Water Services to the Poor
Water services to the poor are severely lacking around the globe. The World Health Organization estimates that 2.1 billion people lack access to safely managed drinking water services. Moreover, more than twice as many people lack safe sanitation. Consequently, 361,000 children less than the age of five die from diarrhea, every year. Of the people who do not have safely managed water, 844 million do not even have basic drinking water services. These conditions compel 263 million people to collect water from sources far from home — a process that takes over 30 minutes per trip. A further 159 million people still drink untreated water from surface water sources, such as streams or lakes.

At the current pace, the world will fall short of meeting the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal (U.N. SDG) of universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. Accelerating efforts to meet this goal will cost as much as $166 billion per year for capital expenditures alone. It seems that to achieve this U.N. SDG, something must change and soon.

A New Funding Approach

Private finance could play an important role in expanding access to improved, reliable water services to the poor. However, most providers that serve the poor are not privately financeable in their present state and will continue to require subsidies. Hence, development assistance and philanthropic funds are of utmost importance to protect the global poor.

A global funding model, known as a conceptual Global Water Access Fund (GWAF), has been established in other sectors to raise additional funds for targeted interventions. It pools resources in a way that provides incentives for access and utility performance for poor households.

This method is tried and tested. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, received $15 billion in pledges and yielded a net increase in funding. Unitaid, an organization that accelerates access to high-quality drugs and diagnostics in developing countries, generated more than $1 billion through a levy on airline tickets.

Investments in the poor are often perceived as having low or even negative returns. Therefore, pro-poor utilities face challenges entering financial markets. This also explains why profitable utilities are hesitant to expand their services to the global poor. GWAF changes this by bridging the funding gap and placing pro-poor utilities in stronger positions to attract capital for further service investments.

Making Individual Change

Though funding seems like a larger issue, there are ways for individuals to support clean water for all. Many nonprofits focus on bringing clean water services to the poor. Here are three organizations that are dedicated to the proliferation of clean water services to the world’s poor.

3 Nonprofits Tackling Global Water Services for the Poor

  1. Pure Water for the World works in Central American and Caribbean communities. The organization aims to provide children and families with the tools and education to develop sustainable water, hygiene and sanitation solutions. They directly connect fundraising dollars with impact, which immediately helps potential supporters see how their donation or peer-to-peer fundraising campaign will make a difference for the people they serve.
  2. Blood:Water is another nonprofit that works to bring clean water and HIV/AIDS support to over 1 million people. They partner with African grassroots organizations to make a change in 11 countries. Blood:Water works to provide technical, financial and organizational support to grassroots organizations. In this vein, they aim to help strengthen their effectiveness in their areas of operation.
  3. Drop in the Bucket’s mission is another organization that works towards water sanitation. They build wells and sanitation systems at schools throughout sub-Saharan Africa, enabling youth to fully harness the life-changing power of education. They teach the importance of clean water, hands and living spaces. Furthermore, the organization encourages girls to go to school, instead of spending hours fetching water.

Remaining on Track

Although sustainable development goals seem a difficult achievement to reach, innovative techniques such as GWAF and individual efforts through donations take steps in the right direction in ensuring water services to the poor. With nonprofit organizations such as the aforementioned as well as assistance from international organizations and governments like, there is still hope in reaching the U.N. SDGs.

Elizabeth Qiao
Photo: Pixabay

Clean Water in Rwanda
On January 10, 2020, Zeke Delgado journeyed down a narrow dirt road to a rural Rwandan village, two hours from the capital city of Kigali. Delgado had visited the village of Ngenda once before. This time, he sought to improve access to clean water in Rwanda by building a $25,000 well.

Jean Hajabakiga acts as a liaison between U.S. native Delgado and the isolated African village. Following the Rwandan genocide of 1994, Hajabakiga relocated to Canada for several years before returning to his home country to mitigate extreme poverty. In 2017, Hajabakiga visited Twain Harte, California to share his story with Revive Warehouse Ministries, where he motivated Delgado to join a handful of other men on their first mission trip to Ngenda.

