delivery appsWhen China was at the peak of its COVID-19 outbreak, unexpected lockdowns affected well over 700 million people. Hundreds of thousands of these people grew anxious and engaged in panic buying, leaving essential stores depleted. Many people suffered from a lack of necessary supplies as a result. However, within days, supplies from all around the world began flowing into China. In order to comply with lockdown measures, many people turned to digital delivery apps to continue receiving their basic necessities.

Efficient Delivery

Despite its new uses during the pandemic, delivery technology is not a new concept in China. In fact, China has one of the most efficient delivery systems in the world. While other globally renowned companies, such as the U.S.-based e-commerce platform Amazon, pride themselves on rapid, two-day delivery, China’s home delivery apps can be at your door within minutes.

These digital delivery platforms, better known as wai mai xiao ge (which directly translates to “takeaway lad”), have flourished throughout the country. Whether users need to order takeout, groceries or even a portable phone charger, these delivery apps can do it within minutes. Though these platforms were originally seen as a convenient method to receive goods, they soon turned into a vital lifeline after China enacted stay-at-home measures during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Creating Jobs

Besides aiding those at home in need of essential goods, wai mai platforms have also greatly benefitted the deliverers themselves. Meituan Waimai, one of the most prominent on-demand delivery companies in China, created over 336,000 jobs for wai mai drivers as the coronavirus surged. These new jobs were vital opportunities for those who lost their primary source of income during the crisis.

Zhang Shuai, a 24-year-old delivery driver from Zhengzhou in Henan province, works in Shanghai, one of the largest and wealthiest cities in China. Shuai signed up to work with Meituan Waimai when COVID-19 cases began to grow because it was too difficult to find any other job. However, his delivery job with Meituan Waimai now provides him with $1,400 per month, a wage that is higher than the average urban salary in Shanghai.

Many workers from remote, rural villages also use these jobs with delivery apps as an opportunity to move to more urbanized cities and establish a less regimented life for themselves. While living in the village, many people from rural China worked in factories that often required a specialized skill set and a peer who could provide a recommendation for them. However, the same workers can get hired as a deliverer in a metropolitan city soon after verifying their identity and credentials. Once hired, they can receive better pay than what factory work would provide.

The Future of Meituan Waimai

As the pandemic continues, home delivery systems also continue to grow with it. Prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, Meituan Waimai was a $46 billion business. However, within the last few months, it has reached a record high at $100 billion amid the virus and is projected to continue growing from there, providing more job opportunities as it does so.

– Heather Law
Photo: Pexels

homelessness in taiwanHomelessness is a pervasive problem in all parts of the world, even in places that seem as technologically advanced as Taiwan. While Taiwan has made headlines for its fast-growing economy, its government has been stringent with social safety nets, providing little help or resources to their homeless population. The fact that homelessness in Taiwan is a problem at all is surprising. Taiwan has one of the lowest poverty rates in the world and a high rate of homeownership; almost 85% of households in Taiwan own their homes.

Even still, Taiwan does have a homeless problem, especially in the capital city of Taipei. While there are homeless shelters, most of them are privately funded and have long waiting lists to get in. But the major problem facing homeless people in Taiwan isn’t access to housing, it’s access to stable employment. With this in mind, local groups within Taipei have been creating innovative strategies to help the homeless within the city, which contains the majority of Taiwan’s homeless population. Here are some important facts about homelessness in Taiwan, as well as the creative solutions being proposed to help the homeless get off of the streets.

Demographics

The homeless are often under-counted. While almost 9,300 people were reported as homeless in 2017 (almost double the number reported in 2013) this statistic may not be completely accurate. As long as a person’s family has some form of housing, they would not be considered homeless even if they are currently sleeping on the streets. Without accurate data, the government and other organizations can not properly address the problem of homelessness in Taiwan.

