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Sanitation in Burkina Faso




















Over the past decade, Burkina Faso has seen a decrease in poverty from 57.3% in 2003 to 43.7% in 2014. However, sanitation services in the country are still out of reach for many people. Since the 1990s, the government, along with its partners, has been working to improve sanitation in Burkina Faso.

10 Facts about Sanitation in Burkina Faso

  1. People in Burkina Faso face a lack of access to sanitation.  In Burkina Faso, approximately 22% of its 19.77 million people, have access to a toilet. In rural communities, 88% of people are lacking sanitation. In addition, 62.91% of rural people lack access to an adequate supply of safe water which can affect the hygiene of the community.
  2. Health problems result from a lack of sanitation access. Burkina Faso’s under-five child mortality rate in 2018 was 76.4 for every 1,000 live births. One of the leading causes of death for both children and adults in the country is diarrhea-related illnesses. One of the ways to prevent diarrheal disease is with good hygiene and improved water quality. According to the CDC, 88% of diarrhea-related deaths are due to unsafe water, bad sanitation and lack of good hygiene. In 2017, for every 100,000 individuals, 52 people died in Burkina Faso from unsafe sanitation. In many developed countries, deaths linked to unsafe sanitation is less than 0.01.
  3. Inadequate sanitation is costing the country. According to the World Bank, the lack of good sanitation costs the country approximately 154 million dollars each year. This is caused by lost productivity and the cost of health care.
  4. Basic hygiene is lacking in schools. In 2016, 70% of schools in Burkina Faso had access to basic sanitation but only 18% of schools had basic hygiene service. The term “basic hygiene service” refers to schools that give students access to facilities that allow them to wash their hands with soap.  For girls, the lack of adequate sanitary protection materials and gender-segregated latrines for privacy can reduce their willingness to go to school.
  5. There is a lack of sanitation in rural communities in Burkina Faso. The lack of sanitation in rural communities results in a high percentage of open defecation in some areas. Smart Development Networks, a Netherlands-based NGO, is working to change that. The organization partners with local leaders and members of the community to talk about the dangers of open defecation. The organization has reached 50,000 people. In addition, 5,000 latrines have been built by community members.
  6. Burkina Faso is facing a water crisis. Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa,  Burkina Faso’s urban population is growing rapidly with an annual growth rate of approximately 5.2%. When it comes to water supply, Burkina Faso is at a disadvantage. It is a landlocked country with limited water resources. To improve the country’s water quality and sanitation, the government of Burkina Faso partnered with the World Bank in implementing an urban water sector project from 2009-2018. Towards the end of 2016, approximately 610,000 people received access to water as a result of this project. In addition, the project gave approximately 440,000 people access to better sanitation. The project also provided more schools with access to better sanitation.
  7. The ONEA is working to address the water crisis. After facing a water shortage in the 1990s, Burkina Faso created L’Office National de l’Eau et de l’Assainissement (ONEA), a state-owned national utility company. The ONEA provides 54 towns in Burkina Faso with water supply, wastewater and human waste treatment.  As Burkina Faso’s urban population grew in cities like the capital Ouagadougou, the company has managed to keep up with the growing demand for its service. In 2003, only 37% of the people who lived in Ouagadougou pumped water that was available to them where they live. Within 7 years that number grew to 48%. The ONEA hopes to increase water coverage to 80% in places where the company works by 2030. The company’s focus is to first increase the number of public taps before moving to provide water to each household.
  8. To improve sanitation in Burkina Faso, the government partnered with the World Bank. The partnership’s goal is to provide more people in the country with better access to sanitation and water quality. In 2018, the World Bank pumped $300 million into Burkina Faso’s “Water Supply and Sanitation Program for Results.” The project is expected to help 1.1 million people by giving them access to better water supply, as well as improve sanitation for 1.3 million people. In addition, the program will fund trainings, strengthen human capital and encourage partnerships within universities, government agencies, municipalities and research centers to improve the management and service delivery of sanitation services.
  9. Burkina Faso is receiving aid from Germany. The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development partnered with Burkina Faso’s government to improve the country’s sanitary services. The results are promising. In 2019, this partnership drilled 302 boreholes, repaired 172 boreholes and rehabilitated 10 simplified drinking water supply systems. Furthermore, this project has built 6,095 family latrines and constructed 2,352 domestic cesspools.
  10. In Burkina Faso, violence has broken out due to militia and jihadist groups. This has forced 800,000 people to flee their homes. According to Oxfam, poor communities have taken in a lot of incoming refugees which has stressed their water and food resources. Currently, 1.9 million people in the country need water. To help with the crisis, Oxfam is working to install water tanks, improve hand pumps and create water supply points. Oxfam is also supplying latrines, showers, washing areas, waste pits and bins.