Challenges to Accessing Clean Water in Rwanda

Beyond spreading the Christian gospel, the mission trip aimed to promote clean water in Rwanda. In an exclusive interview with The Borgen Project, Delgado elaborated on the logistical barriers to sanitary drinking water. He explained that “It takes two to three hours to get water from a creek near the village. The water that they do get [from the creek] is dirty, and it’s difficult to burn out the bacteria by boiling it.”

The challenges regarding water access in Ngenda exist throughout the country. According to UNICEF, 43% of the Rwandan population lacks access to clean water within 30 minutes of their home. Consequently, children give up critical time in school to gather water for their families.

Beyond logistical problems, Delgado observed how contaminated water gives way to other complications related to health. He recounted, “Because of the dirty water, the kids’ stomachs were full of amoebas and parasites.” In fact, on a global scale, the World Health Organization (WHO) traces nearly half a million diarrhea-related deaths to unsanitary drinking water. It can also spread diseases such as cholera, typhoid and polio.

Removing Barriers to Sanitary Water

In 2018, Hajabakiga led his team in constructing a roof on his church that caught approximately 30,000 gallons of rainwater annually. The roof water proved beneficial to the villagers’ health and resolved the need to drink from the distant, contaminated creek. Yet, because the roof relied on rain, dry spells limited the consistency of a clean water supply.

In 2009, the Rwandan government confirmed the issue with climate-dependent water sources. The Rwanda State of Environment and Outlook Report state that “people’s livelihoods are vulnerable to climate variability,” especially in situations where water resources depend on rainfall.

Thus, Hajabakiga compelled his American missionaries to return to Rwanda in 2020 to drill a village well. The well enabled the installation of several toilets, eight showers and a steady source of drinkable water.

The Positive Impact of the Water Well

Delgado celebrates the success of the completed effort, asserting, “Water is life. That’s number one. If you don’t have water, you can’t live. With running water, they have access to showers, toilets, and clean water that improves overall hygiene.”

Though Rwanda continues to suffer from widespread poverty and limited water supplies, small-scale efforts by passionate individuals like Delgado and Hajabakiga offer sustainable solutions. In Delgado’s words, “It’s amazing that for $25,000 you can save so many lives.” He hopes to return to Ngenda every other year to continue promoting access to clean water in Rwanda.

– Maya Gonzales
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

ice stupasIn the mountain desert of Ladakh, a region located in Northern India, water has long been a valued and scarce resource. Ladakh is located in the Himalayas with a base elevation of roughly 8,000 feet and peaks reaching over 25,000 feet. Ladakhis rely almost entirely on glacial and permafrost melt for water. However, in recent years, due to rapidly receding glaciers, water shortages in Ladakh have become more severe. In years to come, experts expect this problem to worsen. Despite this issue, Ladakhis continue to innovate and adapt to the harsh and changing climate. Ice stupas are one example of this innovation.

Melting Glaciers Causing Spring Water Shortages

Water shortages in Ladakh are worst in the springtime, when farmers, who make up roughly 80% of the Ladakhi population, need to sow their fields. During the spring, glacial streams have not begun to flow yet since most glaciers are located higher in the mountains where temperatures are lower. As glaciers continue to recede, streams start flowing later and the water shortages of spring become longer and more damaging. The later farmers have to wait to start sowing their fields, the lower their yields and profits become.

Ladakhis have highly organized water management systems that have been developed over thousands of years. They primarily rely on mud canals and dams to distribute and store water as well as strict water usage rules to ensure water is used efficiently. These systems have been successful in Ladakh for generations but have proven to be insufficient in handling the changing climate.

Storing Winter Water in Ice Reservoirs

Observing the intensifying water shortages in Ladakh, Chewang Norphel, a local civil engineer, set out to design a method of storing water during the winter so that it could be used in the spring. There are many stories of Ladakhis creating man-made ice structures to store water, but many were inefficient, and there were no scientific methods to the practice. Norphel created his first artificial glacier in 1986 by creating a series of embankments along a stream that slow the water and create shallow pools just a few inches deep to ensure the water freezes. Built in October, these ice reservoirs collect and store water that would otherwise be wasted throughout the winter months. In the spring, they begin to melt, providing water for farmers that need it for irrigation.