Taiwan’s homeless tend to be elderly, male, blue-collar workers. The exporting of production-line jobs to China, combined with Taiwan’s increased housing prices, has caused many factory workers to lose their jobs and become homeless. The majority of the workforce was men over 50, who are now the majority of the homeless in Taiwan. While the average age of homeless people in Taiwan is 55, they usually have only received an elementary school education, making it hard for them to find employment.

Causes

Low birth rates contribute to homelessness in Taiwan. Wages are stagnant while prices increase, making it harder for people to afford to have children in Taiwan. This decrease in birth rates has led to an older population, which in turn leads to elderly people getting abandoned due to the lack of resources within a family.

There is a stereotype against the homeless. A common opinion among society in Taiwan is that homeless people are “naturally inclined” to become homeless, whether that be because they like to roam the streets or they simply dislike working. However, a 2013 study showed that 90% of homeless people were on the streets due to circumstances out of their control; long-term unemployment was cited as the number one reason for homelessness in Taiwan. In “Living Conditions of the Homeless in Taipei,” Shu-rong Li showed that almost 50% of people were homeless due to an inability to pay rent. Not only that, but landlords were more likely to deny renting to single men ages 55-65 because of concerns about their economic statuses.

There is not enough government housing in Taiwan. Only 3% of the total housing stock in Taiwan is publicly-funded government housing. Because of this, it can take up to seven years to get into public housing, whereas private housing is almost immediate. Private housing (outside of major cities) is the popular choice of homeless people who need a place to live.

Solutions

There are already groups working on the ground in Taipei to end homelessness in Taiwan. Their solutions usually center around helping the homeless get back into the workforce. The Homeless Taiwan Association provides just these opportunities: in the organization’s Hidden Taipei tours, they train and employ homeless people to give tours of the city. In its first year in 2015, the Hidden Taipei tours attracted almost 2,000 customers and received many favorable reviews.

Not only does the Homeless Taiwan Association employ homeless people, but the organization also works to provide shelter, social service, counseling, and legal aid to those on the streets. They say that the way forward to end homelessness in Taiwan is by helping the homeless become self-sufficient, changing the stigma around homelessness and enhancing the public understanding of poverty.

– Hannah Daniel
Photo: Pixabay

Zambia's Mining IndustryThanks to the abundance of mineral deposits in Zambia, investors have continued to flock to the country in spite of the pandemic-fueled economic downturn in many parts of the world. By deeming gold a critical mineral, the government is actively expanding Zambia’s mining industry by mandating that Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines Investment Holdings PLC (ZCCM-IH), a mining consortium, “drive the gold national agenda.”

Productive Mining Partnerships

Zambia’s government is a major investor in ZCCM-IH. Array Metals and ZCCM-IH have formed a partnership through Consolidated Gold Company Zambia (CGCZ). Array Metals determined that the venture will immediately generate local employment for 300 people. Mining is expected to commence sometime in June 2020 and will lead to another increase in employment. The establishment of new and competing mining firms will be beneficial for Zambia by encouraging a rise in gold production, increasing the national GDP and creating new opportunities for local employment.

Potential Profits from Gold Mining

With an approximation of 16,500 pounds of gold (around $400 million in value) within gold ore in Mumbwa, Zambia, continued investments in the Republic of Zambia are indicative of an economically auspicious future for the country. The gold mine is situated in Central Province, Zambia, and had been shut down for years before exploratory studies revealed the previously undiscovered resources within.

Roughly $2.5 million in capital has been devoted to the beginning portion of the project alone, with CGCZ aiming for an initial yield of 3 metric tons of gold (about $150 million in value).

How Zambia is Improving the Local Gold Mining Industry

According to CGCZ’s CEO Faisal Keer, “CGCZ is partnering with various small-scale gold miners in the country by providing mining technical expertise, and providing access to earthmoving machinery and gold processing lines to kick-start and boost their gold production.”

Since the majority of local miners mine through the process of gold panning, one focus of another partnership between ZCCM-IH and Karma Mining Services is to improve Zambia’s local gold mining efficiency. While CGCZ is only operating in the Mumbwa and Rufunsa districts of Zambia, there are more than 60 sites for gold mining. Local miners have also partnered with other foreign investors.

