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Dr. Angeli Achrekar
On January 20, 2021, President Joe Biden appointed Dr. Angeli Achrekar as the new U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator and Special Representative for Global Health Diplomacy, which means she will be leading the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

Who is Dr. Angeli Achrekar?

Dr. Achrekar is remarkably qualified for her position. She has earned her doctorate from UNC-Chapel Hill, a master’s degree from Yale and her bachelor’s degree from UCLA. In addition to her academic accomplishments, Dr. Achrekar has a career of public service under her belt, involving combating HIV/AIDS around the globe, public health development and women and girls’ health. She originally worked in India and with UNICEF. She then started working with the CDC starting in 2001, where she led the National Initiative to Improve Adolescent Health. This initiative spanned across multiple agencies and consisted of professionals from a variety of disciplines in more than 100 organizations.

Following her leadership of the National Initiative to Improve Adolescent Health, Dr. Achrekar started her work with PEPFAR to fight HIV/AIDS around the world in 2003. In working with PEPFAR, she traveled to South Africa. There, she coordinated with local governments to assess risk patterns that occur through drug use and among sex workers. Dr. Achrekar then became Senior Public Health Manager for the CDC in its Division of Global HIV/AIDS. Lastly, she started in 2011 with the U.S. State Department where she helped come up with and develop the Saving Mothers program, as well as the Giving Life program.

Developments Since Her Appointment

Since her appointment, Dr. Achrekar has already made strides in her position to fight AIDS and other diseases around the world. Notably, under her leadership, PEPFAR has been part of a joint effort with other organizations and agencies including USAID which will bring a new treatment to TB patients in Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Rather than patients needing to take a combination of drugs for treatment, the new treatment will combine two drugs so patients will be able to take fewer drugs in total. The new development is a big leap forward and Dr. Achrekar said, “The availability of a shorter, more easily tolerated, and safer regimen for TB prevention that is also affordable is critical for accelerating the fight against TB. The new development is big news as latent tuberculosis is said to affect up to a quarter of the world’s population.”

The Importance of Fighting AIDS in Relation to Global Poverty

PEPFAR’s work to fight AIDS holds much significance to the fight against global poverty because the two interconnect considerably. AIDS disproportionately affects those in poverty. Considering that the prevalence of AIDS has been commonly linked with poverty, a critical component of fighting the disease is fighting poverty. In his article “Is HIV/AIDS Epidemic Outcome of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa?” Noel Dzimnenani Mbirimtengerenji wrote, “Unless and until poverty is reduced or alleviated, there will be little progress either with reducing transmission of the virus or an enhanced capacity to cope with its socio-economic consequences.”

Sean Kenney
Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Côte d’Ivoire Health Care
Côte d’Ivoire health care has faced challenges in recent years and even more so during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to a 2020 Helen Keller International report, Moriame Sidibé, a mom and homemaker from northern Côte d’Ivoire was a “Vitamin A Hero” because every six months for the past three years she spent three full days walking door to door and village to village to give young children Vitamin A and deworming pills. Sidibé faced challenges because sometimes she needed to convince mothers of the importance and safety of the pills, coax the children to swallow the pills and mark the children’s fingers with black ink so she would not accidentally give them a second pill.

Sidibé left her own four young children to do this, but it was worth it to her because she has training as a community health volunteer who is part of a collaboration between the Ivorian government, Helen Keller International, the United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and Nutritional International fighting the extreme form of malnutrition in children called micronutrient deficiency or “hidden hunger.”

The Situation

Twenty-five percent of Ivorian children get enough calories, but not foods with sufficient Vitamin A, zinc, iodine or iron.  That “hidden hunger” puts one in four Ivorian children at risk of blindness, impaired brain development and some fatal infections. Deworming pills kill the parasites that prevent children from absorbing micronutrients including Vitamin A, and together the deworming pills and the Vitamin A can save children’s lives. In December 2019, the campaign reached 5 million children or 98% of all Ivorian children, an incredible accomplishment of a ministry of health working with international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and trained community health volunteers.