While Burkina Faso faces problems with access to sanitation, the situation is improving. Organizations, such as the World Bank, as well as other countries are working with Burkina Faso’s government to improve the situation. However, the current conflict in the country may stall some of its plans for improving the quality of sanitation. 

– Joshua Meribole
Photo: Flickr

Poverty in Sierra Leone
Since establishing independence in 1961, Sierra Leone, a country located in West Africa, has suffered from various conflicts and injustices including a civil war that lasted from 1991 to 2002. As a result, Sierra Leone lacks significant development as a country, ranking 181 out of 189 on the 2019 Human Development Index. The nation remains impoverished. In fact, according to the United Nations Development Programme, approximately 60% of people live in poverty in Sierra Leone.

Factors Contributing to Poverty

Experts believe that four primary factors contribute to Sierra Leone’s overwhelming levels of poverty: government corruption, a lack of an established education system, absence of civil rights and poor infrastructure. These factors make poverty difficult to beat. With the unestablished infrastructure for roads and electricity, high transportation costs pose barriers to trade and limit economic growth.

Additionally, an absence of funding for educational programs leaves Sierra Leone behind in terms of gaining knowledge about civil rights or responsibilities. This contributes to gender inequality and the marginalization of women. The effects of gender inequality include women’s inability to join the workforce and a cultural view of women as servants for men. These ideas inhibit Sierra Leone’s development in a world that values education and women’s rights.

Reducing Poverty in Sierra Leone

Despite these ongoing issues, there have been various efforts to reduce poverty in Sierra Leone. The Free Healthcare Initiative (FHCI) launched in 2010 in Sierra Leone. This initiative provides pregnant women, new mothers and young children with access to basic healthcare in order to reduce infant mortality rates. Although the FHCI is not a solution to poverty in Sierra Leone, it led to several healthcare reforms, including adequate pay for healthcare workers. Robert B. Zoellick, former president of The World Bank Group, expressed his support for such efforts in a press release in 2010, explaining that addressing poverty in Sierra Leone would help lead to peace.

The Work of Oxfam

Various organizations from the United States have also made efforts to reduce poverty in Sierra Leone. One such organization is Oxfam, which has headquarters in Boston. This global organization aims to provide assistance to people experiencing injustices related to poverty. In Sierra Leone, Oxfam focuses on solving infrastructure-related problems, such as access to water, sanitation and hygiene. Additionally, the organization holds the government and other powerful beings in the country accountable by advocating for gender equality and food security. Oxfam also provides assistance in times of emergency, including during past outbreaks of cholera and Ebola in Sierra Leone.

The Tiger Worms Toilet Project is one of Oxfam’s notable successes in Sierra Leone. This project helped prevent communicable diseases by addressing sewage concerns through enhanced sanitation practices. It also helped prevent diseases by educating those in Sierra Leone about their spread. These actions enable Oxfam to make strides toward accomplishing its vision for Sierra Leone: “A just, inclusive and resilient Sierra Leone without poverty, in which citizens, particularly women and youth demand and acquire access to their rights and live a life of dignity.”

Although poverty remains a persistent problem in this West African country, aid from U.S.-based organizations like Oxfam is a small step toward eliminating poverty in Sierra Leone.

Hannah Carroll
Photo: Flickr

Homelessness in Cuba
The island nation of Cuba has long dealt with the social and urban problem of housing. From shantytowns on the island before the 1950s through the massive construction boom under the Castro Regime beginning in 1959, housing has been an integral part of Cuba’s social and political issues. Here is some information about homelessness in Cuba.

Overview of Cuban Housing Policy

The 1959 Cuban Revolution ushered in the Castro regime. With the rise of Fidel Castro came new social reforms. The regime paid particular attention to reforming housing policy and alleviating homelessness in Cuba which had previously plagued the island. Castro introduced new socialist policies such as high housing subsidies paired with state-owned homes in order to contain housing prices and costs of construction.

According to Cuban architect Dr. Coyula-Cowley, one can attribute much of Cuba’s urban growth and renewal to large scale government building projects under the Castro regime. Coyula-Cowley cited that between 1958 and 1998, both urban and rural housing stock experienced a radical increase in the quality of living conditions. The majority of both urban and rural housing received descriptions of “good” in 1998 as opposed to the majority of units qualifying as “bad” in 1958.