Although there is no official documentation, some have profited off illegally mining and smuggling gold out of Zambia. The government’s newfound focus on Zambia’s local gold mining has the perk of bringing lawfulness to a previously unformalized industry. In that spirit, the “government has given artisanal miners gold panning certificates to legalize their alluvial or riverbed gold mining activities.”

By supplying licensed miners with machinery, equipment, and knowledge about the industry through ZCCM-IH and CGCZ, Zambians are encouraged to participate in Zambia’s local gold mining. The formalizing of the gold mining industry will benefit more than Zambia, for it will enable licensed miners and locals to “reap the benefits of the assets under Zambian soil.”

Carlos Williams
Photo: Flickr

Poverty in Honduras
Honduras is a large, scenic country located in Central America with a population of nearly 10 million people. Historically, its abundance of natural resources has staked it as a vigorous player in many international economic industries, namely agriculture and mining. The country has also grown in many statistical categories; its population, global rank and GDP growth rate have increased steadily in the last five years. Ostensibly, Honduras has a strong foundation for economic prosperity, which should be encouraging for all of its citizens and leaders. However, a closer examination reveals that these improvements mask poverty issues that the country continues to struggle with. This struggle leads to poor quality of life for the average citizen of Honduras. Here is some information about poverty in Honduras.

Economic Problems

The main problems that cause poverty in Honduras are wealth distribution and low income. These issues impact an alarmingly high percentage of the country’s population. According to the World Bank, about 48% of the population lives below the poverty line, which includes over 60% in rural areas. Urban areas exhibit a lower percentage of impoverished citizens, but it remains high among global standards. Honduras frequently ranks high globally on the GINI index, which calculates the level of economic disparity among classes, and hosts a diminutive middle class, making up a mere 11% of the population.

Employment rates are dismal as well, with unemployment/underemployment around 40% as of 2015. Underemployment manifests itself in two different ways: when a person is working a job not commensurate with their skills due to a lack of opportunity (invisible) and when a person is working insufficient hours at a job or receives insufficient pay to support their family (visible). An example of invisible underemployment is a local man who has the requisite talent and education to be a lawyer. A scarcity of opportunity in his area leads him to a mining job that pays less and is much more physically grueling. Underemployment is rampant in Honduras and contributes to a working-class that has low morale and scarce opportunity to excel in their field of choice.

Other Factors Affecting the Economy

Violence is the largest internal factor in punctuating the nation’s economic problems. Honduras is among the deadliest countries in the world, according to the World Bank. The high rates of homicide and violence are detrimental in many ways including how they impact education. According to a U.N. agency report, more than 200,000 children stopped attending school between 2014 and 2017, due to the prevalence of gang violence in and around the school environment. The report also gathered that teachers were the third-most displaced group between 2016 and 2017. The Honduras government documented 83 murdered teachers between 2009 and 2014. Additionally, there were over 1,500 student deaths due to gang violence between 2010 and 2018. The expansion of gang culture makes education secondary to survival. This problem has stunted the system for years, translating to a lack of skilled labor and vibrant industry.

Another antecedent to structural poverty in Honduras is political instability. The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Report labeled Honduras as a hybrid regime, which is where a country holds elections that are susceptible to voter fraud and manipulation. As recent as 2017, the country endured an election crisis that led to nationwide unrest, rioting and dissension on the premise of suspicion that the voting had been rigged. Tenuous leadership has let corruption run rampant, economic disparity worsen and access to food decline.

The Solution

Organizations such as Proyecto Mirador and CARE/Cargill are working diligently to quell poverty in Honduras. The former is a project that provides stove-building jobs for families. This initiative creates an easy and profitable venture for lower-class people who have no other options. Its website reports that builders have constructed and installed over 185,000 stoves in Honduras. Meanwhile, CARE and Cargill partnered in 2008 to create an initiative that supports women in agriculture, both nutritionally and economically. The program is investing $10 million over three years in Village Savings and Loan Associations. It also employs advocacy strategies designed to ignite agricultural policy change that benefits the lower-class farmer. The partnership originated in Honduras and has now expanded to reach 10 countries in total, directly impacting nearly half a million people as of 2018.