Côte d’Ivoire, the West African nation of 25 million, enjoyed a strong 8% average GDP growth between 2011 and 2018. According to the World Bank, the country had one of the strongest economies in sub-Saharan Africa due to an expanded middle class that supported demand in industry, agriculture and services. The Côte d’Ivoire health care indicators, however, lagged behind other less-developed nations, and in 2018, Côte d’Ivoire ranked 165 of 189 countries on the U.N. Human Development Index.

As noted in a 2020 Oxford Business Group report, planned increases in health care spending should improve these indicators. Côte d’Ivoire spent $1.8 billion on health care in 2016, $2 billion in 2019 and intends to spend $2.3 billion in 2021. The country invested in access to services, renovation and building of medical facilities, and development of technical platforms aligned with international health standards. The Ivorian government worked with a number of programs like the Helen Keller International Vitamin A Heroes; however, then the COVID-19 pandemic hit.

Despite COVID, Côte d’Ivoire Health Care Initiatives Regroup to Persevere

Based on the World Health Organization COVID-19 transmission guidance, the Vitamin A Heroes collaboration discontinued its door-to-door campaign. Nevertheless, during the pandemic, the campaign has resolutely distributed Vitamin A and deworming pills at local health clinics when children come with their families for other reasons. Once the pandemic subsides, it will renew its crucial Vitamin A Heroes campaign.

Predicted to Rebound Post COVID and Target Health Care

Côte d’Ivoire’s pre-COVID targeted investment in health care services, facilities and technical innovation gives Côte d’Ivoire health care a positive outlook according to the Oxford Business Group report. The International Monetary Fund predicts that Côte d’Ivoire’s GDP growth will climb back up to 8.7% in 2021 as the new investment in Côte d’Ivoire health care parallels the successful investment in other sectors.

Moving Forward, Côte d’Ivoire to Roll Out Planned Health Care Initiatives

One example of a Côte d’Ivoire health care collaboration of governmental, NGO and local organizations that launched during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 is Harness the Power of Partnerships. Harness the Power of Partnerships is a Côte d’Ivoire health care initiative to use faith-based organizations in the HIV response. Faith-based leadership is working with the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) on long-term strategies to reduce the stigma of HIV/AIDS and to keep Ivorians on their antiretroviral therapies. This PEPFAR/UNAIDS program exemplifies how the Ivorian government continues to partner with non-government groups, including local groups, in order to improve Côte d’Ivoire health care indicators.

Improving Côte d’Ivoire health care will not be an easy task, but creating collaborations with international powerhouses like PEPFAR, UNAIDS, Helen Keller International and local nonprofits and community leaders is definitely a strategy worth watching as COVID-19  subsides and the Ivorian economy rebounds.

– Shelly Saltzman
Photo: Wikipedia Commons

PEPFAROne of the most effective programs in the fight against AIDS is the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, or PEPFAR. The program was first authorized by Congress in May 2003. It initially started as a way to help the people of Africa, where the AIDS epidemic was most concentrated. Now, PEPFAR has international and domestic programs that fight AIDS in over 50 countries.

Poverty and HIV

The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is widely recognized to correlate with impoverished rural and urban areas. Poverty is not a necessary condition for contracting HIV. However, it can be related to risky sexual behaviors, such as participation in sex at a young age and prostitution. Poverty can also lead to inadequate sexual education or resources that would assist in preventing AIDS.

The underlying factors in poor areas that increase the risk of AIDS —  violence, social mobility, economic strain and access to education — need to be addressed. Tackling risk factors as a method of prevention has already proven to be largely successful in fighting AIDS internationally. Further, that approach has helped families simultaneously fight sources of intergenerational poverty.

PEPFAR

When President George W. Bush announced PEPFAR at the State of the Union, he said of the program: “seldom has history offered a greater opportunity to do so much for so many… And to meet a severe and urgent crisis abroad, tonight I propose the Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, a work of mercy beyond all current international efforts to help the people of Africa. This comprehensive plan will prevent seven million new AIDS infections, treat at least two million people with life-extending drugs and provide humane care for millions of people suffering from AIDS and for children orphaned by AIDS.”

