humanitarian aid to Equatorial GuineaLocated in Central Africa, Equatorial Guinea is a small country that consists of the islands of Bioko and a mainland region where its largest city, Bata, resides. It has a population of about 1.2 million. Per capita, it is the richest country in Africa, with a GDP that ranks forty-third in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity.

However, this massive wealth is distributed unevenly, and while it may be one of the region’s most powerful oil producers, very few benefit from the oil riches. Its authoritarian government has a streak of terrible human rights abuses, such as human trafficking. Furthermore, because less than half of the population has access to clean drinking water, it often appears as if no significant changes are coming about from humanitarian aid to Equatorial Guinea.

However, this does not mean that there are no groups undertaking vast projects with hopes of improving the country. For example, in 2016 the African Development Bank Group approved a grant of $3.04 million to strengthen the economic connections of Central African countries. This project allowed the creation of a bridge over the Ntem river which will link Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. By reducing transport costs and times, it positively improves the economic ability and is a successful example of humanitarian aid to Equatorial Guinea.

Economic projects are a significant form of success in humanitarian aid to Equatorial Guinea. For example, in 2009 the African Development Bank Group signed a loan and grant agreement in the country worth up to $70 million. $40 million was used to finance a program to train young workers in middle and senior management in different regions.

With another $15 million, Equatorial Guinea supported the development of healthcare, which particularly benefited pregnant women and children under five years of age. By increasing productivity in all sectors, Equatorial Guinea hopes to improve economic growth which will hopefully improve human development and stability.

In 2006, another program, the Social Needs Fund, focused on addressing infrastructure for the poor. While resources may exist to alleviate poverty, there were few mechanisms to implement these resources. Funded by USAID, it assisted the government to improve social planning and investments, specifically for programs in the Ministry of Health, Education and Women’s Affairs. By focusing on different ministries, USAID was able to examine expenditures and monitor budgets to create more effective programs in each sector.

With continued efforts and foreign support, Equatorial Guinea continues to improve gradually. Development projects have helped push economic growth and have created a more stable and equal society in which the poor can navigate with greater ability.

– Nick McGuire

Photo: Flickr

Humanitarian aid to Montenegro
Humanitarian aid to Montenegro has been extremely helpful to the country’s growth, thanks in part to assistance from the United States Embassy in Montenegro and organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme. The country of Montenegro continues to grow and progress in positive ways with the help of the United States Embassy, as well as organizations such as the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).


The Role of the U.S. Embassy

The United States Embassy in Montenegro has been essential in giving humanitarian aid to Montenegro in the following ways:

  • The U.S. Embassy opened the Education U.S.A. Center which offers support to all those who would like to study in the U.S. Currently more than 120 Montenegrin students are studying at U.S. universities.
  • Since 2006, the U.S. Embassy supported almost 130 projects worth nearly $1.9 million to strengthen democracy and respect for human rights and to strengthen civil society in Montenegro.
  • Over the past 10 years, almost 400 Montenegrins experienced U.S. culture through one of the nation’s professional or educational exchange programs.
  • More than 50 American companies operate in Montenegro. The U.S. interest in doing business in Montenegro is constantly on the rise, especially after Montenegro’s invitation to join the NATO Alliance.
  • The top six U.S. investors have invested over $300 million in Montenegro since its independence. An additional $300 million of investment is in the pipeline from U.S. companies operating in the tourism, telecommunications and energy sectors.

The UNDP has also provided, and continue to provide, crucial humanitarian aid to Montenegro that helps the country in their economy and in the betterment of the overall livelihood of the Montenegro people.


The United Nations Development Program

The UNDP has a few different humanitarian aid projects in Montenegro that have been a great benefit to the country. One of their projects supports anti-discrimination and gender equality policies. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the protection, promotion and enforcement of human rights and equal opportunities in Montenegro. So far, the project has empowered female members of parliamentary political parties through the advancement of their knowledge and skills in the areas of gender equality and women’s political activism. The effort has also provided trainings that “aim to enhance political engagement of women.”