The United States has intervened in many Central American countries to mitigate gang violence with Project GREAT, a police-taught gang violence prevention program. The program aims to teach young people how to avoid gang life and to repair the fractured relationships that many of these communities have with local law enforcement. Project GREAT gathered 87,000 student participants in 2017, hoping to breed a sense of optimism among the young community. By doing so, Project GREAT seeks to dissolve the presence of gangs in the future.

Beating poverty in Honduras requires systemic change initiated from the top. It takes resources, both internal and external, to silence gang culture, restore safe education and uproot government corruption. Once the lower-class of Hondurans begins to escape the cycle of poverty, that is when economic industries will begin to thrive. The future of Honduras relies on the viability and strength of its youthful working-class.

Camden Gilreath
Photo: Unsplash

Renewable Energy in Taiwan
Renewable energy in Taiwan has not always been a priority. However, in recent years, more companies and businesses are starting to push renewable resources to the forefront. This is having a huge effect on both the economy and international relations. By investing in these renewable resources rather than importing fossil fuels, Taiwan will become more self-reliant. Here are five facts about renewable energy in Taiwan.

5 Facts About Renewable Energy in Taiwan

  1. Oil still supplies 48 percent of energy to the country. Renewable energy in Taiwan is not as popular as in Brazil, where renewable energy supplies more than two-thirds of the country with power. However, Taiwan has begun to shift its focus towards more renewable resources. Diversifying fuel sources has advantages. By being able to harness solar and wind power, Taiwan can depend on its own nation for power rather than importing coal from other parts of the world. Currently, Taiwan imports 98 percent of all of its non-renewable energy. Adding locally sourced solar and wind power could help create jobs, adding to the domestic economy.
  2. Taiwan is investing $1 trillion into renewable energy. This investment, which will take place over the next several years, should make Taiwan one of Asia’s greenest countries. The money will go towards building solar panels, wind panels and green roofing. Additionally, the government will spend some of the funds on denuclearizing Taiwan. The Taiwanese government reports this will create at least 20,000 new jobs while increasing the overall amount of renewable energy powering the country by 20 percent.
  3. Renewable energy in Taiwan is a major focus over the next few years. With the new trillion-dollar investment, Taiwan will begin a new era prioritizing renewable resources. By the end of 2020, Taiwan will add an additional 2.2 GW of solar power nationally. By the end of 2025, Taiwan should continue growing and supply approximately 20 GW of solar power. The plan is to build the solar panels on rooftops and in agricultural areas. Around 1,000 hectares of farmland will redevelop into a solar farm to boost the overall renewable energy in the nation.
  4. Taiwan has a Green Bond System. Starting in 2013, the Green Bond System has been helping Taiwanese businesses raise funds for their environmentally-friendly products. Many different types of projects can use the Green Bond System. Some examples are projects related to climate change, renewable energy, environmental protection and carbon reduction. Denmark-headquartered wind energy company Ørsted used these green bonds to develop wind farms in Taiwan. This helps to create new jobs by funding businesses that may not receive financial assistance otherwise.
  5. Renewable energy solutions are helping to reduce poverty. By increasing access to renewable energy, Taiwan should continue increasing the overall national employment rate, which will lower the poverty rate. While the exact number of new employment opportunities is unknown, the Taiwanese government has assured the population that jobs will continue to grow with the renewable energy sector. There will also be opportunities for data engineers, machine learning scientists, data scientists and many business marketing jobs. A report from 2019 showed that there is a 12 percent increase in the technology sector for jobs relating to renewable energy. The data also points out that after just 12 months in a job, many employees receive a 15 percent salary increase.

Renewable energy is proving to be a very promising sector in Taiwan. It is providing new jobs to citizens and improving the overall way of life. By creating its own renewable energy, Taiwan is quickly becoming a more self-reliant and resilient country. With this continued focus, the nation will generate more opportunities for its citizens while helping to fight climate change.