Current Trends

Cuba currently enjoys a near-zero rate of homelessness. This is primarily due to high levels of housing subsidies from the government as well as a cultural tradition of multifamily homes where many members of the extended and nuclear family all share one residency. This social custom causes the vast majority of the Cuban population to be able to list an official address and thus minimize technical homelessness rates.

According to The Conversation U.S. news source, as of 2018, the National Assembly of Cuba approved a reformed draft constitution which includes orders to lower regulations on the market for private residential housing in order to stimulate development. This action could help to stimulate urban growth and renewal throughout Cuba through the use of free market-based mechanisms. This is a departure from previous state-sponsored building projects in order to meet increased housing demand.

Hidden Issues

Despite the near-zero rate of homelessness in Cuba, it is difficult to accurately measure homelessness rates. U.S. intervention and constraints of low-cost construction have created hidden issues. The U.S. embargo on Cuba in the 1990s followed by Cuba’s Special Period due to the collapse of the Soviet Union both constricted the supply for building materials, leading to higher costs and slow-building rates. In addition, the inability of modern Cuba to continue building low-cost homes due to these limitations has led to an increased concentration of multifamily residencies despite the desire for younger generations to live separately.

The elderly are at a particularly high risk of homelessness despite every Cuban having an official address. Retired Cubans live on a fixed pension of 248 Pesos (~10 USD) per month which forces the elderly into a constant state of financial hardship. Given that 10.6% of Cubans are over 65 years of age, a significant part of the population experiences poverty. According to the Havana Times, many elderly Cubans may sleep on public benches or practice “couch surfing” by living with friends as overcrowding makes their own family unable to care for them. The exact percentage of homeless elderly is unknown but social workers are aware of the underreported issue as noted in the Havana Times. Although the elderly may have an official address, the quality of life is reminiscent of homelessness.

Experts have determined that the capital of Havana needs 300,000 housing units in order to meet demand. Thus, with Cuba experiencing an average rate of 4.1 people per living space continues to reinforce the trend of overcrowding. Therefore, official homelessness rates may be low in Cuba, but the quality of Cuban housing can often be below ideal living standards and is often unsafe.

On top of overcrowding, weather-related issues such as hurricanes and tropical storms have also degraded the current housing stock. Weather-related issues cause consistent destruction and inhibit the ability to make repairs, often exposing wiring, poor insulation and leaking rooftops. An official report stated that seven out of 10 homes need repair, with 7% of all houses being unhabitable.

Solutions

There is still a very real housing crisis involving the quantity and quality of Cuba’s housing. Fortunately, the state and local governments of Cuba alongside international NGOs such as Oxfam are working to alleviate this crisis. Oxfam sent workers and aid to Cuba in the wake of Hurricane Sandy in 2012 to assist with rebuilding and maintaining residential homes, 150,000 of which had undergone damage, affecting over 600,000 people.

The state and municipal governments have also implemented the Architect in the Community Programme which provides technical support from architects to homeowners who are undertaking home building and renovations on a self-help basis. The program currently employs 630 architects in 157 of Cuba’s municipalities serving over 500,000 households. This technical assistance empowers individuals to undertake home building and repair work while alleviating the government’s burden of housing due to limited finances.

Homelessness in Cuba remains a complicated and multifaceted issue due to difficulties in recording true homelessness rates and housing shortages as a result of trade limitations. However, despite these issues, multiple government and nonprofit programs exist in order to stimulate building and repairs. They hope to protect against weather-related damage as well in hopes of alleviating both homelessness as well as poor living situations.

– Ian Hawthorne
Photo: Flickr

Instagram Accounts Raising Poverty AwarenessSocial media is a powerful tool used to spread awareness about many different topics. Many different organizations design accounts on Instagram to advocate for global poverty through powerful images and words. Here are five Instagram accounts raising poverty awareness.

5 Instagram Accounts Raising Poverty Awareness

  1. Doctors Without Borders (@doctorswithoutborders) – This organization works to provide medical care for patients all over the world, and it currently operates in more than 70 countries worldwide. Doctors Without Borders also conducts medical research on topics such as economic and social conditions in El Salvador and HIV in South Africa. The organization’s Instagram account has 581,000 followers. The account’s posts range from information about their health care projects to powerful photographs that illustrate different crises.

    A powerful animation video posted on March 18, 2020 describes the struggles that Rohingya refugee families face as they are forced to move to camps in Bangladesh, including being prone to COVID-19 and other disease outbreaks. The animation was created “to put a human face on the humanitarian crisis that devastated this community.”

