Sustainable Development Policy in Monaco

The principality of Monaco borders France on the Mediterranean Sea and draws tourists because of its casino and pleasant climate. It is 0.8 square miles and is the most densely populated country in the world and the second smallest after Vatican City. Immigrants comprise 55 percent of the total population. Tourism, banking, consumer products and much more are vital to the economy as it welcomes wealthy vacationers and residents. With the influx of people, Monaco wants to ensure economic sustainability and high quality of life while continuing to attract investors.

While Monaco is a well-established country, some of its current concerns include “managing industrial growth and tourism, environmental concerns and maintaining the quality of life.” To combat these issues, the government has created a sustainable development policy in Monaco. The plan includes reducing greenhouse gases and the effects of climate change, creating soft mobility in the city and providing aid to impoverished countries.

During the 2015 United Nations Climate Conference, Monaco announced its target of reducing greenhouse gases by 50 percent by 2030, which is about 20 percent more than the figure announced at the 2009 conference. This sustainable development policy in Monaco works together with the principality’s soft mobility initiative to “reduce traffic in the neighborhoods…whilst maintaining the development of business activity, in a space shared by all.” Monaco is also working to improve the service of city transportation and provide price incentives for drivers, buses and public parking.

The initiative of mobility is not the only aspect of the sustainable development policy in Monaco. They have also developed five flagship programs, some of which include fighting against sickle-cell disease, supporting vulnerable and street children and controlling pandemics such as malaria and HIV/AIDS. These programs are a part of the overall sustainable development policy in Monaco and support “more than 130 projects in 12 countries, primarily least developed countries (Madagascar, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mauritania, Senegal et Burundi).”

There have been great strides in moving forward with the sustainable development policy in Monaco, not just to improve their citizens’ quality of life, but the lives of children, women, the disabled, refugees and other vulnerable groups. This policy can be of benefit to millions in developing countries and a model for other nations.

Jennifer Lightle

Photo: Flickr

Monaco poverty rateHome to millionaires, a renowned casino and a prestigious Formula One Grand Prix, Monaco claims another headlining reality: the Monaco poverty rate is zero.

In order for any country to have a zero percent poverty rate, there must be zero percent of the population living under the international poverty line of U.S. $1.25 a day. So, why is the Monaco poverty rate zero? This feat is not accomplished easily; it is a combination of ideal conditions that have propelled Monaco to achieve its flawless poverty rate.

The Principality of Monaco is situated in the west of Europe along the French Riviera and bordered by France and the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco is aptly named a principality because its monarch takes the title of prince or princess. The current Prince of Monaco is Prince Albert III, who continues the Grimaldi family reign of more than 700 years.

This country is known for its beautiful surroundings and coastline, which helps draw a wealthy population, but its size plays an important role in the economy as well. Monaco is the second-smallest country in the world, after the Vatican City. It is a tiny two-square kilometers in size and the most densely-populated country in the world.

The number of residents this country can support is limited and its picturesque landscape draws people from around the world. Monaco is home to 30,645 residents. Only 16 percent of the residents are Monegasque (natives of Monaco), the majority is French and the rest come from nearby countries and outside. While Monaco’s size tightens the population, its economic strength adds additional incentives for residents.

Monaco’s current economy was strengthened by the historic decisions of Prince Charles III, known as the founder of Monte Carlo. Charles III ensured Monaco’s economic strength by taking advantage of gambling laws to build the Socièté des Bains de Mer, a company of a few hotels, a theater and a casino in 1863. The Monte Carlo casino became the most famous of these assets.

When gambling was banned elsewhere, the casino became a vacation of choice for the worlds wealthy, drawing in thousands of tourists. Charles the III also forged an agreement with France to install the first railroad across the principality as infrastructure to support the growing tourism market. Charles III attracted additional foreign investments when he established a zero income tax.

Why is the Monaco poverty rate zero? Tax incentives, location and the international popularity of Monte Carlo secured Monaco’s popularity with the wealthy and ignited the country’s tourism industry. Today, one-third of Monaco’s population makes more than $1 million to the point that Monaco’s GNI per capita is $186,080, the highest in the world.

Interestingly much of the working class in Monaco does not actually live there. Daily, more than 30,000 French and 5,800 Italian nationals travel to Monaco to work. This lends to the enormity of the private sector industries, which account for 86 percent of the labor force in Monaco. Monaco has developed into a destination for research centers, and 22 percent of the labor force works in scientific and technical activities, including administration and support services. The tourism industry accounts for 11 percent of the country’s economy, and the gaming industry 4 percent. The prince also guarantees all of the residents life-long employment, so there is nearly zero unemployment.