Since creating his first artificial glacier in 1986, Norphel has created 16 more artificial glaciers. Sonam Wangchuk, inspired by Norphel’s artificial glaciers, put together a team in the fall of 2013 to create an improved ice reservoir. Wangchuk and his team developed a prototype for the ice stupa, a large cone of ice that can store more water and melts slower than Norphel’s design. When the small-scale prototype provided water well into May, Wangchuk knew they had discovered an important solution.

Ice stupas, named after the Buddhist structures that are built to house sacred relics, can be complex projects to build but work based on simple concepts. Water runs through an underground pipe from higher elevation down to the site of the ice stupa where, due to natural water pressure, it rises up through a vertical pipe without any pump. The water sprays out of a sprinkler at the top of the pipe and freezes as it falls onto a conical shape of branches. The conical shape gives the ice stupas a large advantage over Norphel’s artificial glaciers, as direct sunlight hits less surface area, meaning that the stupas melt slower and provide water for longer. Throughout the winter, this water freezes into huge cones of ice that can reach 30 to 50 meters high.

Each of these ice stupas can store millions of liters of water, enough to support farmers through the crucial spring months until the summer when glacial streams start flowing. Many of the ice stupa projects to date have been designed to support poplar and willow tree fields, which are two of the most profitable crops to grow in the area and require large amounts of water.

A More Comprehensive Solution

As the glaciers continue to recede, the need for ice stupas and other innovative water management solutions will only keep increasing. Darren Clark, a member of the ice stupa project from 2014 to 2019, says the ice stupas have benefited communities and are important symbols that alert Ladakhis of the changing climate and increased water shortages. Many Ladakhis were skeptical of the ice stupa projects initially, but, as spring water shortages in Ladakh continue to worsen, ice stupas are becoming more essential each year.

Clark sees ice stupas as just part of the solution for the future of water management in Ladakh. He would like to see improved water infrastructure and plumbing systems that can collect more meltwater throughout the year and distribute it more efficiently. One system could create ice stupas in the winter months and act as regular water distribution throughout the spring, summer and fall. Clark views such a system as an essential adaptation for Ladakhis in future years as snowpacks continue to diminish and glaciers recede.

Issues of water shortages in high mountain deserts are a growing problem in mountain communities everywhere. Clark has helped design and build similar ice stupa systems in Peru and Switzerland and is currently in the process of writing a book on how improved water management systems could benefit high mountain desert communities around the world. With millions of people living in mountain deserts relying primarily on glacial melt for water, improved water management systems — including ice stupas — will be an essential part of combating climate change in years to come.

– William Dormer
Photo: Flickr

Water Insecurity in KosovoThe World Bank has secured aid for Kosovo to help the country’s water security efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic. On June 10, 2020, the World Bank approved a budget of $27.4 million to invest in aid to address water insecurity in Kosovo. The new “Kosovo Fostering and Leveraging Opportunities for Water Security Program,” implemented nationwide, will reach struggling regions within the country, such as Morava e Binces — the driest area of all.

COVID-19 and Water Security

In a statement from the World Bank, the manager for Kosovo, Marco Mantovanelli, stated that addressing Kosovo’s water crisis is even more important during the COVID-19 pandemic. Access (or lack thereof) to clean water for drinking and sanitation has a direct impact on the COVID-19 crisis. The World Bank representative described clean water as an “essential barrier to preventing virus spread and protecting human health from COVID-19 and similar diseases.”

The World Resources Institute (WRI) reports that hand washing is one of the primary combatants against a disease like COVID-19. Additionally, both water management and security impact the spread of a disease like COVID-19. Without proper storage, water shortages occur and people have limited access to water for sanitation. Water management (pollution control and distribution) directly impacts the quality and quantity of water accessible  to the population. WRI reports that improving both domestic and industrial water waste treatments improves water quality and helps improve issues related to water use for sanitation and health.

