Information and stories on health topics.

SELF
Many developing nations struggle with energy poverty, which is defined as “a lack of access to modern energy services.” According to Energypedia, “access to energy is a prerequisite of human development.” Electricity is also essential for the “provision of social services such as education and health.” Energy access also links to the economic growth and development of a nation. The Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF) is a nonprofit organization with a mission of harnessing solar energy to support social and economic development in disadvantaged communities.

Benefits of Solar Power

According to ZenEnergy, the use of solar energy helps to decrease the effects of climate change by reducing fossil fuel reliance, air pollution and water usage. Solar energy does not burn fuel, eliminating the harmful gas emissions that stem from fossil fuel energy production. Additionally, unlike the finite nature of fossil fuels, solar energy is abundant. Furthermore, solar energy does not require water to generate electricity. Solar power is a cost-effective and sustainable renewable energy source that can help reduce energy poverty throughout the world.

Addressing Energy Poverty

SELF implements solar projects to sustainably create energy, which provides for basic human needs and economic development. When SELF was first established in 1990, the organization began by fitting individual home solar-powered systems. However, the company yearned to make a larger impact with more long-term benefits. As a result, SELF adjusted its goals to include the creation of a business model “that could be self-sustained in communities” in developing countries. Thus, the Whole Village Development Model was born.

This “all-encompassing approach” utilizes solar energy from the sun to power entire villages while improving “healthcare, education and food security.” In 2001, SELF celebrated the opening of its first “solar-powered computer lab” in a high school in Maphephethe, South Africa. Due to these solar-powered capabilities, student enrollment at the school increased by 40% and graduation rates rose by close to 15%.

Solar Power in Developing Communities

Although the entire world can benefit from solar energy, impoverished countries are especially targeted to improve air quality and reduce health issues linked to the burning of fuelwood, reports Science Direct. Solar photovoltaic is a type of technology that can provide renewable energy in impoverished communities. This particular solar source eliminates the financial burden of grid extensions. Grid extensions are not viable options in communities with scarce traditional energy sources. For many developing countries, solar energy provides the opportunity for a better life, and, environmental sustainability is a bonus.

Overseeing Vaccine Refrigerators

Among other projects, in partnership with PATH, “an international nonprofit global health organization” located in the U.S. state of Seattle, SELF recently pledged to enlist evaluation teams to ensure vaccine refrigerators are functioning effectively in vaccination sites around Haiti, Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Developing countries often lack proper mechanisms to monitor the efficiency of vaccine refrigerators. The goal of the partnership is to provide this assurance.

Two solar technicians from SELF are responsible for visiting 42 sites in Haiti to evaluate refrigerators on a monthly basis. After a one-year evaluation, SELF analyzes the data and reports on it to the World Health Organization. As inadequate refrigeration can have adverse public health implications, the vaccine cold storage monitoring project is just one example of the important work SELF does to support global communities aside from solar energy projects.

SELF’s Commitment to Disadvantaged Communities

Presently, SELF is working on several different projects with the main objective of improving living conditions in developing countries. Some of its projects include bringing clean water to West Africa as well as expanding micro-grids and providing solar training in Haiti. SELF continues to light up communities in need with new projects and approaches that harness the sustainable power of the sun.

Jessica Barile
Photo: Flickr

The Impact of COVID-19 on Poverty in Pakistan
As COVID-19 wreaks havoc on the developing world, the World Bank estimates that there will be between 119 to 124 million additional people added to poverty due to economic standstills. Developing countries are at high risk of an increase in poverty, including Pakistan. The impact of COVID-19 on poverty in Pakistan is substantial, but the government and other organizations have been cooperating to minimize the impact.

COVID-19’s Impact on Pakistan

In Pakistan, to date, there have been more than 22,000 COVID-19 related deaths. Vaccination programs have experienced delays, with only about 2% of the population of Pakistan currently vaccinated. To receive the vaccine, residents pay around $78, a luxury that many Pakistanis cannot afford. Due to the U.K. strain, cases are rising again. However, government officials are hesitant to enforce a strict lockdown as they did in March 2020. Rather, the government utilized the popular “smart” or “micro” lockdowns, where only specific areas go into lockdown. However, limited data exists on the success rates of these strategies.