Another UNDP project in Montenegro is geared towards strengthening sustainability of protected areas. That project’s purpose is to develop institutional capacities to design, plan and manage a more representative system of protected areas. The project has already accomplished a few of its goals such as designing an environmental information system for the Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, helping improve legal framework for functioning of National Parks by supporting amendments to the Law on National Parks and supporting the establishment of educational programmes in protected area management and rural development, with emphases on financial planning and management of protected areas.


The World Bank

The World Bank also deserves a worthy mention in its provision of humanitarian aid to Montenegro. Last year, the organization approved a $14 million loan to Montenegro for the country’s Revenue Administration Reform Project. The objective of that project is to improve the effectiveness of operational functions of Montenegro’s Tax Administration and to reduce the compliance costs for corporate taxpayers.

With the continued assistance from the U.S. Embassy as well as the UNDP and the World Bank, Montenegro will continue to positively progress.

– Kennisha L. Crawford

Photo: Flickr

humanitarian aid to Cote d'IvoireCote d’Ivoire is known to be one of the more prosperous West African countries; its cocoa production and strong ties to France allow for widespread export and trade. However, as with many African nations, Cote d’Ivoire is also known for its recent political upheaval.

In the early 2000s, a military coup took place which resulted in Laurent Gbagbo obtaining office, instigating a civil war between government supporters and dissidents in the region. With this civil war beginning, Cote d’Ivoire’s import/export business faltered, and with the economic and political unrest in the region, the success of humanitarian aid to Cote d’Ivoire has yet to fully be understood.

In terms of positive outcomes, the most obvious success of humanitarian aid to Cote d’Ivoire is the recent completion of the United Nations’ peacekeeping mission in the region. On June 30, 2017, the U.N. successfully removed peacekeeping forces from Cote d’Ivoire. According to a brief which took place on February 8, 2017, the U.N. considered the peacekeeping efforts an overwhelming success.

Included in the list of positive impacts the U.N. made in the region are revised legislative elections, a re-drafted constitution that improves the quality of life for women and children and a dramatic decrease in the amount of human rights violations taking place in the area. The U.N.’s peacekeeping efforts have truly worked to stabilize the country.

Another source of success in humanitarian aid to Cote d’Ivoire is the growth of nonprofit work in the region. In 2014 and 2015 Ebola broke out in West Africa. With the effects of political unrest still plaguing the country, aid and access to medical care and Ebola preventatives were hindered. The European Commission has addressed this issue by allocating more than €119 million to Cote d’Ivoire to aid in the recovery process after the disease swept the nation.

Similarly, the rate of maternal mortality in Cote d’Ivoire is a cause for concern. According to the EC, there are several humanitarian projects working within the country, such as a hospital in the Tonkpi region offering more overarching services for new mothers and their children, including infant vaccinations, postpartum follow-ups and continued infant medical care, in an attempt to lower mortality rates.

The Partnership for Transition program through the EC has helped collect medical supplies to distribute to hospitals and clinics in Cote d’Ivoire. From 2012 to 2014, more than 26 cargo planes full of medical supplies flew to Cote d’Ivoire. In each plane were cesarean section kits, anesthesia kits and basic pharmaceutical supplies. These were distributed between 17 different regional clinics and have helped maintain the goal of free and accessible healthcare that the government desired.

The successes of humanitarian aid to Cote d’Ivoire that have been mentioned here do not even scratch the surface. Nonprofit organizations are helping to build food security, agricultural sustainability and civil services, and others within the nation are working to maintain a healthy and functioning government. While this aid will most likely remain necessary for the foreseeable future, Cote d’Ivoire has grown much more stable with the help of international humanitarian aid in both the social and the political arenas.

– Molly Atchison

Photo: Flickr aid to AngolaAngola is in southern Africa, bordered by Namibia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. As of today, Angola continues to suffer from the repercussions of a civil war that lasted more than three decades. The local economy and the infrastructure are inadequate and unstable, and the majority of people residing in Angola live in poverty, with difficulty sustaining their livelihoods. Their difficulties also include malnutrition, illiteracy, high infant mortality rates and a lack of healthcare and quality education. This is why it is essential to ensure the success of humanitarian aid to Angola.

