change for the better is possible, and one must not forget to celebrate the victories.

– Paige Wallace

Photo: UNFPA

South Sudan and Congo use U.S. AidOn October 21, 2017, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley declared her intent to scrutinize how South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) use U.S. aid. “The U.N. spends over $2 billion per year on the peacekeeping missions in these two countries alone…. we will not do that if our assistance is continuously blocked from reaching people in need,” said Haley.

The idea that developing countries waste generous donations from developed countries informs a great deal of discussion around the continent. Not only has the myth of corruption been inflated in the past decade, but the myth doesn’t explain the struggles of the two nations singled out by Haley. Here’s how the DRC and South Sudan utilize foreign assistance to develop a better future for themselves and for America.

South Sudan

In the 2017 fiscal year, the U.S. provided over $1 billion of humanitarian aid to South Sudan. Of that money, $746 million went to emergency assistance and $246 million went to life-saving care for refugees. These funds were provided for disease screenings, malnutrition treatment and staple food donations.

How can anyone be sure that the money went to those provisions? Development Initiatives may be an applicable answer. According to the website’s data, South Sudan brought in $3.3 billion in 2015. Of that money, $457.7 million was dedicated to operating expenses and $573.3 million went to oil service payments. Oil transfers to states, block grants to states and emergency funds made up 33 percent of expenditures according to Development Initiatives, roughly $1 billion.

Though operating expenses for oil companies may seem like a waste of how South Sudan and Congo Use U.S. Aid, allowing an economy to develop ensures that a nation will not always depend on foreign aid. For an example of how a financed economy can keep a war-torn nation afloat, look no further than…

The Democratic Republic of the Congo

Between 2011 and 2015, the DRC emerged as one of the world’s fastest-growing economies, averaging at 7 percent annual GDP growth. The Economist predicts that Africa will overtake Asia with the number of countries on the fastest-growing economies list.

But why should the U.S. continue investing in an underdeveloped region mitigated with political strife? According to Alyoscia D’Onofrio of the International Rescue Committee, the world may not be giving enough aid as is. D’Onofrio acknowledges the massive poverty, malnutrition crises and presidential abuses plaguing the DRC. But donor aid provides an incentive for the DRC to respect its people’s wishes and bring an end to the violence. The U.N. has decreased the amount of aid sent to the DRC over the past five years. Giving less money has not helped people in poverty. To allow for long-term political change, argues D’Onofrio, the country needs to escape from its vulnerable state. The DRC can only do so by providing basic needs for its citizens.

Ambassador Haley suggests a re-assessment of how South Sudan and the DRC use U.S. Aid, and D’Onofrio agrees with her on that point. He believes that aid requires evidence-supported approaches, and he questions the effectiveness of NGOs. Despite these misgivings, D’Onofrio still supports foreign aid, and would not deprive funds, as suggested by Haley. “We view these efforts as foundational for bringing real and lasting improvements in… the Democratic Republic of the Congo,” said D’Onofrio in a Time Magazine article. “Now is not the time to step back from the challenge.”

Nick Edinger

Photo: Flickr

How to Help People in CongoWhen most people hear the word “Congo,” the country they are thinking of is The Democratic Republic of Congo. There are actually two Congos: The Democratic Republic of Congo and The Republic of Congo. This article will address The Republic of Congo, which is often simply referred to as “Congo.” Though there is a discrepancy there, there is very little difference between the effect that poverty has on these two African nations’ impoverished citizens and how to help people in the Congo.

The poor in Congo experience extreme circumstances. The coastal African nation is affected by the HIV/AIDS virus, with 3.5 percent of the population having the disease. Other diseases plague the population as well, mostly due to poor sanitation and unclean drinking water.

Though there are many more problems impacting Congo, none are as well known as the issue of hunger. Around 47 percent of the Congolese population lives below the national poverty line. This means most of the country struggles to provide proper nutrition to their families, especially if unassisted by food aid programs.

However, with food aid programs tackling the problem of hunger around the globe, more Congolese have access to nutritious foods.

Influential Organizations
One such organization is the World Food Programme (WFP). Each year, the WFP helps to reduce hunger in about 80 different countries around the world. As the organization explains, there are over 5,000 trucks, 70 planes and 20 ships delivering food rations “on any given day” to people affected by hunger worldwide.