Pre-Pandemic Pakistan

Even before the pandemic, Pakistan’s health system had limitations. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), before COVID-19, Pakistan had a ratio of one doctor to 963 people and a lack of universal healthcare. Before the virus, the poverty rate in Pakistan declined by 40% over the last two decades. However, the economic impacts of the pandemic halted poverty reduction progress.

The Impact of COVID-19 on Women and Children

COVID-19 has impacted women and children in Pakistan more significantly than men. Due to the virus, these vulnerable groups are suffering several consequences. Children are one of the most vulnerable groups in Pakistan. In June 2020, nearly 42 million children were out of school, with 17 million children younger than 5 missing routine vaccinations.

According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), the shutdowns due to COVID-19 have disproportionately affected women, and in particular, the garment industry, which makes up a substantial part of Pakistan’s exports. In Pakistan, the majority of the population has employment within the garment industry, with approximately one in seven women working in this sector.

To rectify the bleak situation, the Pakistan Workers Federation and the Employers Federation of Pakistan issued a joint statement of cooperation and the government provided wage support. These efforts also included a “no lay off” order and an interest rate reduction for employers who retain their employees.

The Good News

While the situation looks bleak, the government and organizations are taking action to relieve the impact of COVID-19 on poverty in Pakistan. The U.N. Development Programme established a COVID-19 Secretariat at Pakistan’s Planning Commission in 2020 to facilitate the economic and social response to the pandemic in conjunction with U.N. agencies. The Secretariat supported the Pakistani government’s 2020-2021 budget and National Action Plan for COVID-19.

To alleviate the lockdown’s hardships in 2020, the government issued unconditional cash transfers of approximately $70 to 12 million vulnerable households to prevent food insecurity. To continue to support the most vulnerable population, Ehsaas, the federal social protection program, made extra payments to 4.5 million families. Under the Ehsaas Emergency Cash initiative, another 7.5 million households received monetary assistance.

Dr. Sania Nishtar, the leader of Ehsaas, said in an interview with Mckinsey, that Ehsaas “invested” heavily in time, money, energy and effort to build infrastructure, including an SMS-based request-seeking mechanism, which allowed for ease in eligibility determinations and digital payments.

The World Bank ranked Ehsaas as one of the top four social protection programs by coverage. In March 2021, the World Bank issued a statement supporting the program by approving $600 million to expand Ehsaas. The fund allocation will facilitate the expansion of the programs to reach more informal workers.

Looking Ahead

The impact of COVID-19 on poverty in Pakistan is significant, however, the government and organizations are working together to provide social protection to the most vulnerable groups and will continue to do so as vaccination rates increase.

– Lalitha Shanmugasundaram
Photo: Flickr

The Impact of COVID-19 on Poverty in ZimbabweThe effects of COVID-19 have been felt throughout the world. However, countries that were already experiencing poverty and health disparities are in worse shape now. Zimbabwe is one particular country that is struggling with the COVID-19 crisis. The impact of COVID-19 on poverty in Zimbabwe “further complicates Zimbabwe’s economic and social conditions.” With global aid and support, Zimbabwe can successfully recover from the effects of the pandemic.

COVID-19’s Economic Impact on Zimbabwe

According to a June 2021 economic analysis conducted by the World Bank, the number of  Zimbabweans living in extreme poverty increased to 7.9 million in 2020 due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also reveals that the impact of COVID-19 on poverty in Zimbabwe escalated extreme poverty overall to almost 50% in 2020. The COVID-19 crisis has also impacted basic public services in the areas of “health, education and social protection.”

Prior to the pandemic, poverty in Zimbabwe was already on the rise. In 2011, the number of Zimbabweans living in poverty increased from three million people to 6.6 million people in 2019. Before COVID-19, rising fuel and food prices contributed to the rising level of poverty in the country. However, the impact of COVID-19 on poverty in Zimbabwe has only exacerbated the dire circumstances with increased job losses and reduced household income.

It was reported that at least 30% of formal jobs within the country were lost due to the increasing number of COVID-19 restrictions. The country has lost roughly $1 billion from a lack of tourism. Zimbabwe still has restrictions at hotspots such as Mashonaland West, Masvingo and Bulawayo provinces. Intense restrictions require businesses in these areas to trade until 3 p.m. instead of 6 p.m. Limited trading hours economically impact the revenue of businesses.