Water in Kosovo

Kosovo’s water crisis is only worsened by the virus as the crisis existed before the COVID-19 pandemic. The issues of water pollution are rooted in Kosovo even from when it was a province in the former Yugoslavia. It was the most polluted province then and now, a majority of the Kosovo municipalities have no form of treatment plants for wastewater. Additionally, the World Bank reports that Kosovo has the lowest water storage level in the region — as well as high pollution levels.

The new water security plan will address some key issues in water security. These issues include management of resources, water storage, addressing natural disasters and their impacts, dam safety, updating equipment and facilities and general emergency preparedness.

The Impact on Struggling Regions in Kosovo

While the entire country will benefit from the plan, the strategy will specifically benefit the driest region in Kosovo — Morava e Binces. Morava e Binces has had significant problems with water access for its civilian population. The region has suffered greatly with water access interruptions. Some of these interruptions last hundreds of days. However, with the implementation of the new plan, the World Bank estimates 190,000 people will be positively impacted in the Morava e Binces region alone.

The World Bank’s approved aid will begin work on installing new and updated equipment, replan the water storage processes, and make additional renovations to dam maintenance and safety. This aid program is an essential step in ending water insecurity in Kosovo. While the COVID-19 pandemic has complicated an already existing, water security problem within Kosovo, government initiatives are a good, forward step.

Kiahna Stephens
Photo: Pixabay

Water Crisis in UgandaWater is a necessity for all living beings, and access to safe water is a basic human right. Despite the world’s experiencing exponential growth in all areas with advances in science and technology, 663 million people are without access to clean water. The country of Uganda is no exception: 51% of Ugandans are in need of safe water resources. This lack of clean water affects the health of the Ugandan people, their productivity and their economy. Here are some of the realities everyone needs to know about the water crisis in Uganda.

The Current State

Currently, 21 million Ugandans lack access to safe water. One in nine people lack quality water and have no alternative to dirty, contaminated water sources. The stress of economic growth over the last two decades put an enormous strain on the land and its resources. Up to three-quarters of the surface water in Uganda is polluted, making it unsuitable for consumption. With no other choice but to drink contaminated water, people are often too sick to work or attend school.

Human waste, soil sediments, fertilizers and mud all run into drinking water sources due to the widespread absence of proper toilets and showers. Additionally, the lack of adequate filtration systems and the loss of vegetation, which acts as a natural filtration system, creates dirty water that leads to various health problems. 144 million Ugandans are still collecting water directly from these rivers, lakes, and other surface water sources. According to the World Health Organization, over 3,000 small children die a year from diarrhea in Uganda. Other waterborne diseases include hepatitis A, dysentery, typhoid and cholera.

The water crisis in Uganda also makes 40%  of Ugandans travel more than 60 minutes to access safe drinking water. Some travel up to three hours a day, without a guarantee of finding water. Excess time spent on water provision hinders people’s ability to work, maintain the household and take care of children.

Initiatives for a Better Future

Many initiatives are underway to address the water crisis in Uganda and the problems it has created. For example, in 2013, Water.org launched its WaterCredit solution, which has led growth for water and sanitation loans. This initiative has reached 259,000 people and disbursed $10.3 million in loans, helping to create long-term solutions to the water crisis in Uganda.

Another program addressing water in Uganda is the Uganda Women’s Water Initiative, which transforms contaminated water into clean and drinkable water for school children. Over 300 women in Gomba, Uganda were trained to build rainwater harvesting tanks and Biosand filters. The simple filter consists of layers of rock, sand and gravel that remove 99% of bacteria from water. Funded by Aveda and GreenGrants, this initiative also conducts programs about hygiene and sanitation to support these women. Thanks to this program, school children are safe from typhoid and diarrhea that could keep them sick and out of school. Remarkably, Gomba saw a reduction of school absences by nearly two-thirds thanks to filters and harvesting tanks.