People in Need (PiN) is an organization that has been supporting Angola for more than 10 years. PiN is a Czech nonprofit and non-governmental group that provides humanitarian assistance through long-term development projects as well as educational and human rights programs. Their mission to help Angola began with setting up aid in Bié, which was one of the provinces most affected by the war and destitution.

In the early stages of PiN’s humanitarian aid to Angola, they focused on restoring and improving elementary education, while also working on developing agricultural markets in more rural areas to help crop production and economic development. The most important goal for PiN is to enable the people of Angola to provide for themselves and take control of their livelihoods.

In September 2017, PiN began working in Huambo and Huíla. The focus in these provinces was to address health issues involving mothers and children, water access, nutrition and sanitation. In doing all of this, PiN has helped upwards of 875,000 people living in Angola. This includes helping 37,000 children escape malnutrition, building 14 schools and four centers for education, developing over 10,000 toilets and providing training and tools for more than 3,000 farmers. They are able to do this so efficiently because PiN involves the communities in all of their projects and also works with local authorities in Angola.

Not only does PiN help with long-term aid, they also work with Angola in emergency situations. A specific example includes providing sanitation, hygiene and drinking water for citizens in the north, where over 33,000 people are seeking refuge from ongoing violence in the bordering country of Congo.

One of the most important goals that PiN has had is to help local children gain access to a quality education. In addition to building new schools, PiN also focuses on giving the staff at the schools specialized training, which more than 1,850 teachers have participated in. Also, 25,000 teaching materials were distributed in order to better help the teachers give the children a quality education. And because a large portion of the adult population is illiterate, PiN also focuses on assisting that part of the population to reduce illiteracy. By implementing these tactics, PiN has taught around 450,000 children and 1,2000 illiterate adults to read, write and do basic mathematics.

This is just one example of successful humanitarian aid to Angola. Assistance like this is essential for nations like Angola to survive such harsh living conditions. PiN has helped thousands of children and adults have a better quality of life through better sanitation, education, agriculture and infrastructure. It is aid like this that allows people to thrive in difficult places.

– McCall Robison

Photo: Flickr

Humanitarian aid to Bulgaria
Bulgaria is a southeastern country in Europe bordered by Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, Turkey and the Black Sea. The nation’s neighboring countries have had refugee crises, and so numerous members of the refugee populations have trickled into Bulgaria for assistance; this influx has then contributed to Bulgaria’s own refugee crises and lack of resources. Due to this pressing issue, the success of humanitarian aid to Bulgaria is essential, especially in areas where refugees need urgent aid.


EU Provides Aid to Bulgaria’s Refugee Crisis

In 2013, the refugee crisis in Bulgaria reached exceptionally problematic levels. With the start of the still-ongoing Syrian civil war in 2011, refugees would often flee to European countries, including Bulgaria; the European Union (EU) then provided technical and financial assistance to help these countries manage their respective refugee situations. The purpose of this aid was to help refugees and provide them with protection.

This assistance included the gathering of a technical team to be dispatched to Bulgaria to build a State Agency for Refugees, which would make the refugee process more accurate and easily executed. This aid would additionally help speed up the process of granting refugee status.


Humanitarian Groups and Poland Send Aid to Bulgaria

In 2014, the refugee crisis was still in full effect; but thankfully, humanitarian groups and Poland stepped in to help. Urgent aid was distributed to the refugees located in shelters in Southern Bulgaria, and Poland provided 22 tons of clothing items and food at one of the largest refugee camps in Harmanli.

With Bulgaria being one of the European Union’s poorest nations ( 7.3 million inhabitants), Bulgaria was unprepared to deal with such a refugee crisis. Its asylum system was left extremely vulnerable, and out of 11,600 Syrian refugees, 60 percent of them were cramped into Bulgarian regions. So, the success of humanitarian aid to Bulgaria from humanitarian groups and Poland served as instrumental components in handling current crises.


The First Bulgarian Food Bank

One of the long-term projects that has served as a significant source of humanitarian aid for Bulgaria is the creation of the First Bulgarian Food Bank — an organization heavily organized by the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA). The project was started in 2011 and continues to be a long-term endeavor that still helps Bulgaria today. The Food Bank works as an organization as well as a foundation to create and implement humanitarian projects in Bulgaria; their main purpose is to distribute food to people in need.