– Asha Swann
Photo: Flickr

The Evolution of Brain Drain in Developing Countries  The impact of establishing systems of education on the economies of developing countries and the well-being of its citizens are without question; education allows for higher-paying, skilled jobs to enter the market, it promotes gender equality among children and it has positive effects on the health of those children who go to school. A phenomenon that has stemmed from an increasingly globalized world is brain drain, which is the migration of educated and qualified people to countries with job opportunities better suited to their skill level, higher standards of living and higher rates of technological progress. Here is some information about brain drain in developing countries.

Brain Drain in Developing Countries

Brain drain in developing countries is a proven difficult hurdle for governments to overcome, and the effects of globalization have redefined what brain drain entails for countries such as India and Pakistan. The issue with this movement of intellect and skills lies in the fact that oftentimes, foreign-born workers and students in developed countries rarely return to their countries of origin, and they do not put the knowledge they obtain back into developing economies and development programs.

Why Does Brain Drain Happen?

One of the major causes of the phenomenon is the greater rates of technological advancement in developed countries compared to those in the developing world. Many developing countries have established education programs and continue to do so, but funding for research opportunities and investments in the scientific sector is lacking. For example, in 2000 there were 836,780 immigrants from India to the United States, with 668,055 of them having received tertiary education. These people tend to stay and work in the countries they migrated to. Brain drain does not only affect jobs in technical fields. Ten percent of teachers and people in academia are foreign-born, with 6 percent of them from developing countries.

Brain drain in developing countries produces more immigrants to countries such as the United States, and the theory suggests that the knowledge they obtain in a foreign country remains there and fails to make its way back to their country of origin.

As economies and education become more dependent on technological advancement, the circulation of foreign-born workers becomes increasingly important to globalization. An inverse effect of globalization as the world becomes increasingly aware of other countries’ international influence is the expansion of technological and scientific programs at a much faster rate in developed countries. One can see this in those nations with existing programs, funding and infrastructure to support technological advancements as opposed to those that do not.

The Future of Brain Drain

At the heart of the discussion of brain drain lies a necessity for a better understanding of how globalization affects perceptions of brain drain and its implications for education and employment in developing countries. Despite the negative effects of brain drain in developing countries, good things come from it too. An increase in attention from governments to education, incentives for developing countries to invest in the development of skilled jobs and globalization brings greater mobility and intellectual circulation that enhances the knowledge of the general population. The circulation of knowledge allows for an exchange of intellect between countries, improving relations and promoting understanding of different cultures. Brain linkage creates an opportunity for increased technological advancement when foreign-born workers interact with their home countries, furthering transnational connections. The understanding of brain drain in developing countries has shifted to allow for more positive mindsets surrounding brain circulation to allow for poor countries to experience the benefits of globalization.

Jessica Ball
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Guayaki’s ethical business
Yerba mate is a plant native to South America that has properties similar to caffeinated plants. People can use the leaves in a similar manner to tea leaves which steep in hot water to diffuse the taste and desired properties of the plant. In addition to the physical effects of mate, the plant has cultural significance in South American folklore. People originally discovered it in modern-day Paraguay and Southern Brazil where the natives dubbed it an herb “from the gods.” The natives imbibed it to boost physical and mental stamina, and they used it for medicinal purposes and in religious ceremonies to worship the gods. Today, Argentinians, Paraguayans and Brazilians drink it in a similar fashion to how Americans drink coffee. A couple of people can share a bowl of mate and have a chat or college students can drink it while studying for their exams. Guayaki’s ethical business produces yerba mate while giving back to its community.

Guayaki’s Business Model

Guayaki is one of the few companies that farms and sells yerba mate in the North American market. The company has established itself and its business model with respect to the native traditions people associate with mate, as well as through its efforts to promote sustainable and regenerative agricultural practices, indigenous culture resilience and ethical management and payment of its employees. Guayaki’s ethical business model focuses first and foremost on the well-being of its workers in conjunction with the environment. By 2020, Guayaki plans to restore 200,000 acres of rainforest and create 1,000 living wage jobs.