  2. Pencils of Promise (@pencilsofpromise) – Pencils of Promise is a group that raises funds to build schools and combat education problems for people around the world. To date, Pencils of Promise has built 524 schools and has 108,643 students. The organization uses its Instagram platform with 210,000 followers mainly to share photos of children around the world who are receiving education and their stories. The Pencils of Promise Instagram showcases the great impact of the organization’s work.

  3. Oxfam (@oxfamamerica) – Oxfam is an organization that works to reduce poverty by providing grants to build infrastructure for the poor, encouraging the rich to allot money towards helping the poor, and helping communities recoup after disasters. The Oxfam Instagram account has more than 78,000 followers. The account creators share easy-to-read graphics, numbers and statistics related to global poverty reduction. The Oxfam Instagram also shares inspirational quotes to instill hope regarding the fight against global poverty. One of the quotes posted on the page is “Hope and fear cannot occupy the same space. Invite one to stay.”

  4. Global Citizen (@glblctzn) – Global Citizen is an organization that relies on citizens all over the world to organize events and advocate to reduce global poverty. The account, which has 530,000 followers, includes many posts from musical artists who hold mini-concerts to spread global poverty awareness. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the Global Citizen account is sharing videos with the hashtag #Togetherathome to promote social distancing and global health safety.

  5. Charity: Water (@charitywater) – Charity: Water is an organization that works to provide clean and safe water to communities of people in developing countries. The Charity: Water Instagram account has 457,000 followers. The organization’s posts show the success of its efforts and the importance of providing clean water to people worldwide. A post from April 3, 2020, celebrates the completion of “544 water projects across India, Ethiopia and Mozambique.”

With 1 billion active monthly users, Instagram can be a powerful way to spread awareness about global poverty. These five Instagram accounts raising poverty awareness are making the world a better place one post at a time.

– Shveta Shah
Photo: Flickr

The Struggles of Single Parents in YemenThe current civil war in Yemen is a bloody one. Since the beginning of the civil war in 2015, the reported casualties reached 100,000 in October 2019. Among this number, about 12,000 were civilian casualties who attackers directly targeted. This ever-mounting amount of civilian casualties has multiple effects on many families in Yemen. On a surface level, these civilian casualties reflect the numerous children who lose their parents during the on-going conflict. Some reports suggested that there are currently more than 1.1 million orphans in Yemen. On the other hand, the casualty number also reflects the single parents in Yemen who are trying to raise their children in a war zone.

Single parents in Yemen are struggling due to many reasons including a lack of access to basic goods, or professional services such as maternal care during and after pregnancy. This struggle of being a single parent in Yemen falls mostly on many Yemeni women who lost their husbands in the on-going conflict.

Struggles of Single Parents in Yemen

Being a single parent, especially a single mother, in Yemen is difficult. Yemen’s female participation in the workforce is extremely low. This means that many women in Yemen rely on their husbands for financial support. However, the conflict in Yemen took many Yemeni men from their families. As casualties rise, both military and civilian, many women lose their husbands. However, because the majority of women do not have much work experience, they lack the experience or qualifications to go out and find employment.

The challenge of single parenting in Yemen begins even before a child is born. This is especially true for mothers, single or otherwise, in Yemen. According to UNICEF, one woman and six newborns die every two hours from complications during pregnancy and childbirth in Yemen. This is the reflection of poor conditions in Yemen where only three out of 10 births take place in regular health facilities. WHO’s 2016 survey of hospitals in Yemen reported that more than half of all health facilities in Yemen are closed or only partially functioning.

For mothers and newborns, this means that they lack essential natal care, immunization services and postpartum/postnatal interventions. This lack of natal care and medical services for newborns resulted in one out of 37 Yemeni newborns dying in the first month of their lives.

Malnutrition is another challenge that single parents in Yemen struggle against. Multiple factors contribute to malnutrition in Yemen. Some reports suggest that the Saudi coalition intentionally targeted Yemeni farms. A report suggested that the Saudi-led coalition launched at least 10,000 strikes against food farms, 800 strikes against local food markets and about 450 airstrikes that hit food storage facilities. This made civilian access to food extremely difficult on a local level. The Saudi-led coalition’s blockade of Yemeni ports and other entry points for food, medicine, fuel and foreign aid worsened this food shortage. Yemen’s impoverished civilians, 79 percent of whom are living under the poverty line, find it difficult to afford the ever-increasing food prices. For single parents in Yemen, this makes feeding their children a difficult challenge. An estimated 2.2 million Yemeni children are acutely malnourished.