As for Congo, WFP is there providing school meals, refugee food assistance and even giving specialized foods to people living with HIV/TB.For John and Jane Q. Every person asking how to help people in Congo, WFP is always open to donations, which can be found in the top right corner of their site. WFP also hosts volunteers and has career opportunities for anyone seeking to go a little further with their assistance to the people of Congo. Volunteering is open to anyone aged 18 and over and can be applied for on their website as well, under the “Get Involved” tab.

Another promising organization is amfAR. This organization focuses on research and is dedicated to discovering a cure for the HIV/AIDS virus, investing $480 million in research as well as providing some 3,300 grants to research teams.

As mentioned above, AIDS is a devastating factor in the lives of the Congolese people. Developing a cure to HIV/AIDS would improve the lives of those in Congo as well as millions around the world.

How to Help
One way how to help people in Congo is to support HIV and AIDS research. Like the previous organization, a donation button for amfAR can be found in the top right corner of their page. AmfAR also sells products, like t-shirts and hats, the proceeds of which contribute to AIDS research. These can also be found on their page

But one of the easiest ways how to help people in Congo is to pick up the phone. Calling members of congress is a great way to show them what the important issues are on the minds of their constituency. A simple phone call can also get them to consider foreign aid legislation more seriously.

Finding phone numbers for congressmen and senators is quite simple. On the Borgen Project link, enter your zip code in the “Find Your Leaders” step.

Then, once you have their numbers, you can get them to view a piece of legislation with an easy, 30-second call. This is all you have to say: “Hello, my name is… and I would like you to protect the International Affairs Budget,” or consider whatever piece of legislation you choose (there are several more listed on The Borgen Project page). At most, the intern will ask you for your zip code—and then the call is over.

Getting friends and family to do this can generate a lot of support for an issue, and even gain the support of the leader after as few as seven to ten calls. With funding for bills like the International Affairs Budget held in tact, or even increased, millions of lives can be saved in impoverished places all over the world, like Congo.

Stephen Praytor

Photo: Flickr

Human Rights in the Congo
While guerrilla warfare in the Congo is oft-reported, the veritable war waged against women in the country is much less known. Problems concerning human rights in the Congo span the gamut from corruption to exploitation to sheer brutal violence. Among the most heinous infractions is the tolerance of systemic rape. Below are nine facts about human rights in the Congo:

  1. The most recent statistics from the United Nations Department on Sexual Violence in Conflict reports a grotesque 11,769 cases of sexual assault from January 2014 to January 2015 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  2. Armed groups (such as rebel groups, gangs, government authorities and police forces) commit 69% of all reported sexual assaults. This forces women to either die or continue providing for their families while living with sexual assault trauma.
  3. Government officials and servants perpetrate 31 percent of sexual assaults, illustrating how systemic rape is in the Congo.
  4. Rape victims are slowly earning reparations in the country, but only in the form of exceptionally inadequate payments. For example, only 30 of the 400 victims of the Songo Mboyo mass rape in 2003 received reparations.
  5. Although the Congo ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), approximately 48 women are raped every hour.
  6. The desire to control Congo’s vast natural resources is linked to the systemic rape of women. Rape socially destroys communities and allows neo-colonizers to abduct land from their traditional shepherds.
  7. The CIA World Fact Book reports a 50% literacy rate among women, further complicating victims’ abilities to report sexual assault.
  8. HIV among rape victims is presumably high, though no official statistic on how many women contract HIV from sexual assaults exists. The CIA World Fact Book reports 374,100 people in the country live with HIV. However, sampling is never perfect and the true number of people living with HIV is most likely much higher — as is the proportion of people who contract HIV from rape.
  9. A nationwide survey of 3,436 Congolese women aged 15 to 49 in 2007 found that 22 percent of sexual assaults were issues of domestic violence wherein a family member perpetrated or instigated the sexual assault.

While the statistics paint an exceedingly grim picture, organizations such as Women for Women are working relentlessly to improve human rights in the Congo and improve the living conditions of assault victims and at-risk women. Women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo who participate in the Women for Women program report higher confidence in their ability to make decisions about their bodies and families, earn a higher living wage and are more likely to report their assaults to an appropriate body of authority.

However, the real issue here is not that women do not know how to handle sexual assault, it is that men–especially those in positions of relative power–systemically carry out sexual assaults. It is paramount that the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the U.N. and every other organization and government body working to improve human rights in the Congo, gets one fact straight: women do not need to be taught how to live in fear, men need to be taught that sexual assault is abhorrent and those who choose to commit such unspeakable acts will be held accountable and punished accordingly.