To start, Guayaki grows its mate plants in their natural state, in the shade of the dense jungle. The workers then come and harvest only the leaves and young stems by hand to make sure the plant continues to grow. They do this because modern agricultural practices may cause the original taste to deteriorate. Moreover, growing the mate in this way also guarantees that the operations put off the least amount of emissions possible.

Clean Living

In addition to simply farming sustainably, Guayaki’s ethical business practices not only meet the standards of Fair for Life and Non-GMO certifications, but they also help promote the biodiversity of the rainforest and create a carbon sink for emissions. People farm the mate through multi strata agroforestry, which is the act of combining crops with the forest canopy and creating a carbon skin that draws carbon from the atmosphere and stores it in the leaves and soil. The company conducts all packaging actions and transportation methods with 100 percent renewable energy and does all packaging with recyclable and/or compostable resources. Through these efforts, Guayaki has created a net-zero carbon emissions business.

A Company for the Community

Guayaki’s ethical business model proves to be a frontrunner with regard to the treatment of employees. The company sources all of its mate from indigenous communities, mainly in Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. In contrast to the business model of many large corporations that buy the land from local farmers outright, Guayaki pays its farmers two to three times the amount that a large company would pay to buy the land in order to ensure they do not suffer exploitation in the long run while still benefiting in the short term. As of 2017, Guayaki created almost 900 jobs among local indigenous communities that pay a comfortable living wage to the producers.

Guayaki not only treats its workers well, but it also gives back to the communities where it operates. The company donates funds to improve infrastructure and build/upkeep schools. People can make donations through the Guayaki Foundation, which also encourages local communities to plant indigenous hardwood trees. It also teaches the methods of agroecology to school children in order to give them an education that will help them with their careers later in life and make their lives much more enjoyable and livable.

Through all of Guayaki’s ethical business practices, the company is helping protect the environment while also bringing neglected populations out of poverty and into not only a survivable life but a livable and enjoyable one. Through their benefits and teaching methods, Guayaki is making sure that the people will always have the means to support themselves in an ethical, comfortable way for years to come.

Graham Gordon
Photo: Flickr

Traditional Food and Poverty
While China boasts the world’s second-largest economy and a growing number of billionaires, the country’s impoverished population continues to suffer. Although the national poverty rate fell from 10.2 percent in 2012 to 3.1 percent in 2017, China still estimated that over 16 million rural people were living below the poverty line in 2019.

The Chinese government, under the leader Xi Jinping, has made great strides in poverty reduction. A major goal is to eliminate extreme poverty in China by 2020. Efforts to aid the country’s poor include planning for road and housing construction in rural areas, as well as education. This is mainly because rural areas are home to most of China’s poor population. One practice occurring in the Gansu province of China adopts a less traditional approach. Here, traditional food and poverty link in a way that aims to help the rural poor.

The Gansu Province

The Gansu Province is a rural area in northwestern China and home to about 26 million people. Gansu is predominantly an agricultural area, yet frequent earthquakes, droughts and famines have strained the area’s agricultural output and economy.

Poverty is a significant issue that faces the residents of Gansu, but the Chinese government is taking note. Local authorities have been combating poverty from all angles. They recently adopted a rather unconventional approach to fight economic concerns. The local Gansu province authorities plan to teach residents how to make a traditional Chinese noodle dish from scratch.

Lanzhou Beef Noodles

Lanzhou beef noodles get their name from the province’s capital city and are a traditional and famous meal that people eat widely across China. Making the dish from scratch involves the combination of flour and water to create the chewy noodles. The noodles also include clear broth, beef, cilantro, green onions and chili oil.