Avoiding Another Lockdown

As Zimbabwe prepared to enter a third wave of the pandemic, another nationwide lockdown seemed unavoidable. The president of the Employers’ Confederation of Zimbabwe (Emcoz), Israel Murefu, warns that another lockdown would have a disastrous impact on the economy. Due to COVID-19 lockdown restrictions, businesses have suffered nationwide and Zimbabweans suffered extreme job losses.

The impact of COVID-19 on poverty in Zimbabwe has left its mark on the country. The rising level of unemployed Zimbabweans has caused a spike in extreme poverty cases. Murefu states that “adapting production processes to the new normal requires a huge capital outlay and takes time,” adding that the country should avoid another lockdown.

Global Assistance

Aside from internal changes that need to occur such as the government creating policies that will protect the impoverished and provide resources to people hit hardest by the pandemic, aid from world superpowers would help Zimbabwe get back on track.

Zimbabwe is experiencing a significant shortage of vaccines. As cases continue to rise, it is more important than ever that the global community steps in to help. It was reported that China would be providing Zimbabwe with 2.5 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine by the end of June 2021. As more people receive vaccinations, COVID-19 restrictions can ease and Zimbabwe can find its way to economic recovery.

Zimbabwe has reported more than 43,000 COVID-19 cases as of June 24, 2021. As cases continue to rise, the Zimbabwean government has committed to improves its COVID-19 awareness campaigns across the country in order to help reduce the spread of cases. A reduced burden of COVID-19 cases will decrease the economic burden stemming from strained healthcare services in the country.

It is also important for other countries and international players to provide more vaccine doses to Zimbabwe. Being that the country is unable to acquire enough resources to combat COVID-19, the generosity of other countries will help Zimbabwe regain stability. Though the recovery of Zimbabwe’s economy and job market will take time, recovery progress will accelerate if the global community is able to reach out a helping hand and share resources.

– Jordyn Gilliard
Photo: Flickr

Healthcare Reform in Latin America
One-third of the population in Latin America does not have access to permanent healthcare, meaning healthcare services and benefits are inaccessible to approximately one in every three people. Statistics have shown that less than 30% of the population in Andean and Central American countries have social security coverage. Meanwhile, 70% lack any type of access to basic health services and 17% of women endure childbirth unassisted. Healthcare reform in Latin America has become the focus of various organizations who have made it their mission to make healthcare accessible and affordable to the people in countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Columbia and Chile.

Organizations Working to Increase Accessibility to Healthcare

The International Labour Office (ILO) is an agency that aims to provide and enhance social protection for all. The Panamerican Health Organization is responsible for pushing countries to reform their healthcare systems. It also aims to ensure that everyone has access to healthcare. Both agencies have partnered to carry out an action plan – the Action Plan for the Americas – that will take place over the course of five years to find new ways to provide healthcare services and benefits to the excluded portions of the population. This plan aims to implement a micro-insurance system that has been successful in Central American countries. This system helps to decrease social exclusion and increase the quality of care that people receive.

Program SUMAR is a national program that has the goal of creating subsidized health insurance for the uninsured in countries like Argentina. It aims to do this by strengthening the insurance scheme and implementing a result-based approach that uses financial incentives to promote advancement in certain regions. It aims to close the gap between the medically, financially and physically possible with available resources, and reduce disparities in effective coverage. Another goal that this program implemented is to build a primary care-oriented system that makes families and communities its priority by promoting universal coverage and access to services and benefits.

Poverty and How it Affects Access to Healthcare

The System for Selecting Beneficiaries of Social Spending (SISBEN) uses qualitative and quantitative data to analyze and measure poverty in multiple different countries. The SISBEN Index takes into account different variables to determine economic needs within communities and create accurate changes and target different problems that exist within countries’ economic systems. After using the SISBEN method in Columbia’s system, the poor population in this country experienced a positive effect in the sense that economic barriers to basic healthcare services that existed before remarkably decreased. The healthcare gap between economic classes decreased because of universal healthcare and more insured and uninsured people were able to receive healthcare. Additionally, higher percentages of people are using ambulatory services, taking sick children to receive treatment and enduring childbirth in the presence of a healthcare professional.