Additional projects that focus on drilling new boreholes in barren areas and repairing existing boreholes help relieve long travel times for water. Generosity.org has concentrated on rehabilitating boreholes by working closely with the District Water Departments of communities in need. Generosity.org also aided in the development of water user committees, which create an infrastructure to ensure the boreholes are maintained and cleaned through fee collection. Its work aims to achieve the sustainability of these boreholes for the future, putting an end to the water crisis in Uganda.

Looking Forward

Ugandan leaders have recognized that water is a basic human right and understand that better water and sanitation systems are critical for a healthy society and a stronger economy. The Ugandan government now aims to have clean water and improved sanitation for everyone by 2030. Uganda plans to reach this goal by investing in quality water infrastructures, which involves restoring and maintaining clean water sources as well as promoting hygiene and investing in sanitation facilities. The organizations that are providing loans for wells, restoring boreholes and creating filtration devices are helping realize this ambitious goal. This focus on making clean and safe water available to everyone is critical. Without water, there is no life.

Tara Hudson
Photo: Pixabay

water shortage in Peru
While Peruvian infrastructure continues to improve, unequal access to safe drinking water remains a prominent issue affecting up to 5 million citizens — or a staggering 15% of the country’s population. The government recognizes that to properly tackle the pressing issue of water security, the crisis of water shortage in Peru must be addressed. This matter is particularly important in the capital, Lima, one of the world’s largest desert cities where 1.5 million citizens lack running water. Moreover, the city only receives nine millimeters of rain a year.

Peru’s Water Crisis

The government has made the goal to reach and offer all marginalized urban hotspots in need of water, such as Lima, public drinking services by 2021. Significant strides have been made since 2016 under both the Kuczynski and Vizcarra administrations. However, with 9% of its foreign investment now allocated to water and sanitation, the government also recognizes that public-private partnerships are key toward making significant strides to increase water supply. International sustainability NGO, The Nature Conservancy, has played a major role in combating the water shortage in Peru through its innovative water projects.

The Nature Conservancy

Amunas, water systems utilized in pre-Incan times, maximized the total amount of rainfall that could be used as drinking water. Given the increasingly challenging circumstances concerning Lima’s water supply, ranging from urbanization to climate change — in 2019, The Nature Conservancy decided to bring back this means of hydric regulation. The end-goal with this initiative is to alleviate the city’s distressing, water situation. Alongside the Caterpillar Foundation, NGO members are essentially building canals that funnel rain (during floods) into mountains — rather than have the rain undergo the natural processes of evaporation. Water will gradually surface in springs —an imperative for water distribution during Lima’s dry seasons. This effectively addresses the water shortage in Peru.

The amunas recovery project is taking place in the upper Rimac River Watershed, arguably Lima’s most important water supply. Given an increased amount of water within the soil, it has already resulted in the recuperation of 25 hectares of natural grasslands. Farmers located throughout the greater Lima area have therefore benefited greatly from this endeavor.

NGO and Government Partnership

As part of a new water utility effort in Lima called “Aquafondo,” The Nature Conservancy is working in conjunction with the Peruvian government to plan and develop an efficient tariff structure, funding infrastructure projects. The conservancy projects that, by 2025, $25 million will be directed toward critical hydrological services — addressing key issues such as the region’s adaptation to climate change. In addition to Aquafondo, the conservancy is organizing water funds in the Peruvian cities Piura and Cusco, both of which are also located in desert-like areas.

A Pivotal Role Going Forward

While the water shortage in Peru remains a security crisis that can impact the economic and personal development of millions of citizens — environmental organizations such as The Nature Conservancy play a pivotal role. These organizations ensure water access for marginalized populations who have a great need for it. The Nature Conservancy’s international efforts, ranging from improved infrastructure throughout Latin America to restoring wetlands in India, symbolize a greater effort toward water justice among powerful non-state parties.

– Breana Stanski
Photo: Flickr

Poverty Innovations
Since the 1990s, world leaders have made tremendous progress in their efforts to unite and lead the fight against world poverty. However, poverty remains a prominent issue worldwide. Only five countries have achieved the goal of allocating one percent or more of their federal budgets toward foreign aid. The United States is not among these countries, despite surpassing the next eight countries combined on military spending.