Donations With Radically Important Impacts

The ADRA also has volunteers that help the organization distribute large amounts of food to multiple regions of Bulgaria. The people in these areas include struggling families, orphanages and nursing homes; in 2012, the ADRA opened a key distribution point in Sofia — the capital and largest city of Bulgaria. The ADRA provides people with disabilities as well as struggling citizens and elderly people with food depending on donated food levels. In 2013, ADRA helped the First Bulgarian Food Bank distribute 15 tons of food to the people of Bulgaria.

With poverty and refugee crises running rampant, the success of humanitarian aid to Bulgaria is essential for not only the nation but also the European region at large. Assistance and programs such as the ones mentioned are just a few of the ways that Bulgaria can continue to provide for its people.

McCall Robison 

Photo: Pixabay

humanitarian aid to the solomon islandsConsisting of hundreds of small islands and home to roughly 600,000 people, the Solomon Islands face an array of climate-related and social issues that have caught the world’s attention. Countries and organizations are currently sending humanitarian aid to the Solomon Islands to transform the island chain into a safer place to live.

As islands in the South Pacific Ocean, the Solomon Islands are constantly threatened by some of the worst that weather and climate change have to offer: cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and extensive flooding. In response to this, organizations like the Asian Development Bank have worked to create disaster-resilient infrastructure, including structures and roadways. Its Sustainable Transport Infrastructure Improvement Program aims to improve transport infrastructure and maintain roadways so that they will be fully accessible year-round.

A vital piece of creating consistently accessible roadways in the Solomon Islands is ensuring that all roads are climate-resilient, which is the goal by 2030, according to the Asian Development Bank. By improving transport conditions, the Asian Development Bank hopes to boost the local agriculture industry and reveal new economic opportunities for those living in rural areas.

Natural disasters in the Solomon Islands can have devastating effects. With its ranking of sixth on the World Risk Report’s disaster exposure rating, reducing these effects should be a top priority. Without the implementation of communication technologies to warn civilians of imminent threats, disasters can cause an exponentially higher level of destruction and death than what could have been avoided.

According to ABC International Development, the Solomon Islands Media Assistance Scheme (SOLMAS) was a project that worked to implement a stronger communications program. Funded by the Australian government, SOLMAS helped the Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation upgrade its transmission infrastructure to expand the broadcasting audience. By increasing the audience and reaching out to rural areas, disaster awareness and preparedness have improved drastically.

Also reaching out to citizens in rural areas is the World Bank, which implemented the Rural Development Program (RDP). According to the World Bank, less than 20 percent of people in rural areas have access to electricity, falling to below 5 percent in the outer islands. Sanitation also presents an alarming statistic, with only 15 percent having access to flush toilets. Beginning in 2008, RDP supplies grants to in-need communities. More than 300 projects have been completed, positively impacting about 50 percent of the rural population, or 225,000 people. Projects providing humanitarian aid to the Solomon Islands have spanned water access, electricity and education to road maintenance. As of 2013, the rural area’s access to clean water doubled and more than 50 percent of farmers changed their agricultural practices following advice from the project.

Despite the lack of adequate infrastructure, rural areas are not the only region to receive humanitarian aid to the Solomon Islands. According to the United Nations Human Settlements Program, open public spaces are a rare commodity in urban areas with overcrowded cities. UNHabitat is currently working to improve conditions in the capital city of Honiara by developing a sustainable plan to maintain public spaces. The project, Participatory Slum Upgrading Program, cost about $100,000.

Humanitarian aid to the Solomon Islands has been proven to improve living conditions in the islands and is essential to creating sustainable infrastructure. By upgrading sanitation, access to water and transport infrastructure, economic opportunities will continue to open.

– Austin Stoltzfus

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Humanitarian Aid to Tuvalu

Tuvalu is an independent island country consisting of nine islands in the South Pacific. As one of the smallest countries in the world, Tuvalu’s economy is constrained. This is also affected by the country’s remoteness.

Despite Tuvalu remaining fiscally resilient, the poverty rate is still high. The small economy does not allow room to grow and the country has few exports, meaning that Tuvalu relies almost entirely on foreign aid. As of 2015, about 89.2 percent of the Growth National Income (GNI) was in foreign humanitarian aid to Tuvalu.