Organizations Helping Yemen

Numerous organizations help single parents in Yemen. Doctors Without Borders, between 2015 and 2018, provided natal care for pregnant mothers and delivered 68,702 babies in Yemen. Oxfam provided multiple humanitarian services in Yemen. Since the beginning of the conflict in 2015, Oxfam provided cash to Yemeni families so that they could buy food. On top of this, Oxfam delivered water and repaired water systems in remote regions of Yemen. UNICEF launched the Healthy Start Voucher Scheme in 2019. This program provides coupons for poor and vulnerable pregnant women to help them cover the cost of traveling to hospitals for childbirth. The coupon also gives these women access to newborn care in case of complications.

The Future for Single Parents in Yemen

Single parents in Yemen struggle against the difficult daily conditions in the country. Lack of access to food, water, health care and basic goods makes it extremely difficult for single parents in Yemen to provide for their children. Malnourished children dying of hunger are truly a disheartening image of the current conflict in Yemen. However, there are signs of peace. In November 2019, the combatants of the conflict held behind-the-scenes talks to end the conflict in Yemen. In the meantime, the international community is relying on many relief organizations that work tirelessly to help the people of Yemen.

YongJin Yi
Photo: Flickr

Building Sustainability through LivestockAround the world, billions are lost to see how vital livestock is to a sustainable lifestyle. For many in the developed world, the meat we buy at the grocery store every week and the process it has to go through may seem a bit amorphous and, some would argue, potentially problematic from an ethical perspective. The importance of sustainable livestock is crucial, not only to those of us lucky enough to be able to simply pick up a wide range of meats at a variety of places, but it can be the marker of success for local farmers and businesses in the developing world.

For those around the world that tend to livestock, they rely on it as a primary food source as well as for economic means. As a source of protein and nutrients, livestock is irreplaceable. Poor and developing countries find it difficult to access nutritionally balanced foods. Therefore, access to livestock such as cows and goats can provide much-needed food and economic relief when it comes to supporting yourself, your family and local businesses with products such as eggs, milk and other dairy products.

The acquisition is especially important in areas that are suffering severely from malnutrition. This is not lost on organizations such as, Oxfam and Heifer International that offer a charitable donation in the form of giving a family the much needed, “gift of sustainability,” as Oxfam calls it, such as a goat. Also, the economic and health benefits of owning livestock are not lost on many nations either. For example, Rwanda has initiated a government assistance program called One Cow per Poor Family (also known as Girinka).

A new study has expressed that this program shows great promise in limiting food insecurity. With Agriculture supporting 80 percent of the Rwandan population, owning livestock can also help with limiting the negative effects of soil infertility. However, in the absence of government assistance programs such as these, many poor families will be left with few options, should their crops fail or if other sources of income are dried up. And while there is no shortage of options when it comes to donating to help with food sustainability in underdeveloped nations, livestock sustainability sadly and continually falls to the waste side.

“The contribution of livestock to the wider rural economy remains under-appreciated by all players in development, except farmers,” says The Guardian in their article, “It’s time to recognize the important role livestock play in tackling poverty.” And with under-appreciation or lack of knowledge typically comes under-development and lack of funding. Additionally, livestock can take on many roles as it helps to keep families from slipping further into economic depression. For example, if the crops that the livestock are helping cultivate suddenly take a devastating turn, as they will often do, families will also have the option of selling the livestock itself to stay afloat.

Livestock also can give women in local communities the chance to not only make a profit but also help build economic sustainability for themselves as well. In a world where half the farmers are female, many women have taken the helm when it comes to raising and cultivating livestock. This work, which can be incredibly profitable, will not only give women a source of income and potential economic independence, but studies have shown that with these newfound funds, women will invest a majority of it back into the household. Those are expanded investments in school, food, healthcare, etc.

With the help of livestock, communities that are being ravaged by poverty have a chance to not only pull themselves out of it, but they provide an opportunity to build a sustainable future for themselves and their community. As long as livestock is brought to the forefront of discussions about poverty and development, then global sustainability can see greater positive results.

Connor Dobson
Photo: Flickr

 

Facts About Poverty In Albania
Albania, a country located east of the southern tip of Italy that borders Macedonia and Greece, remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. Despite the country’s recent economic growth, employment rates continue to stay low, the education system lacks necessary resources and a significant portion of the population remains below the poverty line. Here are seven shocking facts about poverty in Albania.