The Big Picture: Poverty Around the World

Statistics are useful indicators of how poverty affects certain regions, but to further understand global poverty, it is also important to explore the living conditions for individuals under the poverty line. Lack of clean water, sanitation and nutrition leads to harsh living conditions for poverty victims, rendering them vulnerable to disease and malnutrition. In some parts of the world, children march on their feet for hours a day to locate and bring back drinking water.

Funds allocated to underprivileged areas can massively improve conditions for people living in poverty. For example, funding can be used to improve education, which leads to higher levels of self-sufficiency and reliance. Beyond funding, aid can also come in the form of poverty innovations — technology or other creative inventions that bring resources to those in need. Here are five poverty innovations designed to help the world’s poor.

5 Impactful Poverty Innovations

  1. LifeStraw: Access to clean water is vital to alleviating poverty and improving living conditions. Not only is clean water important for drinking, but it can also be used for bathing, washing clothes and performing general sanitation. One in nine people worldwide — 785 million people — lack access to safe water. LifeStraw is a portable water filter that turns contaminated water into safe drinking water. It does not require any batteries, and it uses a hollow fiber membrane. 3.4 million children have received a year’s supply of drinking water through a program organized by the company.
  2. KickStart Irrigation Pumps: A majority (80%) of Africa’s poor are small-scale farmers. These farmers frequently go hungry during periods of drought. KickStart offers tools such as the MoneyMaker Max, an irrigation pump that sprays 16 gallons of water a minute and pulls from water up to 23 feet deep. KickStart has sold nearly 350,000 products so far.
  3. Plumpy’nut: This is a therapeutic food supplement that helps children with severe malnutrition. More specifically, it’s a calorically-dense and nutritious paste wrapped in a foil packet. The paste is made of peanuts, as the name suggests. It’s easily replicable and responsible for “significantly lowering mortality rates during famines in Africa.” Products like Plumpy’nut have the potential to save children’s lives in particularly poor parts of the world.
  4. Life Sack: Another tool aimed at solving the world’s water crisis, Life Sack is a shipping container that can be used to hold grains. Once the food is stored, Life Sack functions as a water purification kit that is powered by solar energy.
  5. The Hippo Roller: This invention addresses the problem of carrying water. The Hippo Water Roller eliminates the need to carry water, instead allowing individuals to push a barrel filled with water. By the end of 2015, 46,000 Hippo rollers were provided to communities across at least 20 countries.

The fight to end global poverty requires not only financial support from wealthy nations but also innovations that improve the living conditions of the world’s poor. While the innovations listed above improve water collection, irrigation and nutrition for poor individuals, increasingly creative inventions will be necessary to eradicate poverty across the globe.

Fahad Saad
Photo: Pixabay

 Cape Town Water Crisis
Cape Town, South Africa’s legislative capital, has a population of about four million, which is nearly 8% of the entire South African population. South Africa has been successful in cultivating a democratic country, but it has a persistent inequity issue. In 2015, the bottom 60% of the country only held 7% of South Africa’s net wealth. Although more than 55% of South Africans live below the poverty line, 93% of black South Africans live in poverty. Cape Town, although not exempt from issues of inequity, is a thriving metropolis to South Africa. When the Cape Town water crisis rose to a peak in 2017, it became imperative for the city to make some serious changes before they ran out of water completely. Here is how Cape Town recovered from its devastating water shortage and a look at where the city is today.

How the Crisis Began

Cape Town has long been praised for its award-winning water management achievements and efficient use of the city’s six largest reservoirs, which can hold up to 230 billion gallons of water. The city was well aware of the impending climate changes and took measures to decrease overall water consumption.

Despite their efforts, Cape Town neglected to factor in the steady decreases in annual rainfall. This oversight was minor at the time and the city’s reservoirs were full in 2014. However, a sudden three-year-long drought drained the reservoirs to only 26% capacity by 2017. The city declared they would shut municipal water taps off when they reached 13.5% capacity.