While the world grows richer, large populations of the world continue to suffer from preventable and treatable sicknesses. This notion helped spark change and systemic reform. Many organizations mobilized and launched different operations aimed at improving these systems, centralizing healthcare reform in Latin America as a priority. There is a rise in the accessibility of healthcare services and benefits to impoverished populations as well as an increase in the life expectancy of people who inhabit these countries.

– Annamarie Perez
Photo: Flickr

Female Genital Mutilation in ChadThe World Health Organization defines female genital mutilation as “any procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” Despite constituting an international human rights violation, FGM remains a pervasive issue affecting the lives of many women, especially in developing countries. According to UNICEF, at least 200 million girls and women have undergone genital mutilation globally. FGM is particularly prevalent in Chad, a landlocked country in Northern Africa, despite laws banning female genital mutilation in Chad. Over the years, steps have been taken to reduce the prevalence of FGM in Chad.

The Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation in Chad

BMC Public Health explains that, in Chad, the citizenry continues FGM practices in both religious and traditional contexts. FGM is a hazardous practice, often done without anesthetic, putting girls and women at risk of both short and long-term health effects. These effects include genital swelling, bleeding, the inability to pass feces and urine, urinary tract infections and birth complications, among other consequences.

A BMC Public Health research article based on data from 2014-2015 indicates that, in Chad, 50.2% of women and 12.9% of girls have been genitally mutilated, endangering their health. There are multiple conditions that affect this staggering statistic. First, BMC Public Health explains that women with lower levels of education are more likely to experience FGM. Poverty levels also drive the practice as impoverished families have their daughters undergo FGM with the intention of marrying them off, granting impoverished families dowries and the benefits of marrying into a wealthier family. The practice of FGM tends to follow ethnic and religious traditions and is most common among the Sara ethnic group and other Muslim tribes.

Addressing FGM in Chad

While FGM prevalence has been decreasing throughout much of the world, Chad, Mali and Sierra Leone have seen an increase of 2–8% over the last 30 years. This increase in prevalence demonstrates the importance of efforts addressing FGM in Chad, especially now, when poverty rates are heightened due to COVID-19. With the help of NGOs, the U.S. government and tribal leaders, Chad is fighting the deeply entrenched traditions of FGM to protect the well-being of young women and girls.

NGOs play a vitally important role in the creation of long-term programs aimed at changing societal and cultural norms surrounding female genital mutilation in Chad. These NGOs can expand their reach with support from the Chadian government. For example, the Chadian government aided the Chadian Association for Family Well-Being in its work surrounding FGM education and awareness. This education includes seminars, campaigns and conferences explaining the dangers of FGM.

The Role of the US

Not only has Chad’s government stepped up to combat FGM but the U.S. has played a critical role in education surrounding FGM practices. From 1997 to 1999, the U.S. Embassy’s Democracy and Human Rights Fund supported a locally implemented FGM education program to change norms surrounding FGM in Chad. This resulted in a roundtable meeting with “doctors, judges, parliamentarians and NGO representatives, a national seminar” and four regional seminars, all of which helped spread awareness of the dangers of FGM in Chad.

Mobilizing Tribal Leaders to Fight FGM

Due to the cultural and ethnic ties surrounding the practice of female genital mutilation in Chad, tribal leaders have played an important part in the movement to end FGM. Because of the trust bestowed upon tribal leaders, they can increase awareness about FGM’s consequences and generate support for the laws banning its practice among ethnic groups throughout the country. In order to motivate and educate tribal leaders, the Red Cross of Chad set up an advocacy program that creates initiatives and training sessions for tribal leaders to combat FGM in their communities.

While the inhumane practice of FGM continues in Chad due to deeply entrenched cultural roots, the U.S. and Chadian governments play consequential roles in combating the prevalence of FGM. This support is crucial as female genital mutilation in Chad severely harms girls’ and women’s health, impacting their futures and their abilities to rise out of poverty.

Haylee Ann Ramsey-Code
Photo: Flickr

Female genital mutilation in TanzaniaThe WHO estimates that more than 200 million women and girls across the world have experienced female genital mutilation (FGM). The culturally entrenched practice holds no benefits for girls and women. In fact, FGM puts girls and women at risk of severe health complications. Despite constituting an international human rights violation, in countries such as Tanzania, cases of FGM persist. The government of Tanzania, individuals and organizations aim to address incidents of female genital mutilation in Tanzania.