Today, PEPFAR has far exceeded its once lofty goals. The program has provided over 18 million people with HIV treatments and helpful services, like cervical screenings and education programs. To celebrate its incredible success, PEPFAR launched a new website in July 2020. It provides a timeline of scientific discoveries, legislation and social outreaches pivotal in the worldwide fight against AIDS.

Starting in 1981, the timeline explores the first known cases of AIDS in the U.S. and Africa. It moves on to facts about school education about AIDS and global programs like the World Health Organization’s Global Program on Aids (1987). A few tabs later, it relates the explosion of Congressional funding and legislation for PEPFAR and allied programs circa 2006 all the way to present day, 2020.

Additionally noted are milestones, such as PEPFAR’s 10th anniversary marking one million HIV-free babies born due to PEPFAR programs. This corresponds to the increased financial investment by the U.S., which proves the initiative’s substantial success.

Continued Efforts

PEPFAR is not satisfied with resting on its existing laurels, however. The same month PEPFAR released its celebratory website, PEPFAR also announced its latest report and upcoming budget. The new budget doubles funding for its HIV program that helps adolescent girls and young women to $400 million.

The program has so far helped over 1.5 million women and girls in only six months in 2019 and decreased HIV cases in that demographic by 25% since 2014. The new budget additionally increases PEPFAR’s cervical screening program, Go Further, by 70%. Together these effective programs are only a small piece of PEPFAR’s astonishing $85 billion total investment over the past 17 years of its existence.

Elizabeth Broderick
Photo: Flickr

Efforts to Combat AIDSAcquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has plagued the world since 1981. The global AIDS pandemic has infected more than 65 million people around the world since its arrival, with more than 30 million deaths from AIDs-related causes. The impact of AIDS has resulted in a worldwide effort to discover methods to treat and cure the disease. To date, significant progress has been made in the fight against AIDS. However, more needs to be done and the United States has shown continued commitment to support efforts to combat AIDS globally.

AIDS and the Global Poor

While AIDS is a global problem, it has disproportionately affected poorer regions since its arrival. Africa in particular has a significant number of people living with AIDS. Out of the 1.7 million newly infected people around the world in 2019, 990,000 people resided in Africa alone. The disproportionate numbers in poorer regions as compared to wealthier nations could be attributed to lack of quality healthcare and preventative education. However, continued efforts are being made to address the global AIDS pandemic.

Congressional Efforts to Combat AIDS

The United States has been a leader in progress against the AIDS pandemic. It has made significant efforts to contribute its resources to fight the AIDS pandemic, and tangible results have emerged. For example, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (or PEPFAR) has contributed over $85 billion since its inception in 2003 to AIDS research and prevention, thus preventing millions of infections.

The United States Government has indicated that it has no interest in slowing down support for the cause through efforts to combat AIDS. For example, the Global Health Programs section of Title III in House bill H.R.7608, the State, Foreign Operations, Agriculture, Rural Development, Interior, Environment, Military Construction, and Veterans Affairs Appropriations Act of 2021 specifically outlines Congress’ plans for AIDS-related contributions in the coming years.

Introduced by Rep. Nita M. Lowey [D-NY] on July 13, 2020, the bill appropriates more than $3.2 billion for USAID through 2022. A portion of these funds will be devoted to programs for the prevention, treatment and research of HIV/AIDS, providing assistance to communities severely affected by HIV/AIDS. The bill also appropriates more than $5.9 billion through 2025 for HIV/AIDS research, prevention and treatment efforts, including a $1.56 billion contribution to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS. This all coincides with the billions of dollars already spent in the last decade to combat AIDS globally.

AIDS Progress

As with most issues, funding and resources are necessary to make progress in the AIDS pandemic. The vast majority of new infections occur in countries and regions with weaker finances, poorer healthcare and less quality education, such as Africa and Southeast Asia. It is easy to see that these efforts by the United States and other wealthy nations are invaluable to progress. A particular stride made thus far is that the cost of AIDS treatment drugs has decreased from $10,000 a person to $100 a person in the past 20 years. This has allowed more than 8 million people in impoverished regions access to AIDS treatments. This particular result could be attributed to years of research that the United States and other nations have contributed billions of dollars to maintain. Continued funding will improve the good work that has already been done, such as furthering cost reduction measures on AIDS-related drug treatments as well as further quality education on prevention strategies in regions where AIDS education is sparse.