Monaco has the ideal combination of geographic, economic and residential dynamics to allow and support a zero percent poverty rate. The size of the country limits the amount of habitable space the country can offer and the landscape and world-renowned events like the Grand Prix give rise to millionaire inhabitants. The fiscal qualifications for residents in Monaco are set by the real estate prices while tax incentives provide a desirable buffer. Monaco builds its wealth on the investment of the worlds wealthy and maintains it through value-added tax revenues from established businesses. These factors have propelled Monaco’s reputation as the land of the millionaires and give insight into the Monaco poverty rate being zero.

Eliza Gresh

Photo: Pixabay

According to the U.S. Department of State’s 2015 human rights report, there have been no recent outstanding abuses of human rights in Monaco.

The country is governed by a sovereign prince, and legislative acts are conducted by the prince and the popularly elected National Council. Elections in 2013 were accepted by international organizations as free and fair.

Despite meeting its commitment to the protection of citizens human rights, there continues to be some pressure to further protect human rights in Monaco in the following areas:

In 2015, the Department of State reported instances of prisoner mistreatment in the country. There is one single detention center in Monaco, in which detainees have been reported to not be given enough time in the sunlight and outdoor exercise. Monaco’s government has allowed independent human rights observers, such as the Council of Europe’s European Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT), to continue to monitor the situation. The CPT regularly schedules visits to the detention center.

Additionally, much can still be done to strengthen human rights in Monaco, especially for children and people with disabilities, which the council of Europe’s commissioner for human rights acknowledged after his visit to Monaco at the beginning of the year.

The Office of the High Commissioner, which was created for the protection of rights, liberties and for mediation, was urged to strengthen the legislation against all forms of discrimination in general. For example, Monaco is still in the process of ratifying the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Other issues on the horizon for human rights in Monaco include the recent passing of a law on the preservation of national security. The law allows for Monaco authorities to undertake administrative surveillance using voice recordings. Since the enactment of this law in 2016, the Monaco police can monitor anybody presenting a threat or suspected of organized crime and terrorism.

The commissioner for human rights emphasized the use of effective democratic control when it comes to security surveillance during his visit. With proper legislation, the already good record of human rights in Monaco can only continue to improve in the future.

Melanie Snyder

Photo: Flickr

Common Diseases in Monaco

Monaco is best known as one of Europe’s microstates and a favorite destination of the wealthy. Like any country, there are common diseases in Monaco, but the good news is that they do not have much of an effect on the population’s health or longevity.

Travelers to Europe may not think they are in danger of contracting diseases, but it is entirely possible. Depending on what activities tourists participate in, according to the Centers for Disease Control, Monaco presents risks of Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and rabies. Hepatitis A is transmitted via contaminated food and water, whereas Hepatitis B is contracted through sexual contact or contaminated needles and blood products. Rabies, spread by bats in Monaco, is rare, but possible. Tourists who may be in areas with bats, or wildlife professionals who may be in close contact with them should get vaccinated for rabies.

Some of the more common diseases among residents of Monaco include various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Monaco is an extremely healthy country. Residents benefit from the Monaco Health Screening Centre, established as a preventative health resource. The most common cancers in Monaco are breast and bowel cancer. Monaco is confident that vaccinating for cervical cancer, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), along with screening will lead to the eradication of the disease. The Centre also screens for osteoporosis, breast cancer and HIV. The majority of patients who come to the Centre for breast cancer screenings are proactive in doing regular breast exams on their own.

Because there is considerable wealth in Monaco, it is no surprise that the average life expectancy is 89.73 years. Rich countries have more money to spend on healthcare. Preventative measures go a long way in catching serious diseases and illnesses which might lead to death if not detected early.

Cardiovascular disease also exists in Monaco, with 114 deaths per 100,000 people. Monaco ranks 188 out of 189 in this regard, with Japan having the lowest number of deaths from cardiovascular disease. Common diseases in Monaco are similar to other developed countries, but because of early screenings and other preventative measures, those illnesses are not as much of a threat.

Gloria Diaz

Photo: Google

Hunger in MonacoAlthough Monaco is one of the smallest countries in the world, second to the Vatican, it has the highest per capita GDP. The rich flock to Monaco because of the lack of income tax, events such as the Grand Prix and the luxurious lifestyle. It follows that the rate of hunger in Monaco is very low.

This does not mean that hunger is off the radar in Monaco. In fact, Monaco is globally known as a nation helping in the fight against hunger. The leaders in this fight are the nearly 6,000 students that make up the country’s education system. The students work in collaboration with the World Food Programme (WFP), a humanitarian organization working to end worldwide hunger. Thus far, they have raised thousands of dollars and millions of grains of rice to feed the world’s hungry. They do this through a trivia game.