7 Shocking Facts About Poverty in Albania

  1. Poverty Rate: Thirty-four percent of Albanians live in poverty. This means they make around $2 to $5.50 per day. The current poverty rate represents a significant increase compared to 2002 when 11 percent of Albanians lived in poverty.
  2. Extreme Poverty Rate: Currently, 5.8 percent of Albanians live in extreme poverty. This means they make less than $1.90 per day. According to the World Bank, the extreme poverty rate of Albanian people has not reduced very much in recent years.
  3. Household Expenditures: The expenditures in 63 percent of Albanian households, or what they need to buy to live comfortably such as food, clothes and toiletries, are 50 percent higher than their income. In other words, over half the population cannot afford half of what it needs to live on a day-to-day basis.
  4. Albanians are Migrating: Due to the unstable political situation in Albania, the business economy is weakening, and thus, poverty is deepening. Many Albanians doubt their leaders and are looking for better opportunities regarding living conditions and employment, so many are departing the country. This number of departing citizens has grown from 44 percent in 2007 to 52 percent in 2018.
  5. The Albanian Unemployment Rate: The unemployment rate in Albania is 28.7 percent. Women make up the majority of this population which results from many factors including poor social status in the family, lack of education and limited access to jobs due to the fact that most women must maintain the house and take care of the children. However, Oxfam, an international nonprofit, works to change women’s social status in Albania by educating women about the economy as well as helping women become actors of change and decision-making.
  6. Children in Albania: One-third of the total population living in poverty in Albania, or 120,000 of those citizens, are children. Approximately 12 percent of these children have no other choice but to work in order to help their families survive. Because of this, these children lose the opportunity to obtain an education. Humanium is an organization that works to end violations of children’s rights across the world. It does so by raising awareness, providing legal assistance for children whose rights have suffered violation and supporting local projects that help children.
  7. Social Allowance: Eighty thousand households in Albania rely on a social allowance. This means they receive 8,000 lek a month from their government so that they can afford basic needs such as food and clothing. One lek is equivalent to $0.0092 U.S.

Despite the barriers, there are organizations working to end poverty in Albania such as the Zakat Foundation of America. This nonprofit is in Chicago and its mission statement is as follows: “We foster charitable giving to alleviate the immediate needs of poor communities and to establish long-term development projects that ensure individual and community growth.” The foundation does so by building schools, orphanages and health clinics within these poor communities. The organization also provides food and fresh meat to the poor and brings relief during and after disasters.

– Emily Turner
Photo: Flickr

Poverty in Mozambique

On March 14, 2019, a massive storm made landfall on Mozambique’s coast bringing heavy rains, flooding and chaos. The storm hit Beira, the fourth largest city in the country, hardest. With winds blowing over 105 miles per hour and torrential rains following it, Cyclone Idai became one of the most destructive storms in the past few years. Shortly after, Cyclone Kenneth struck the northern part of Mozambique with 140 mph winds and even heavier rainfall, creating more damage to the infrastructure in the region. Severe weather has affected all aspects of life in the country, and in particular, those living in poverty in Mozambique.

Mozambique is one of the poorest nations in the world with a GDP per capita of roughly $502. Although the poverty rate decreased from 59 percent to 48 percent, inequality still exists in the region between urban and rural areas. According to the World Bank, roughly 80 percent of poor people in Mozambique live in rural areas. Extreme weather conditions like cyclones or flooding exacerbate these inequalities. Because of this, the aftermath of these harsh storms more heavily affect people living in poverty.

Four Ways Extreme Weather Affects Poverty in Mozambique

1. Extreme Weather Destroys Local Infrastructure: Cyclone Idai caused more than $1 billion in damage to infrastructures like roads, bridges and dams in Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The storm destroyed roughly 100,000 homes and one million acres of crops as well and it heavily damaged 90 percent of the infrastructure in the port city of Beira upon impact. Hospitals, schools and business could not withstand the storm’s high wind speeds, even though people built them to hold up against 75 mile-per-hour winds.

Many cities in Mozambique did not have the resources to combat these storms, making the likelihood of the preparedness of rural areas for these disasters significantly lower. For the most part, solving the issue of poverty in Mozambique came second to disaster relief. The Post Disaster Needs Assessment stated that the country would need $3.2 billion for reconstruction and recovery efforts. Thankfully, however, developing partners have already pledged up to $1.2 billion to help begin the process of recovering the lost infrastructure.

2. Extreme Weather Displaces Citizens from Their Homes: The storm affected roughly three million people, and about 1.5 million were children. Just outside of the city Pemba, the destruction of mud houses forced roughly 15,000 people to move to overcrowded shelters or stay outside. This displacement made relief efforts even more difficult and urgent. As the storm stranded many people outside of their homes, they required more time to administer survival equipment and begin rebuilding processes. Many rural citizens in Mozambique will not only have to rebuild their entire home, but also have to handle the economic burden of the loss of their arable land.