City Measures

The term “Day Zero” became the name for the day that water taps would be shut off city-wide, essentially the day Cape Town would officially run out of water. With Day Zero looming and reservoirs draining, the city and its residents sprung into action to avoid the ultimate Cape Town water crisis.

At the beginning of 2017, the average city resident used 600 liters per day. City officials lowered that daily limit to 50 liters per day. To put that number into perspective, the average Californian used 321 liters of water per day during the 2016 drought. If a household went above that 50 liter limit, it faced hefty fines and a meter installation to shut off the water automatically once it exceeded the daily limit. The city also implemented severe quotas for agricultural and commercial institutions.

Residents Doing Their Part

The Cape Town water crisis could not have been averted if not for innovative action from the residents themselves. People began to recycle shower and washing machine water as well as limit toilet flushes to once a day. Farmers diverted their water supply away from their own farms for the city to use. Swimming pools and lawns were no longer essentials and residents no longer used water for such amenities. Social media played a key role as well by being a platform to share advice with a large audience. Local restaurants and bars started competitions to see who could refrain from washing their clothes the longest. The combination of these efforts is what saved the 4 million people from ever having to experience Day Zero.

The Role of Poverty

Although the Cape Town water crisis affected the entire city, it hit some residents much harder than others. South Africa is already a country known for its inequity issues, and the water crisis exacerbated that fact. Wealthy residents found ways to get around the restrictions by hiring companies to dig $6,000 wells for them, buying large amounts of drinkable water at inflated prices, and even installing filtration systems to make groundwater drinkable. Poor residents, on the other hand, were at the mercy of the city and had to sacrifice buying food to be able to buy water.

Where is Cape Town Today?

Cape Town finally experienced an average rainy season in January 2018, allowing the city to postpone the arrival of Day Zero indefinitely. After the immediate crisis had been averted, the city began planning for ocean water desalination and groundwater extraction as backup water sources. These are more long-term solutions, but they present issues of their own such as the affordability of such intense installations and the impact on local ecosystems.

Limits on water usage have been loosened slightly; however, they still exist and are strictly enforced. This continues to negatively impact the city’s poorest residents. Perhaps the most helpful action taken since the crisis has been the weekly reports on dam capacities. As of July 2020, all the dams are holding steady at around 80% capacity.

Although the Cape Town water crisis never fully culminated in a citywide water shutoff, the impact of the event still resonates with the poor. Moving forward, efforts need to be made to ensure equal water access for all residents.

Natalie Tarbox
Photo: Flickr

Fight Global Poverty With These 5 Innovations

Now more than ever, technology is working hard to help those living in poverty. Although there are many innovations, here are five unique innovations fighting global poverty.

5 Innovations Fighting Global Poverty

  1. Score Stove 2: An appliance called Score Stove 2 not only cooks food but also creates electrical energy through heat combustion, an electricity source that one can use to charge up to 12 batteries at a time. To reduce deforestation, the stove requires almost 50% less wood than conventional stoves. Its energy-saving design also minimizes smoke inhalation. This environmentally friendly stove is a unique solution to a traditional stove.
  2. Hippo Roller: The Hippo Roller can carry up to 90 liters of water at a time, an efficient tool for those who need to carry several gallons of water a day to provide for their families. People can also use the Hippo Roller for irrigating crops, cleaning and cooking. Currently, 51 countries are using this appliance. It has supplied about 60,000 people with efficient water transportation. This innovation is a simple solution working to combat the water crisis and fight global poverty.
  3. LifeStraw: The LifeStraw also tackles the global water crisis, filtering and removing bacteria or parasites from water sources for those who do not have access to clean water. The LifeStraw has an unlimited shelf life, is very durable and lightweight and is an essential survival tool. Inside the shell is a membrane microfilter that remains effective for up to 1,000 gallons, or 4,000 liters, of water. The LifeStraw is now popular among hikers and backpackers. However, the original purpose of the LifeStraw was to help eradicate Guinea worms from water, making it safe to drink for those with limited access to clean water or healthcare.
  4. Life Saving Dot: Iodine bindis are saving lives in rural India as iodine deficiencies are a leading cause of brain damage and anemia. This Life Saving Dot, which people can wear like a bindi, gives a daily dose of 150-220 micrograms a day to the wearer. While the founders of the company have worked to give many away for free, Life Saving Dots generally sell at a low price to low-income families. Global poverty and health directly relate, both acting as the cause and effect of the other. Technology like this is helping to stop this cycle.
  5. Tree Planting Drones: Tree-planting drones in Myanmar are restoring forests. Biocarbon Engineering and the Worldview International Foundation have teamed up to plant trees in empty fields. The drones first collect data about the fields and then determine what plants would best survive there. The drones allow the coverage of more land at a faster rate than if people planted the trees by hand. Environmental factors, such as deforestation, flooding and drought, directly affect communities. Forests supply clean air, water resources and wood to help maintain food security and wealthy communities.