Tuvalu’s primary donor and partner in humanitarian aid is New Zealand. Official visits between Tuvalu and New Zealand began in 2010 and New Zealand created an official partnership in 2015 in order to bring humanitarian aid to Tuvalu. However, New Zealand has been helping fund Tuvalu since the 1980s. In 1987, New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom created the Tuvalu Trust Fund, an international fund dedicated to benefitting Tuvalu. The goal of the fund is to help Tuvalu reach financial autonomy.

New Zealand has continued to support and send humanitarian aid to Tuvalu, especially after Tuvalu joined the United Nations in 2000. The New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade introduced and started implementing the New Zealand Aid Programme 2015-2019 in Tuvalu in early 2015. The program’s goal is to increase economic growth and create a sustainable economy, reduce poverty and increase Tuvalu’s resilience to natural disasters. Through the implementation of this program, New Zealand and Tuvalu have signed a Joint Commitment for Development.

The majority of the program’s funding goes toward activities and initiatives in Tuvalu. As of 2017, New Zealand’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade has spent $9 million in humanitarian aid to Tuvalu. Though the program is still new, improvements in Tuvalu have already begun. The Tuvalu Trust Fund has successfully adopted a new investment strategy which has resulted in economic growth. This has strengthened economic governance, returning just under $9 million to the government.

Furthermore, Tuvalu has seen a strengthening of resilience against natural disasters, specifically in Tuvalu’s capital Funafuti. The program has also funded the fixing of the Tagako Breach, a thin strip of land on the island of Funafuti. This has improved Tuvalu’s stability during cyclones and storms.

Though New Zealand has already helped create some stability and relief in Tuvalu, it is still working to make a more sustainable and prosperous economy in the country. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, through the New Zealand Aid Program, offers scholarships to Tuvaluan scholars. The applications open in early 2018 and studying will begin in early 2019. The goal of these scholarships is to help young Tuvaluans get an education they can use to improve the development of their country.

New Zealand will also fund and implement the Tuvalu Borrow Pits Rehabilitation Project in 2018. Based mainly in Funafuti, the aim of the project is to improve the living standards, sanitation services and access to clean water. The project will fill up 10 borrow pits on the Funafuti Atoll. The project has already been approved.

The humanitarian aid to Tuvalu from New Zealand seems small but has already started making a difference. New Zealand has laid the groundwork for Tuvalu to continue to improve for years to come.

– Courtney Wallace

Photo: Flickr

humanitarian aid to the marshall islands

Like most of the islands in the Pacific, the Marshall Islands have a history of natural disasters and their susceptibility is increasing due to climate change. These have ranged from floods and cyclones to tsunamis and earthquakes, and all of them have caused destruction in the nation. The United States has been fairly diligent about sending humanitarian aid to the Marshall Islands for relief from a number of natural disasters and for the prevention of future destruction.

The Marshall Islands were a U.S. territory until 1986 when it gained independence. However, the nation is under a Compact of Free Association, which ensures that the United States provides economic assistance and other benefits to the Marshall Islands. Some of this funding does provide for disaster response programs, but humanitarian aid to the country is not limited to this.

Humanitarian aid to the Marshall Islands from the U.S. has been fairly consistent over time, and a number of government agencies run programs and provide assistance to the nation. There have been many programs funded by U.S. agencies that have been quite successful. In 2013, the United States sent $5.1 million in drought assistance to the Marshall Islands after President Obama declared the drought a disaster, opening the way for emergency funding. This is an example of the U.S. providing disaster relief to the nation, but it also does a fair amount in the way of disaster prevention and response.

The United States funded the Climate Adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction and Education program in the Marshall Islands. This program educated 500 children and 5,000 community members on effective disaster response and evacuation. The U.S. also provided humanitarian aid to the Marshall Islands for the development of the Pre-Propositioning Emergency Relief Commodities project. This project facilitated the placement of emergency relief supplies in a number of locations throughout the country. Both these projects helped to improve response times and disaster preparedness in the Marshall Islands.