Spencer Linford

Photo: Flickr

Congolese Women
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is abundant in gold, copper and zinc. The natural resources the Congo offers has encouraged competing ethnic groups to become violent. In contrast to this abundance, the DRC is the rape capital of the world. Its prominent sexual violence is charged by war.

The second Congo war ended in 2003 after five years, but sexual assault remains commonplace. The likelihood of rape for Congolese women is much higher during a military climate. Amongst other tactics it is used to humiliate, terminate pregnancies, increase food security and create control – ultimately instilling fear. A 2007 study found that four Congolese women are raped every five minutes, and out of the population of 70 million people, 1.8 million women have been raped. It is also not rare for women to be held captive as sex slaves.

Local Congolese men and women have created rights campaign groups to take the rampant matter into their own hands. Men started masculinity groups with a simple foundation of redefining masculinity. The service is geared towards protecting women and children, teaching men that women are not inferior and educating men that rape is unacceptable and punishable by law.

In addition to the rights campaign groups, Congolese women have established camps for rape victims. At camp, women are provided with legal assistance to maneuver court cases, small jobs for the victims and medical services if needed – some women give birth at camp or need counseling and group therapy.

On the public front is Panzi Hospital, located in eastern DRC. It is dedicated to providing rape victims with psychological assistance, treating gynecological injuries and reintegrating girls and women into society after their stay at the hospital. Panzi has been helping rape victims since 1999 and sees between 1,300 to 1,900 patients a year.

Tiffany Santos

Photo: Google

Ebola Vaccine
On Monday, May 29 the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo approved the use of a new Ebola vaccine to address the current outbreak in the northeastern region of the country. According to Reuters, a Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) team arrived the same day to validate the protocol with technical teams. Since the beginning of the outbreak in April, the Congo has seen around 19 cases of the Ebola virus, including suspected and probable cases. There have been four deaths reported since the beginning of the outbreak.

The vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, has been in development since the 1990s. NPR notes that in the 2000s the Ebola vaccine was not produced due to a lack of funding. It was first tested in Guinea in 2015 in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), Guinea’s Ministry of Health, Medecins Sans Frontieres and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. In the trial, the vaccine completely protected all 5,837 people it was administered to, with some participants feeling side effects of the vaccine. According to the WHO, “no Ebola cases were recorded 10 or more days after vaccination.” The efficacy of the Ebola vaccine is approximately 70 to 100 percent, although this will likely decrease as more people are vaccinated.

Despite the trial conducted by WHO, the vaccine has not yet been approved by the WHO or the Federal Drug Administration. According to NPR, this approval will likely happen in 2018. Development of the vaccine was largely made possible by funding from the WHO and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). GAVI provided $5 million in funding to allow for the production of the vaccine by the pharmaceutical company Merck. There are currently 300,000 doses available. Merck will submit the Ebola vaccine for approval by the WHO by the end of 2017.

The efficacy of the Ebola vaccine is so high that it will likely be effective at halting the outbreak in the Congo, thanks to the combined efforts of multiple parties like GAVI and the WHO. The development of rVSV-ZEBOV is a much-needed game-changer in the continued battle against the Ebola virus.

Anika Lanser

Photo: Flickr

Sharing Land DRCSharing the Land is a peacekeeping initiative started by the Christian Bilingual University of Congo in January 2015. Funded by Texas A&M University’s Center for Conflict and Development (ConDev) and USAID’s Higher Education Solutions Network, the organization has made enormous strides in peacefully settling land disputes in one of Beni’s 30 quarters in eastern Congo.

Sharing the Land uses GIS and GPS mapping technology to compile land claim and conflict data as well as road names, neighborhood boundaries, geographic features and points of interest. Data comes from household surveys and government records. The maps are already being used to settle land disputes between individuals, families and large companies in Beni.

Archip Lobo, Sharing the Land’s project leader, grew up in eastern Congo amidst violence and severe abuse of human rights, much of which revolved around land disputes. Though the country has a tragic and ongoing history of violence, Lobo felt that land disputes were preventable and not a grounds for continued, unhindered violence.

Rampant conflicts over land began when King Leopold of Belgium usurped much of the land from Congolese chiefs and initiated a tyrannous rule over eastern Congo in the late 1800s. With a new form of governance entangled in the traditional ways of land management, violence became prevalent.