These five innovations fighting global poverty show how technology can be a powerful tool for addressing global poverty. Just one of these innovations offers so much relief to those in need; imagine what might happen if everyone in poverty had access to these technologies.

Hannah Kaufman
Photo: Flickr

Water Crisis in Sudan
A major headline in 2012 as a result of South Sudan’s secession was the economic crisis facing Sudan after its oil revenue, which accounted for over half of the government’s revenue, sharply decreased. However, Sudan has also been facing an equally pressing water crisis that could adversely affect the country’s future for decades to come.

The current water crisis in Sudan has resulted in widespread water shortages and desertification, the process by which fertile land becomes too dry for agriculture. Ultimately, an International Fund For Agricultural Development (IFAD) report predicted that lower annual precipitation in combination with other environmental factors will significantly diminish land productivity in Sudan by 2050.

Water Scarcity and Poverty

Such a warning is especially important because about 65% of Sudan’s population lives in rural and agricultural areas, which produce almost 40% of the nation’s GDP. Additionally, poverty in these areas reaches upwards of 58% while water scarcity forces women and girls to abandon their jobs and school to find scarcely available water for domestic use. With women unable to work and girls not receiving an education, families earn less money and they have a smaller chance of improving their socio-economic status in the future. Therefore, it is clear that water plays a crucial role in Sudan’s economy and social development. This importance has made creating resilience to future crises in rural communities a national security priority for Sudan.

Urgent Global Aid

Most notably, Khartoum works with multilateral organizations such as the United Nations and the IFAD as well as countries like the United States to address the water crisis in Sudan. Such partnerships have led to the Agriculture Revival Programme in 2008, which has the goal of increasing rural citizens’ incomes and creating sustainable methods of natural resource use. Furthermore, the government implemented regulations like the Seed Act in 2010 to increase sustainable farming practices in the face of dwindling fertile lands. Sudan has demonstrated its commitment to solving its water scarcity issue through these multibillion-dollar projects. However, lots of work remains in order to eliminate the water scarcity, which has led to Sudan creating additional programs focusing on tackling water-related problems over the past few years.

Much like a pandemic, the most effective handling of the water crisis in Sudan will come through early investments and collective action. Without either of the former, water scarcity could grow exponentially and the damage could extend beyond the loss of lives today. As a result, the water crisis could extend to future generations, consequently exacerbating problems of poverty, migration and hunger in Sudan for decades to come.

What Now?

Sudan currently has the ability to create sustainable solutions before its water crisis becomes an unforgiving catastrophe — a point at which Khartoum will only be able to do damage control. Substantial progress in alleviating the water crisis in Sudan has already occurred thanks to partnerships with multilateral bodies and NGOs, as well as initiatives from Sudan’s government that encourage sustainable agricultural lifestyles. Ultimately, through pursuing further policies and strategic partnerships that reduce water scarcity in the long-run, Sudan should be able to bolster its economy and protect its citizens from poverty.

Alex Berman
Photo: Flickr