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has been working tirelessly and assisted more than half of these people in isolated and urban areas. The number of people living in shelters in the Sofala Province decreased from 16,600 people to 12,812 people in seven days. Although it is a slow process, these relief efforts are making a significant impact.

3. It increases the spread of diseases: One of the major effects of the two most recent cyclones has been the increase of cholera cases spreading across the country. Due to contamination of clean drinking water by flooding, there are reports of over 3,000 cases in Mozambique alone. Many shelters became very crowded after these natural disasters, which only increased the probability of cholera and other diseases like malaria to spread.

Luckily, there was a massive campaign by UNICEF, Doctors Without Borders, Oxfam and other relief agencies to vaccinate people against this outbreak. These organizations distributed around 900,000 doses of the vaccine to high-risk areas around Beira. However, this outbreak heightened the effects of extreme weather and had a dangerous effect on the lives of many people.

4. It Halts Agricultural Production: A large part of Mozambique’s economy revolves around agriculture. This industry contributes to more than a quarter of its GDP and employs roughly 80 percent of its labor force. This leaves the country’s economy very susceptible to extreme weather damages. When disasters hit, they impact the poorer populations living in rural areas the most.

Cyclone Idai destroyed 50 percent of the country’s annual crops, which are the main source of income for a lot of people. If extreme weather patterns of this force continue, a food scarcity crisis might begin in the country, and the economy might suffer those effects as well. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been adamant about focusing relief efforts in Mozambique as a top priority. FAO has called for $19 million to support heavily affected regions for three months to resume food production and assist fishing communities. By fulfilling this request, these areas can begin the process of rebuilding these vital industries.

For years, poverty in Mozambique has been a persistent problem for many people living in rural areas. Recently, extreme weather events have become increasingly more powerful and destructive. Various organizations are providing relief efforts that make a huge difference in the region such as the U.N.’s International Disaster Relief System and the United Nations World Food Programme. However, rebuilding efforts from this cyclone are far from over. Disaster preparedness is now becoming a focus for the government regarding infrastructure improvements. In order to end poverty in Mozambique, the country must use better techniques to protect its citizens and the land they depend on.

– Sydney Blakeney
Photo: Flickr

five NGOs are petitioning the government to end the war in Yemen
The war in Yemen between Houthi rebels and the Saudi led coalition has created the world’s largest humanitarian crisis. Despite the dire situation, there is reason to hope. On November 26, five NGOs petitioned the U.S. Government to call an end to the war. Two days later, the U.S. Government announced it would add an additional $24 million to USAID’s Office of Food for Peace. On December 13, the Senate voted to end the United States support of the Saudi coalition. These are the five NGOs that are petitioning to end the war in Yemen.

Since 2015, there have been more than 16,000 civilians casualties, 22.2 million people, including 11 million children, are in need of aid and eight million are at risk of famine. The war has led to a host of other problems as well, including a cholera outbreak and a lack of access to clean water. Many organizations are trying to stop the conflict in Yemen. These are 5 nonprofit organizations working hard to protect the people of Yemen.

These are the 5 NGOs that are petitioning to end the war in Yemen

  1. International Rescue Committee (IRC): The International Rescue Committee, headed by David Miliband, a former U.K. Secretary of Foreign Affairs, is focused on humanitarian relief operations in war-affected areas. Right now it operates in more than 40 countries, and its refugee resettlement program operates in 28 U.S. cities. The IRC has been providing aid to Yemen since 2012, working to protect women and children as well as provide access to healthcare and education.
  2. Oxfam: Oxfam is a global organization working in more than 90 countries to end poverty. Led by Abby Maxman, the former Deputy Secretary General of CARE International, Oxfam believes in identifying and changing the root causes of poverty rather than just sending material aid. Through fighting and eliminating injustice, Oxfam feels that poverty can finally be eliminated. The organization has been working in Yemen since 2015 to prevent diseases by providing sanitation, hygiene assistance and clean water to those affected by the war.
  3. CARE: CARE is active in 93 countries around the globe working to combat social injustice and poverty. The organization is headed by Michelle Nunn, who previously ran the organization Points of Light and had been a candidate for the U.S. Senate. CARE current goal is to reach 200 million of the world’s most vulnerable people by 2020. CARE has been working in Yemen since 1992 and is currently providing food, water and sanitation to one million Yemenis people each month.
  4. Save the Children: Save the Children is an organization that works in the U.S. and around the world to provide for underprivileged children. It is headed by Carolyn Miles, who has been with the organization since 1998. Save the Children is active in 120 countries worldwide promoting nutrition, health and education programs. Save the Children is doing just that in Yemen by treating almost 100,000 Yemenis children for malnutrition through mobile health clinics.
  5. Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC): The Norwegian Refugee Council started its relief efforts after World War II and continues its mission to this day. The organization is active in 32 countries across the world to provide clean water, education, camp management, legal aid, food assistance and shelter to refugees. The Norwegian Refugee Council is headed by Jan Egeland, who has been with the organization since 2013 and was appointed in 2015 by the U.N. as special envoy to Syria. In 2017, the NRC has provided food for more than 300,000 Yemenis and shelter to more than 50,000.