In the years since Congo gained its independence from Belgium on Jun. 30, 1960, the country has endured great instability, insecurity, corruption and pervasive violation of human rights. Removing land disputes as a cause for violence is a step in the right direction for bringing Congo towards a peaceful future.

Sharing the Land provides Beni with data-driven land management practices instead of relying on differing traditions or interpretations of inheritance rights. While the project aims to bring peace through nonviolent land dispute resolutions, it is also reducing disputes in the first place by making the information publicly available and educating all those involved in urban planning.

According to Texas A&M, 85 percent of court cases in Beni relate to land disputes. The Sharing the Land initiative is already making progress to reduce this statistic in Beni.

This project has two immediate benefits. First, official maps using government data help to standardize the land purchasing process. It also enables land managers to continue to add and update data on the stable ArcGIS platform so that land ownership can be accurately and reliably documented.

Aside from using GIS software to map the land, the Sharing the Land project is encouraging community leaders, government professionals, civil society organization representatives, lawyers and the greater community to collaborate in understanding the origins and consequences of land conflict and together engineer viable solutions.

To date, with the help of ConDev and USAID, Sharing the Land has mapped 531 land parcels and documented 29 conflicts. This year, the organization will collaborate with UN-Habitat to provide land management training to government officials in several Congo provinces in an effort to strengthen and standardize urban planning.

Sharing the Land envisions that this new aspect of the project will position a new generation of government officials to enforce and continue to develop peaceful and sustainable land management practices.

Mary Furth

Sources: IRIUCBC, Codev Center 1, USAID, Codev Center 2, USAID, Eastern Congo

The Democratic Republic of Congo is facing the worst measles outbreak since 2011, according to Doctors Without Borders. So far this year, over 23,000 cases of measles were reported in the Katanga region of the country. The UN and Doctors Without Borders have calculated over 400 deaths.

The epidemic started in February of this year. In just one village with a population of 500, 30 children died in just 2 months. Despite the number of deaths, the central government in Kinshasa hadn’t recognized the measles epidemic and the deaths caused by it until earlier this month.

Doctors Without Borders has vaccinated over 300,000 children, despite the difficulties of having to keep the vaccine cold and requiring 2 shots, weeks apart for effectiveness.

An additional difficulty has been the lack of infrastructure with bad roads and railroads that are usually never fixed or where fuel runs low. Some villages are hardly accessible, only way to get there is by foot, motorcycle or canoe.

The UN has estimated $2.4 million to vaccinate everyone. The vaccine is effective enough it has wiped out the measles outbreak in western countries. The problem in countries such as the DR of Congo is children’s immune systems have been weakened from malnutrition, malaria and cholera.

The vaccine while effective, cannot prevent death when complications such as blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhea and related dehydration, or severe respiratory infections.

In addition, vaccination has proved difficult in a region which has tried to become independent from the rest of the country. The ongoing fighting between local militia and Congolese army over mining areas leads to villagers fleeing for days or weeks. However, efforts are ongoing to improve the current living conditions for Congolese citizens, especially children.

Paula Acevedo

Sources: New York Times, Yahoo
Photo: CDN

A measles outbreak has been occurring in the Democratic Republic of Congo since the beginning of the year, with 16,500 cases reported from January to June.

The Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF – also known as Doctors Without Borders in the U.S.) was able to take responsive measures starting in March, vaccinating over 287,000 children either to combat measles or to prevent it.

Since May, all of the children aged 6 months to 10 years in the Malemba Nkulu health zone – 101,000 in total – were vaccinated.

Over 500 members of the MSF team have been deployed to respond to the measles outbreak in the Congolese provinces. They are working to transport and administer vaccines and care for those afflicted by the disease. But the fight against measles calls for more than just brave, skillful responders.

The challenges in treating the epidemic are great and many, but organizations like MSF overcome them by being aware of these challenges so that they can be addressed.

The last time that Katanga (the Congolese province where the most cases are being seen) had a measles outbreak this serious was in 2011. MSF and other organizations involved in treating this outbreak are drawing on the lessons they learned from 2011 to treat this outbreak more efficiently.

The head of the MSF mission in the Congo, Jean-Guy Vataux, cites several barriers to fighting the disease: “shortage of funds, running out of vaccines, problems maintaining the cold chain. . . and a lack of qualified human resources.”

Shortage of funds is a problem humanitarian organizations have always been familiar with. Organizations like the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) and the Measles and Rubella Immunization Initiative provide grants to humanitarian organizations – they have funded several vaccination campaigns during the current outbreak.