With continued support and efforts to combat AIDS from wealthier nations such as the United States, even greater strides can be made in combatting AIDS globally.

Domenic Scalora
Photo:  Flickr

Improve U.S. Foreign AidThe U.S. is currently ranked seventh in the list of “best countries,” according to US News. Further, the nation is known worldwide for its dominant economy and strong military power. Given its global influence, the U.S. has the power to impact the lives of citizens in developing countries. Over the years, the U.S. has provided substantial aid to help reduce famine and poverty rates in some of the world’s poorest countries. To continue assisting vulnerable areas in the future, Congress holds the power to pass certain bills that improve U.S. foreign aid policies. Every year, lawmakers introduce several bills to improve U.S. involvement in developing countries. Here are 5 pending bills designed to improve U.S. foreign aid:

5 New Bills to Improve US Foreign Aid

  1. H.Res. 517. New York Representative, Eliot Engel, introduced this bill in July 2019. It aims to support the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), malaria and its Sixth Replenishment. It urges donor countries to help decrease the damage caused by these diseases, as well as to contribute donations. The bill also encourages recipient countries to keep their promises of utilizing the support to demonstrate progress in ending the AIDS, TB and malaria epidemics.
  2. H.Con.Res. 78. California Representative, Barbra Lee, introduced this bill in December 2019. This measure strives to promote the ideas and goals of World AIDS Day. It also supports continued funding for PEPFAR and the Global Fund to fight illnesses such as AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Additionally, it provides HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment in low and middle-income countries. Finally, this proposal supports efforts that contribute to decreased HIV rates worldwide and acknowledges the root causes of this disease in developing countries.
  3. S.Res. 169. Junior Senator for Oregon, Jeff Merkley, introduced this bill in April 2019. This measure presents a resolution to the statement under section 502B(c) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. Concerning violations of human rights by the Government of Saudi Arabia: it states that the U.S. government should call on Saudi Arabia to release all innocent human rights activists currently imprisoned. This includes journalists and religious minorities as well. Furthermore, the bill requests that the Saudi Arabian government reverse its human rights violations.
  4. FY21. Newly introduced in response to the global crises of 2020, this bill includes $65.87 billion in foreign aid funding an increase of nearly $8.5 billion from the fiscal year 2020 budget. The bill designates $10 billion for funding global COVID-19 responses and for the World Health Organization. Also, this bill allocates $25 million to global maternal and child health, as well as $750 million for global family planning. Moreover, several million dollars contribute to various Global Health and Disease Programs.
  5. H.Res. 527. California Representative, Alan Lowenthal, introduced this bill on July 25, 2019. The goal of this bill is to promote human rights worldwide. It recognizes the violation and erosion of human rights in several countries and urges all U.N. members to promote human rights. Also, H. Res. 527 encourages the U.S. to develop programs that promote the recognition of justice for all. For example, the creation of the national holiday “Human Rights Day.”

Making an Impact

With more power and financing than many other countries, the U.S. is in a unique position to influence the economies and governments of developing nations. Through passing these bills to improve U.S. foreign aid and support, the nation can leave a lasting, positive impact on people living in poverty around the world.

– Megan Ha
Photo: Flickr

HIV in the Central African Republic

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has affected millions of people around the world for many decades. If left untreated, HIV can slowly develop into Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and leave those infected with a compromised immune system. Thousands of individuals have suffered from the disease or lost their life to it since the first reported case in the Central African Republic in 1984. The country has mobilized numerous efforts to combat the disease but still requires assistance to ensure that the citizens have adequate testing and access to medicine. Here are five important facts to know about HIV in the Central African Republic.