Female Genital Mutilation in Tanzania

In the year 1998, female genital mutilation became illegal in Tanzania through the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act. However, the legislation only criminalized the act for women younger than 18. Law enforcement officials intervened in rituals where young girls received their rite of passage through mutilation. The country hopes to end all harmful actions against women and children by 2030. This includes FGM practices.

A few issues surrounding the prosecution of FGM cases include victims refusing to testify against the perpetrators, especially if they are family members. Additionally, bribery by perpetrators is common to avoid prosecution. Inadequate evidence and “witnesses failing to appear in court” also contribute to low prosecution rates.

At times, “community leaders pretend to abandon the practice then organize alternative rite of passage festivals for girls only to continue with female genital mutilation in disguise.” Despite these barriers, Tanzania has seen a decrease in mutilations from 18% in 1996 to around 10% in 2021.

Recommendations From WHO

According to the World Health Organization, nine out of 10 Tanzanian women are against FGM practices. Because the practice is culturally entrenched, it is more difficult to completely abolish. The WHO recommends raising awareness about FGM in order to communicate the dangers the practice holds for girls and women. Furthermore, health professionals should be trained to “manage and prevent” cases on FGM. Furthermore, law enforcement needs to be better supported in order to ensure cases are investigated and prosecuted.

Solutions to FGM in Tanzania

Tanzania has developed a national strategy to address FGM in the country. The strategy launched on March 15, 2021, and will run for four years. The strategy involves “running campaigns on the health consequences of FGM for girls and women, recruitment of change agents from within the communities and the enforcement of legal mechanisms.” Though FGM rates in Tanzania have reduced to 10%, the fight to abolish the practice continues.

Men in the community have also joined the fight to end FGM. Chief Girihuida Gegasa Shulumbu is a traditional leader in the Mara village of Tanzania. As a father of three daughters, Shulumbu works with other male leaders to end the practice and find “alternative rites of passage.” Shulumbu recognizes that FGM impacts the most impoverished people and impacts education by keeping girls out of school due to recovery time and health complications that may ensue.

A lack of education keeps women in poverty, economically impacting Tanzania as a whole. Due to individual efforts and efforts from organizations, in the past three years, 96 ritual leaders have stopped FGM practices in Mara. Furthermore, more than 1,500 girls between 9 and 19 were protected from FGM practices through campaigns and programs.

Efforts to decrease female genital mutilation in Tanzania have proven successful. Although the fight continues, there is much promise that the practice may be eliminated by 2030.

– Selena Soto
Photo: Flickr

COVID-19 vaccinations in HaitiHaiti faces a surge in COVID-19 cases, while also being the only COVAX member in the Americas to not commence administering vaccines. Despite reporting low infection rates at the start of the pandemic, Haitian hospitals are now overwhelmed with an influx of patients. With a deficit of resources and infected patients being turned away, there is a desperate need for the commencement of COVID-19 vaccinations in Haiti.

Haiti Before the Surge

Haiti confirmed its first case of COVID-19 on March 19, 2020. The country immediately implemented a complete shutdown by way of closing schools, quarantining visitors and prohibiting public gatherings. Officials also advised that citizens wear masks. By June 2020, the country reported 2,500 COVID-19 cases, leaving Haiti at a relatively low number of reported cases compared to other countries. However, experts have argued that the number of reported cases in Haiti falls substantially lower than the actual number of existing cases due to an overwhelming lack of testing resources and facilities.

Widespread misinformation about COVID-19 leaves many Haitians unwilling to get tested and unwilling to follow precautionary measures. With Haiti largely left to its own devices in handling COVID-19, certain factors, including the inadequate medical care system and high poverty rates, make it difficult for infected patients to receive or afford proper medical care.

Poverty also leads to overcrowded districts and the inability to buy face masks, while poor sanitation increases the spread of disease. Even before experiencing the largest spike of cases since the start of COVID-19, Haiti proved extremely vulnerable to COVID-19. In 2018, Haiti declared its goal of achieving universal healthcare coverage by 2030. However, as the “most impoverished country in the western hemisphere,” the road to achieving universal healthcare contains several obstacles.