Freerice is an online trivia game by the WFP that both educates the students of Monaco on the issue of world hunger and provides rice to those that need it. It has become the equivalent of a “national sport” in Monaco, with students raising over a million grains of rice in a period of fewer than six months.

“Freerice offers the perfect blend of humanitarian and educational. The Directorate for Education is pleased to engage our students in the fight against hunger, a pressing issue of our time and a priority for the Monegasque government,” Ms. Muriel Bubbio explained in an article by the WFP. “We strongly believe that learning about other countries and continents such as Africa and Asia requires understanding on global issues such as hunger and how one can contribute to addressing these challenges at an individual, local and national level,” she noted.

This is certainly important in an age in which the world is more interconnected through technology than ever before, and what is even better is it is effective.

In November 2011 alone, the student community in Monaco raised over 8,000 euros for the children in Kenya affected by the Horn of Africa crisis through a bake and trinket sale.

More recently, Monaco attended the 40th Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. in Rome. It was represented by H.E. Mr. Robert Fillon, Monaco’s Ambassador to Italy and the Principality’s Permanent Representative to the Food and Agriculture Organization; Elisabeth Lanteri-Minet, Director of International Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and Martine Garcia-Mascarenhas, Second Secretary at the Embassy of Monaco in Rome. Overall, the conference focused on climate change, sustainable agriculture, food security, hunger and nutrition.

Monaco’s attendance at the conference shows its continued commitment to hunger worldwide, despite the fact that hunger in Monaco is not very common.

Sydney Roeder

Photo: Flickr

top diseases in Monaco
Monaco already is making records with the highest life expectancy in the world. The average expectancy is 90 years old, which crushes the average worldwide life expectancy of 72. Monaco has a very small population, coming in at 37,731 in 2015. There aren’t many of the top diseases in Monaco that aren’t seen around the world, yet communicable diseases are coming in very low at just 6%. Non-communicable deaths account for 86% of the total number of fatalities in the country.

Non-communicable deaths account for the vast majority of the deaths and diseases in Monaco. Just more than a quarter of all non-communicable deaths are people under the age of 60. Just about 17% of males die before reaching the age of 60, while females are sitting at about 8.5%.

The top two of the top diseases in Monaco are cardiovascular diseases at 33% and the various cancers at 28% of total deaths in Monaco. These are both on the higher end of both of these spectrums as compared to the rest of the world. Cancers, especially, usually have a lower proportional mortality percentage. The treatment and care for those that are stricken with these diseases are very good in Monaco thus contributing to its very high life expectancy.

Injuries and other communicable diseases make up just 14% of the diseases in Monaco. It is fairly common for communicable diseases to be very low around the world in each country.

The only two risk factors that were stated in 2008 by the World Health Organization were physical inactivity and tobacco use. This is a good trend with the majority of the other risk factors not existent among the citizens of Monaco.

Monaco is a fairly safe area to travel to with the majority of the country in the higher income group and better off than most of the world. Just routine vaccinations should be enough before leaving.

Monaco is a country with a lot of wealth and resources to be able to take care of those that are in need. The life expectancy is not all that surprising when looking at the resources at hand to help those that need it.

Brendin Axtman

Photo: Flickr

Inside France, right off the coast of the Mediterranean Sea lies the small city-state of Monaco. With just about 38,000 people inhabiting an area less than one square mile, it is the second smallest country in the world. Though Monaco is no bigger than a typical city, the education in Monaco is widely available — as the literacy rate in the country sits at 99 percent.

There are six state-run preschools and elementary schools, a middle school, a high school, and a technical and hotel school. As for private schools — there are two, an elementary school and high school.

The lower level education in Monaco is plentiful, as well as the higher level education. There are three established institutions within the country. These institutions include — a Nursing Training Institute, the University of Monaco, and the Monaco Art School.

The University of Monaco was established in 1986 and is particularly distinguished for its Masters of Business Administration program. Their MBA has ranked as 91 in The Economist’s Top Full-Time MBA Programs. They were also ranked 4 out of 5 stars by Eduniversal Business School Rankings.

In Monaco schools, English is taught from the age of three. This is vital as the classes at the University of Monaco are taught in English. According to Hello Monaco — the leading news and information site on education in Monaco — religion is also taught in schools, though parents have the right to opt their children out of these lessons. The history and language of the land are taught as well.

The education in Monaco also offers a variety of scholarships and grants. The scholarships include study grants, foreign language development grants, and subsidies for school lunches. The subsidy is intended to help pupils’ parents or legal guardians with the cost of school meals. Though in order to obtain this subsidy, the parents need to be either widowed, divorced, be employed, or have at least three children living at home.

The education in Monoca is established and continues to offer its youth a variety of options to cultivate their future.

Vicente Vera

Photo: Flickr