Gansu government officials announced in 2019 that they planned to teach as many as 15,000 impoverished people how to make these noodles from scratch in an effort to reduce poverty in rural areas. This practice has two main focuses— teach residents how to cook a cheap, traditional and hearty meal and then use this knowledge to facilitate employment. Employment could be through an established noodle shop in the area or by opening their own shop.

Traditional Food and Poverty

While the noodle initiative in the Gansu Province may seem unorthodox, similar programs have occurred in other parts of China. Noodles, in all different varieties, have long been a vital part of cultures around the world. The names of different noodles often even mark certain historical persons or events. Noodles also serve as a way to commemorate specific events in one’s life, such as a birthday or a new year in other cultures.

Additionally, the link between traditional food and poverty is one that is gaining increasing attention as the world examines the nuances of poverty. One study on the traditional “poverty cuisines” of Arab food in Israel, connects the act of cooking and consuming these meals to empowerment in the face of adversity. This study alleges that food choices can allow autonomy and room for preservation and creation of identity.

In examining the link between traditional food and poverty, opportunities for both economic and ideological growth arise. The noodle-making efforts in the Gansu province and across China are a strong example of how food can influence social change. Speaking about the efforts to teach noodle-making in China, NPR reporter Yuhan Xu updated an old proverb, stating “Give a man a bowl of noodles and you feed him for a day; teach a man how to make noodles and you feed him for a lifetime.” Let this new proverb be one that people consider in the fight against global poverty.

Elizabeth Reece Baker
Photo: Pixabay

5 Consequences of Not Having Access to Education
Growing up, many individuals assume that education is unlimited and that everyone has easy access; however, not receiving a proper education can have a major impact on an individual. Across the world, more than 72 million children are not able to gain access to an adequate education. In addition, almost 759 million adults remain illiterate. Part of this includes a lack of awareness to pursue an education. Further, many people who do have access to education typically take it for granted when many children cannot. It is important to understand the value of learning and the potential repercussions without it. Here are five consequences of not having access to education.

5 Consequences of Not Having Access to Education

  1. Lack of Representation. First and foremost, not receiving an education can have major consequences on an individual’s voice. It can hinder the development of the skills necessary to represent oneself. This is further evident through the continuing oppression of women in developing countries. These women typically marry at a young age and must work at accomplishing domestic chores. In nations such as Saudi Arabia and Nigeria, many women without an education struggle to find jobs. Additionally, these women typically cannot read or write and often grow reliant on their husband’s income. In the end, the lack of access robs women of their potential. To add, gender disparity in youth literacy remains prevalent in almost one in five countries.

  2. Unemployment. In many nations, education often determines employability. These nations rely on well-educated workers to promote their economy and workforce. Employers also use these credentials to differentiate applicants and potential employees. Today, many organizations fighting this issue focus on educating the youth as approximately 71 million 15 to 24-year-olds do not have employment around the world. Without access to education, individuals are more prone to remain at the bottom of the list when it comes to obtaining a job. Even as little as a high school diploma can open up many opportunities for employment.

  3. Promotes Exploitation. Many individuals must resort to incredibly dangerous jobs just to make a living if they have limited education. Specifically, women and girls in developing countries often resort to various methods of exploitation to provide for themselves and their families. Education can provide secure work, but without it, people might have a difficult time getting ahead. Exploitation can include sweatshop labor, prostitution and child marriage.

  4. Difficulty Raising Children. Children often rely on their parents when it comes to their own education; however, it can be quite difficult for a parent to assist their child if they never had access to education. It is important to understand how the lack of education can have consequences on future generations. Uneducated parents face issues such as the inability to help children with their homework or not knowing how to help them find their full potential. According to the American Psychological Association, children of uneducated parents are typically behind their peers when it comes to cognitive development and literacy levels. The effects of this issue were evident in 2014 when approximately 61 million children of primary school age did not attend school.

  5. Poverty Trap. Ultimately, lacking access to a proper education puts an individual at risk of falling into the poverty trap. The poverty trap involves the inability to escape poverty due to a lack of resources. This can also lead to an intergenerational poverty gap, meaning children of those already in the trap are more likely to be at risk as well. Education provides the ability for one to access the knowledge necessary to make a living. Without it, it is difficult to escape the trap. According to the Brookings Institute study, each year of education provides an average 10 percent increase in wages.