The Spike of COVID-19 cases

On June 25, 2021, Haiti reported upward of 18,000 cumulative cases and more than 400 cumulative deaths, with nearly 2,300 of the cases occurring in the span of just a month. The Associated Press reports that the government declared a health emergency on May 24, 2021, by imposing a curfew and compelling people to take preventative safety measures. However, many people are unable to avoid large crowds in marketplaces or on public transportation while others simply cannot afford face masks.

The recent spike in COVID-19 cases in Haiti can be largely attributed to more people getting tested and seeking treatment. Additionally, other variants of COVID-19 could be to blame. Due to the seemingly low number of reported cases earlier in the year, authorities reduced the number of beds allocated for COVID-19 patients. With the rise in cases, hospitals are now at capacity, having to turn patients away.

The Need for COVID-19 Vaccines

Although vaccinating citizens would aid in fighting the pandemic, officials have yet to start COVID-19 vaccinations in Haiti. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) announced an aid plan to facilitate vaccine delivery to Haiti. This first shipment will contain the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine procured through COVAX, a global vaccine initiative that ensures vaccine equity by securing COVID-19 vaccines for low-income countries. PAHO Director Carissa F. Etienne asserts that the global community needs to help strengthen Haiti’s response to COVID-19, unifying despite political differences to make COVID-19 treatment a top priority.

As of June 9, 2021, Haiti had still not received any vaccines. The country was supposed to receive more than 750,000 doses of AstraZeneca in May 2021, but the delivery was “delayed due to the government’s concern over possible clotting as a side effect and a lack of infrastructure to keep the vaccines properly refrigerated.”

Doctors express concerns that even if the doses do arrive, there will be challenges in the vaccination rollout. Young adults, who largely ignore government mandates, comprise much of the population. Additionally, gang violence makes it difficult for people to safely venture to clinics and health centers. Nevertheless, officials hope that any delay with COVID-19 vaccinations in Haiti will cease.

Domestic and Global Solutions

As residents await the launch of COVID-19 vaccinations in Haiti, grassroots organizations aid in the fight against the pandemic. Heart to Heart International, an organization dedicated to improving global healthcare, directs community health workers to teach market vendors and the surrounding community in Haiti about preventative techniques, hygienic practices and the detection of COVID-related symptoms.

GlobalGiving is a nonprofit platform that connects other nonprofits to donors. Through GlobalGiving, Economic Stimulus Projects for Work and Action (ESPWA) looked to raise more than $5,000 for the COVID-19 response in Haiti. Through the first phase of its initiative, the organization has supported 19 communities with more than 40,000 residents by providing seeds to local farmers to sustain agriculture and by supporting a microloan program to assist small businesses. ESPWA also supported the creation of a soapmaking business to generate sustainable income and promote hygiene.

On July 14, 2021, Haiti received 500,000 COVID-19 vaccines from the United States. With more powerful countries reaching out a helping hand, the campaign for COVID-19 vaccinations in Haiti can begin with a higher chance of success.

– Cory Utsey
Photo: Unsplash

HIV/AIDS in EswatiniDue to its investments and reliable infrastructure, Eswatini, formerly known as Swaziland, is one of the most stable African countries. Similarly, Eswatini runs an internationally recognized, successful educational and training institution known as the BirchCooper Graduate Institute. Despite the ability to provide a high quality of life to citizens, Eswatini has the highest HIV prevalence in the world. However, the country is taking positive steps to combat HIV/AIDS in Eswatini, which one can clearly see in its most recent HIV/AIDS achievements.

The Problem

There are many factors that contribute to high rates of HIV/AIDS in Eswatini, such as multiple sexual partners, low condom usage, sexual violence and commercial sex. Due to these factors, HIV/AIDS has reached a staggering 27% rate among adults. While this rate is already high, women and girls are at an even higher risk of HIV/AIDS in Eswatini due to income inequality.

In Eswatini, social barriers cause many women to engage in transactional sex to earn money. This practice increases the risk of HIV and further fuels the HIV epidemic. In fact, while young women in Gambia, South Africa, the Congo and Gabon are three times more likely to have HIV than young men, young women in Eswatini are five times more likely to have HIV than young men.