These 5 NGOs that are petitioning to end the war in Yemen are all fighting for a better world for the world’s poor. Through their work, they were able to spur the government into action. Since the petition, millions of dollars have been added to the aid package for Yemen, and the U.S. has voted to end its military involvement in the conflict.

Peter Zimmerman
Photo: Flickr

Why Typhoon Mangkhut Hit Poor People the Hardest in the Philippines
On September 15, the Philippines was struck by a massive typhoon. Winds were blowing at 210 km/h, gusting up to 285 km/h. The most recent death toll was 81 with dozens still missing. The World Meteorological Organization has named the storm the “strongest tropical cyclone the world has faced this year.” As with most other natural disasters, Typhoon Mangkhut in the Philippines hit the poorest populations the hardest.

Landslides

Deadly landslides occurred as a result of overflowing rivers. One of the most disastrous was in Itogen, a remote northern mining town. Emergency workers used shovels and their bare hands to recover the bodies of forty people from the debris. Of the victims, almost all are impoverished gold miners and their family members. Officers in the area told people to find safe shelter prior to the typhoon, but many stayed behind to work the tunnels where they perished.

In Naga, Cebu, landslides wiped out 30 homes in two rural villages, killing 18 people while 64 others are still missing. At least seven of the villagers were rescued after sending text messages calling for help. Too many farmers did not leave quickly enough because they were trying to harvest their crops before the storm or landslides destroyed them.

Authorities say that the typhoon was particularly damaging in the central northern mountainous Cordillera region (CAR), which is composed of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province and the cities of Baguio and Tabuk. Populations that live in these mountains are heavily indigenous and predominantly poor, with 17.1 percent of the population living below the poverty line. Most farmers who live there grow rice, and their margin of income is very thin at best.

According to an article in First Point: “Poverty has forced many to live on or near volcanoes, steep mountains and storm-vulnerable coasts, often leading to disasters.” So, it is the poorest populations that bear the brunt of the destruction.

Massive Flooding

The flash flooding that has resulted from Typhoon Mangkhut in the Philippines has been disastrous for rural farmers. Mangkhut swamped farm fields in the north, where much of the agriculture is located. Unfortunately, the typhoon came a month after severe monsoon rains that had already made these provinces vulnerable to disaster. Agriculture Secretary Manny Piñol predicts a total of 1.5 million farmers and over 100,000 fishing communities will be impacted by the typhoon.

The flooding was so bad that rice fields in Iguig could be mistaken for the town’s river. Oxfam’s April Bulanadi said of the disaster: “While I was able to see some farmers desperately harvesting crops the day before the storm hit, it was clear many were not able to do so. This is heartbreaking because it was supposed to be harvest season next month. This will have devastating impacts on small farmers, many of whom are still recovering from Typhoon Haima in 2016.” Some farmers lost their lives in the floods, but those who left in time will still lose their income due to lost and damaged crops.

The Aftermath of the Typhoon

The only current solution is to support the recovery of the victims of Typhoon Mangkhut. Clean water and materials needed to build shelters for those who have lost their homes are being sent by organizations such as Oxfam. Getting through to the villages has been problematic since the airport was also hit by the typhoon.

Maria Rosario Felizco, Oxfam Philippines Country Director, said that “we must also anticipate that the survivors of Typhoon Mangkhut, especially small fishers and farmers who have lost their source of income, will need support far beyond the first few days of this response.” However, aid is not the only thing that the country needs. Changes also need to be made in order to prevent disasters like this from completely destroying the livelihoods of poor farmers.

Typhoon Mangkhut in the Philippines was tragic. For those living in poverty, the storm directly posed a threat to their lives, work and homes all at once. The typhoon was particularly detrimental to the country’s poorest citizens because of their location and the devastating loss they must now endure due to destroyed crops.

Evann Orleck-Jetter
Photo: Flickr