In order to avoid these five consequences pf not having access to education, citizens around the world need to take action to increase access to education. Through advocacy and campaigns, there can be a change for the better. Once again, it is important to highlight the importance of education as it provides many opportunities for the future.

Srihita Adabala
Photo: Flickr

Solutions to Pollution
The solution to pollution is not an easy fix and many industrializing countries in the Global South are facing the challenge of mitigating pollution while continuing to sustain economic growth. Because of this, environmental degradation and pollution are common in developing countries, both of which have adverse effects on health and the economy. Environmental degradation is near-inevitable for developing countries, due to industrialization, agricultural herbicides and groundwater dumping. This leaves developing countries with the challenge of finding solutions to all of this pollution. Finding solutions to pollution has brought sustainable industry and trade to developing countries. Here are 5 examples of innovative ideas that are creating jobs and reducing pollution in industrializing countries.

Five Solutions to Pollution and Poverty

  1. Ghana’s Climate Innovation Centre: Ghana’s Climate Innovation Centre (GCIC) holds an annual competition that rewards entrepreneurs who develop products that counteract pollution. Since its launch in 2015, GCIC has supported 53 businesses, had 12 partnerships with entrepreneurs, awarded $772,435 in grants and created 117 jobs. The products sponsored by the GCIC are available to 170,000 households. The 2019 recipient of the Launchpad Competition was Sabon Sake, whose team invented soil supplements that will counter mineral erosion from pollution and increase the fertility of the soil.
  2. Alternative Energy Sources in India: Indoor and outdoor air pollution are the largest environmental health risk in the world. In India alone, indoor and outdoor air pollution was responsible for the death of 1.24 million individuals. The World Health Organization is proposing solutions to minimize health problems caused by air pollution. These changes are not large scale economic changes, but rather small changes — the WHO proposed a switch to non-coal stoves, a reduction in diesel transportation and a limitation on the burning of biofuels. Professor Ramanathan stated that such changes have empirically created jobs and increased the number of individuals eligible to work, thus bolstering the economy.
  3. International Trade and Access to Global Markets: When developing countries prioritize environmental protection, developed nations often increase trade in order to encourage sustainable economic growth. The green industry in developing countries not only provides a solution to pollution by decreasing non-renewable energy but also by increasing efficiency. The adoption of greener markets in developing countries created 3.5 million new jobs, increased access for developing countries to global markets and decreased annual energy costs.
  4. Clean Water Drives Growth: Water pollution due to chemical dumping, feces and trash is responsible for the death of 3.2 million children in developing countries annually. Clean water is an investment that affects not only mortality rates but also the economy. UNESCO estimates that investment in cleaning and sanitizing water in Africa — even on a small scale — would increase the GDP of Africa by 5 percent. A 5 percent increase in GDP would create jobs, trading opportunities and create new markets. Additionally, the investment in clean water would increase the number of jobs by opening water treatment facilities.
  5. Solar Market in Tunisia: In 2018, Tunisia began to transition to solar energy through its Plan Solaire Tunisien (PST), which is funded by the National Agency for Energy Management through various global investors, including the German Investment Bank. This project, which has decreased the need for dirty forms of energy, will contribute 10,000 jobs to the Tunisian economy. There has been resistance to the development of solar alternative powers, however, increasing the time-frame of power outage occurrences.

Although the perfect balance between economic development and environmental protection is difficult to achieve, industrializing countries are successfully transitioning their economies to accommodate environmentally friendly business practices. This has increased job availability, prevented deaths and directly benefited the poor in the Global South. Private markets, Foreign Direct Investment and government initiatives have all alleviated pollution in developing countries and successfully created jobs. These solutions to pollution have the ability to drive the Global South to a cleaner and more economically viable model for industrialization while reducing poverty.

– Denise Sprimont
Photo: USAID