5 Facts About HIV/AIDS in Eswatini

  1. Due to how quickly the epidemic is spreading, HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death in Eswatini.
  2. Because of the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Eswatini, more than 95% of adults and 84% of children are on antiretroviral treatment.
  3. Due to the impact of drought and other factors, economic growth has stagnated and the poverty rate remains high at almost 60% in 2017. Impoverished countries usually lack adequate resources for an effective HIV/AIDS response.
  4. Gender discrimination is prevalent in Eswatini, with females experiencing significantly more HIV/AIDs stigmatization than males. Women also receive less economic, educational and emotional support.
  5. The high HIV/AIDS rate in Eswatini significantly impacts children as roughly 45,000 children from 0-17 have become orphans due to AIDS-related parent mortality.

Taking Strategic Action

Eswatini has made significant efforts to address the HIV/AIDs epidemic. Eswatini has implemented the National Multisectoral HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework (NSF) 2018-2023 with multiple objectives:

  • Decrease HIV rates among people aged 15-49 by 85%.
  • In the age bracket of 15-24, reduce HIV prevalence by 85%.
  • Decrease “new HIV infections among infants aged 0-1 year to less than 0.05%.”
  • Reduce AIDs-related deaths by half.

Aside from prevention and treatment aspects, the strategy also includes social protection and assistance, covering “orphaned and vulnerable children,” gender-based violence issues and HIV stigma.

The Good News

Eswatini’s efforts to combat its HIV/AIDS epidemic have been extremely successful in helping alleviate its HIV burden. In December 2020, Eswatini became “the first country in Africa to achieve the United Nations HIV targets.”

The 95-95-95 goal directs that, by 2030, 95% of people would be aware of their HIV status, 95% of affected people would be on treatment and 95% of those on treatment would be virally suppressed. In fact, Eswatini reached this goal 10 years before the expected year of 2030. This success is a clear indication that Eswatini has made significant strides in controlling HIV/AIDS.

As the burdens of HIV have damaged the fabric of Eswatini society with serious physical, mental, social and economic implications for its citizens, the country is moving toward a better and brighter future. Eswatini’s success serves as an inspiration for other countries battling the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Calvin Franke
Photo: Flickr

Kidney Disease in Southeast Asia
End-stage renal disease, the last stage in chronic kidney disease, is one the deadliest illnesses in the modern world. This rise in end-stage renal disease can result in a considerable loss of economic growth and cause a massive loss of life. Growing countries and communities experience a harsher result from end-stage renal disease. Southeastern Asian countries face challenges that are damaging to poverty-stricken countries. Many vulnerable individuals face the challenging task of securing medical assistance for combating chronic kidney disease because of healthcare systems lacking financial support, including renal support. The 21st century has brought to light a new, dangerous illness. The process of combatting kidney disease in Southeast Asia must occur through global initiatives and support.

The Silent Chronic Illness

The term “silent illness” is a long-term sickness that results in death. Chronic kidney disease, known as CKD, is one of the deadliest diseases globally, killing millions each year. With more than 10% of the population suffering from the disease, its lethality has grown sharply. It increased from the 28th deadliest cause of death to the 19th. This sharp rise in death rate is comparable to only AIDS, and HIV has a sharper increase in death rate. This statistic showcases the challenges in combating kidney disease.

A recent study from the scholarly journal, Nephron Clinical Practice, displayed the significant financial and medical expenses that could come from the sharp rise in kidney disease illnesses and deaths. These issues will hit developing countries the hardest. More than 23 developing countries could lose more than $85 million in economic development. Southeast Asian countries suffer the worst. Renal Replacement Therapy costs 10 times as much as the per capita income. Furthermore, very few medical coverages support renal medical treatment. Only 10% of individuals suffering from chronic kidney disease have access to renal medical resources, a worrying statistic for the future of developing countries that work hand in hand with other developed countries to continue to flourish against kidney disease in Southeast Asia.

Kidney Disease in Southeast Asia

Kidney disease preventative centers and policies are not very accessible in Southeast Asia. Many governments have just become aware of the extensive and damaging results that kidney disease carries. Southeast Asian countries lack the essential resources to help with a deficiency of dialysis treatment.

This disease is, however, especially deadly in impoverished communities worldwide. Experts from The International Society of Nephrology, the world’s leader in chronic kidney disease research, found in a recent study that more than 10 million people die every year from chronic kidney disease. The BNC Nephrology systematic review also saw a sharp decline in human resources in kidney services and disproportionate effort within the healthcare system of these respective Southeast Asian countries.