Donations from governments, organizations, corporations, and individuals can be sent to groups like these, or also straight to the organizations fighting the disease on the ground (MSF, WHO, etc.)

Beyond the scope of finance, organizations are working together to make sure they reach as many people as possible.

In Sudan, health professionals involved in the response have noted the increased effectiveness of response when different organizations, such as MSF and UNICEF, work together. It is through the teamwork of different organizations that barriers, like marshy roads that make villages difficult to access, can be evaluated and worked through.

The Ministry of Health in Sudan and WHO are working together on a plan of action to help about 180,000 people in the Zamzam camp. Currently, the camp has ongoing routine immunizations for children and pregnant women. Eight different vaccination centers are up and running, staffed by 20 vaccinators.

Areas such as case investigation and response measures are also being reevaluated for efficiency. Investigations are particularly pertinent because oftentimes, the disease goes untreated, ad thus deaths go unreported and statistics are inaccurate. Without a proper understanding of the situation, resources can’t be allocated to where they are needed.

According to Dr. Malik Alabbasi, Director-General of the Public Health Care Directorate in the Federal Ministry of Health, recent reports have already reflected improvement in case management and implementation of vaccines.

The situation in the Congo and Sudan is grim in many ways, but through the collective effort of organizations determined to make a difference, the fight against measles is making slow and steady progress.

Emily Dieckman

Sources: All Africa, WHO, MSF 1, MSF 2, Reuters, Time, OCHA, Vaccine News Daily
Photo: Doctors Without Borders

As our world becomes increasingly globalized, formerly developing nations are gaining access to new technology and experiences that have allowed them to jump leaps and bounds in the matter of a few years. This rapid evolution of a country’s standing has led to massive changes in the global community as a whole, but several countries stand out above the rest as strong contenders in the globalized market. Five countries on the rise can be found below:

1. Turkey

Over the past year, Turkey experienced a growth rate of over 11 percent, one that surpasses even that of China. This nation has been able to foster its manufacturing and democratic systems gently even as the nations around it fell to the pressure of the global community’s demands. Turkey’s focus on exports has increased job availability overall and has drastically reduced poverty in the nation. Turkey has realized that the key to success is to focus on the happiness of its people, and with increased employment opportunity and decreased poverty, Turkey has set itself up to become a major world power.

2. Mexico

According to a recent Brookings Metropolitan Policy release, Mexico City is one of the most economically vibrant cities in the world. The 12th largest economy in the world has become a hub for business, and through promotion of entrepreneurial spirit, it has experienced income and employment growth. All of this growth is steady because much of Mexico’s export profits come from the United States, which provides a steady dollar currency. Once a hub for crime and poverty, Mexico is quickly becoming a contender for one of the world’s strongest and happiest nations.

3. Democratic Republic of the Congo

For several decades, people have associated the Congo with horrible war, poverty, disease and death, but with the promise of a more stable government, things are beginning to look up for the Congolese people. Much of the war that takes place in the Congo is over its bountiful mineral fields, which provide vital minerals that are used in almost every electronic device today. Major companies buy their products from war-torn regions without realizing what their needs are doing to the people within, but with the recent increase in more conscientious shopping, companies are beginning to watch what they use. The promise of a stable government means a decrease in war, an increase in legislation, an increase in local miners getting mineral profits and an overall decrease in poverty throughout the DRC.

4. India

While India has been on the rise for quite a few years now, it continues to grow and develop, and with the second highest population in the world, it has set itself up to become one of the world’s new superpowers. India’s main asset is its tech abilities and manufacturing. Several companies have plants in India that create their products for export, and with the massive amount of manpower that India can provide, they find no issues arising. India’s poverty rates continue to decline and their education rates continue to increase and will continue to do so with the use of the U.N. Standard Development Goals, essentially creating a brighter future today.

5. Nigeria

Nigeria has long been thought of as the most developed country in Africa and has been cited in several speeches and talks by citizens and politicians as such. With the strong technology boom coming in from the West as well as the investment in Africa by foreign NGOs, Nigeria has set itself up to become the strongest nation in Africa. With a more stable government and a more united public it will become a force to be reckoned with in the global community.

While several nations, such as China and the United States, have long enjoyed the relaxation and innovation that comes with life on the top, it appears as though they need to slide over and make some room because these five countries are ready to join them.

Sumita Tellakat

Sources: The Atlantic, CS Monitor
Photo: CS Monitor