As climate change worsens, so does the amount of aid the Marshall Islands and the other Pacific islands will need. Disaster response needs to be continually improved, and even then, no one can predict every catastrophe. The United States has done a lot to provide humanitarian aid to the Marshall Islands and this trend will likely continue, as it has many benefits for the U.S.

– Liyanga de Silva

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

humanitarian aid to LaosLocated in Southeast Asia, Laos is regarded as the world’s most heavily bombed country, polluted with loaded ordnance. Vulnerable to extreme climate change, devastating impacts have been marked in this country in rural areas caused by flash floods, landslides, river floods and annual human and animal epidemics.

In 2017, Laos and Australia celebrated 65 years of diplomatic relations. Through its Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Australian government will provide about $42.3 million in humanitarian aid to Laos from 2017 to 2018. Through this humanitarian aid to Laos, Australia aims to establish prosperity and decrease poverty while assisting with the economic integration with the region.

For 2016 to 2017, the total official development assistance from Australia is an estimated $44.2 million. Results from aid given in 2015 to 2016 had a tremendous impact on schools within Laos. Aid supported 217 new teacher trainees in completing their first year of teacher training, 140 being women. Scholarships were provided to 20 teacher educators and assisted 259 schools located in five provinces to acquire school lunches.

Research shows that in 2014 Laos received a total of $472.4 million in development aid. Although other countries, such as Japan and Germany, have contributed humanitarian aid to Laos, Australia has been most consistent.

Caritas Australia, a Catholic Agency for International Aid and Development, has left its mark on Laos as well. With a focus on developing women and children, Caritas is providing stability.

From 2010 to 2011, more than 40 Laotian mothers received livelihood and business training that helped pay for their children’s education. Without this opportunity, schooling funds would come from panhandling. Around 50 children living with a disability were provided education. Workshops were held to train and support caregivers, teachers and parents of children with disabilities.

Although Australia is the main donor of aid to Laos, the nation could use assistance from other countries as well. Through more aid, Laos can develop at a faster rate and create more opportunities for its citizens, leading to a better quality of life.

– Tara Jackson

Photo: Flickr

humanitarian aid to BeninIn 2005, more than 20,000 people fled from Togo to Benin after the extreme violence surrounding the presidential election in April. Since then, humanitarian aid to Benin has been constantly increasing in an effort to educate, feed, house and provide medical support to as many refugees as possible. Commissioner Louis Michel of Benin’s humanitarian aid department is responsible for the distribution of the €1.05 million allotted for humanitarian aid, which comes through its partnership with the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees.

Of the 20,850 people who fled to Benin, more than 13,000 were granted asylum in small communities, while the remaining 7,400 lived in refugee camps in Comé and Lokossa. The last of these refugees were moved to the settlement of Agame in 2006, completing the successful placement and consolidation of refugees since they first entered the country and closing the camps in Comé and Lakossa.

Demands for humanitarian aid to Benin rose again in 2010, when more than 680,000 people were forced to flee their homes after severe flooding from heavy rains. In response to this crisis, under-secretary-general for the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Valerie Amos, said, “The loss of homes, livestock, clothing, agricultural tools and seeds will have devastating and long-lasting effects for many people, and that is why, with the government of Benin, we have launched this appeal for urgent assistance.”

Benin’s government and multiple aid agencies launched the Emergency Humanitarian Action Plan, requesting $46 million in foreign aid. The Cooperative for Assistance and Emergency Relief Everywhere (CARE) focused on providing food, water purification and sanitation services to combat the increasing threat of a cholera outbreak in the aftermath of the flood. Benin constantly struggles with providing adequate healthcare and sanitation services as one of the world’s poorest countries.

Unfortunately, despite providing clean water and soap mosquito nets, in addition to other supplies, CARE’s humanitarian aid to Benin barely made a blip on the radar of other countries. Many assumed it was simply another flooding season and did not express much concern for Benin, which normally has periods of heavy rain.

Over 1.6 million people in Africa have suffered the effects of heavy rains, but Benin received the worst of it, according to the Department for International Development. Humanitarian aid to Benin has seen the successful provision of tents, food, water and medical supplies to all displaced citizens and refugees wherever possible and, with the help of the Red Cross of Benin, has provided for the basic needs of all.

– Kayla Rafkin

Photo: Flickr