Combative Practices

Political and social policies have always provided support to those who need it. However, recent years have been more optimistic towards a more renal secured Southeast Asia. One country that has doubled down on this matter has been Thailand. In the past decade, Thailand has created three new national kidney foundations. The kidney foundations work through direct financial and medical support to those most in need and politicians to secure a poverty-ending medical support policy for those at risk and suffer from chronic kidney disease.

Some are working on the introduction of a renal replacement therapy policy within Southeast Asia today, with help from the International Society of Nephrology. The society is holding various forums to work with the Southeast Asian governments for more inclusive policies.

Malaysia and the Philippines both have two national kidney foundations to educate and secure funds needs for renal therapy and medical support. Consequently, the increase of chronic kidney patients has increased the demand for dialysis nurses and doctors.

Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore are receiving public-private partnerships in supporting renal therapy and medical support. The acknowledgment of policies that allow further funding from private organizations and liberal implementations of new policies would also trigger community involvement, drafting a new healthcare system with the inclusion of kidney care to combating the rise of kidney disease in Southeast Asia.

Conclusion

Chronic kidney disease has been dismantling families and hitting poverty-stricken communities the hardest. Southeast Asian communities have followed a pattern in renal disease medical needs. Millions of people with and without preexisting conditions are at risk. But, Southeast Asia can become a much more healthy and prosperous place for those who suffer from chronic renal disease. Combating kidney disease in Southeast Asia will continue to be an uphill battle. However, the next generation of policy for a healthier healthcare program will usher in a new era of kidney care for those most at risk in Southeast Asia.

Mario Perales
Photo: Flickr

HIV/AIDS in Israel
With the marvels of medical technology, medical professionals can now cure most infections and diseases with a combination of treatments and pharmaceutical drugs. However, it is challenging for them to treat some viruses still. Amongst the stubborn viruses that still elude the medical communities’ ability is the HIV/AIDS virus, a diagnosis that for too many means the end of living a normal life. The effects of HIV/AIDS in Israel have been profound and COVID-19 may worsen the situation.

The Effects of HIV/AIDS in Israel

Following the first case of AIDS in the 1980s, the world bore witness to an epidemic that swept the globe in an unprecedented manner. From 1981 to 2010, Israel reported nearly 10,000 cases, with around 7,000 of them still ongoing in the country. People living with HIV/AIDS in Israel fall into some of the most vulnerable groups in society. This includes injecting drug users and immigrants. Israeli immigrants, often from countries like Sudan, China and Eritrea, often face obstacles receiving treatment for AIDS. While testing is free, the pathway to HIV/AIDs drugs remains expensive and out of reach for many. This creates a socioeconomic divide on who has access to treatment and who does not. According to a report by the Israeli Task Force, many immigrants are unaware of their access to free testing.

COVID-19 Compounding Consequences

Since the beginning, nation-states have strived to mitigate the effects of the HIV/AIDS virus on their populations. Communities most at risk often face marginalization and are disproportionately at risk of poverty. The COVID-19 pandemic has halted services to help these groups. This has caused many to fall into poverty. The Health Ministry of Israel worries that poverty and food and housing insecurity will rise due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In addition, the Health Ministry of Israel is collaborating with other government sectors to create and strengthen initiatives to fight HIV/AIDS. For example, needle exchange programs, homeless shelters and meals all function as efforts to combat the effects of HIV/AIDS in Israel. Health officials in these programs are now essential as the government prepares for a rise in cases.

The Good News

As a result, Israel is taking steps in the right direction to fight HIV/AIDS. Within society, a conservative outlook on sex and the religious practice of circumcision keep the numbers relatively low. In addition regional cooperation inside of Israel with IGOs like the UN and WHO have made workshops and collaboration with Israeli NGOs and the Jerusalem AIDS Project. Israeli researchers are some of the world’s foremost pioneers and drivers of HIV/AIDS vaccine research and in 2019 introduced a ‘mosaic’ vaccine that identifies and responds to more variant strains of the HIV virus. Though HIV/AIDS is still a prevalent issue, Israel is making great strides in combating the virus.

– Alex Pinamang
Photo: Flickr