5 Facts About HIV in the Central African Republic

  1. Around 5,000 citizens die each year from HIV/AIDS in the Central African Republic. In 2018, more than 5,000 individuals died from AIDS-related causes and an estimated 110,000 citizens were living with illness. Though the infection rate still remains high, the efforts being made to stop the spread of HIV have been effective. In 2010, the prevalence of HIV in the Central African Republic was 5% and according to recent data acquired in 2018, the rate has decreased, with only 3.6% of the population living with the disease.
  2. HIV in the Central African Republic primarily affects homosexual men and sex workers. In the Central African Republic, the number of HIV infections are extremely high in the sex worker population, with a prevalence of 9.2%. Similarly, gay men are also at an increased risk for contracting the virus, with a prevalence of 25.4%. Though these two demographics make up a smaller portion of the nation’s population, the lack of testing and awareness affects every citizen in the Central African Republic. With the help of funding from other countries and organizations, the Central African Republic can begin to provide more medicine and diagnostic centers for individuals.
  3. ART can treat HIV yet is seldom available in every community. While there is no cure for the virus, there is a well-known therapy for slowing it down. The treatment for HIV is a multi-drug regime known as antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART can alleviate the severity of HIV if a person begins treatment after diagnosis. While ART does not kill the virus, it stops the virus from creating DNA in the fourth phase of cell formation and slows the spread of HIV in the body. However, in remote cities like Zemio, medicine and supplies are hard to find. The prevalence of HIV is more than 12% higher in remote regions than it is in the rest of the Central African Republic. The HIV-positive residents in these areas seek comfort and support in Community Antiretroviral therapy Groups (CAGs). Some preemptive strategies for HIV-prevention include condom use, using new needles and premature testing. It is imperative that the citizens, especially those already diagnosed with HIV in the Central African Republic, have suitable access to new condoms and needles.
  4. Due to the political turmoil in the Central African Republic, testing and medicine have become inaccessible to some regions. Because of the conflict arising in the country and other surrounding areas in 2013, ransacking or closing of medical centers weakened the already struggling healthcare system. The political unrest and violence that ensued also resulted in individuals with HIV to avoid seeking treatment or to stop taking their medication. With an increase in displacement, poverty levels and closing of healthcare facilities, individuals in the Central African Republic are in dire need of trained medical staff, consistent medical treatment and more testing sites. It is imperative for the citizens living with HIV in the Central African Republic that other nations continue to increase funding for testing locations, training and medicine.
  5. Other countries and organizations are helping in numerous ways. The Central African Republic depends heavily on funding from other countries to provide treatment for its citizens, with more than 90% of the money spent on individuals with HIV coming from international sources. After the political instability faced by the country in 2013, The United Nations Refugee Agency, also known as the UNHCR, assisted the healthcare facilities in rebuilding their database and providing immediate treatment for refugees and asylum-seekers. UNICEF, another global organization, also provides technical services and financial aid for the Central African Republic. With the help of UNICEF, the country can provide more testing, ARV treatment and care for pregnant women with HIV.

HIV has been prevalent in the Central African Republic since the first case was reported in 1984. While the virus impacts many people, weakening their immune systems, organizations are stepping in to help. Outside funding and support from agencies like UNHCR and UNICEF are helping reduce the prevalence of HIV in the country. 

Danielle Kuzel
Photo: Flickr

USAID’s Humanitarian Work For Haiti
Haiti has been through many economic and political turmoils. Haiti has also faced many natural disasters including hurricanes and earthquakes. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has been at the forefront of providing aid to help the country continue its development. Here is some information about USAID’s humanitarian work in Haiti.

Economic Development

Haiti has been experiencing many economic challenges, including big and small businesses not getting the tools that they need to flourish, such as training and development guidance. Meanwhile, around 40 percent of Haitians do not have employment. Additionally, farmers are not producing at their fullest potential or selling their products well. Haitians are often living on less than $1.25 a day with the majority of the population relying on family farming for work. However, the growing population, droughts, flooding and lack of access to education and training have affected agriculture.

USAID’s humanitarian work in Haiti has been focusing on helping farmers. USAID’s aim has been to create better incomes by granting increased access to education and training, new and improved technology and an open segway to trade and a fair marketplace. Moreover, USAID has made three key contributions. The first contribution had to do with fostering and maintaining food security. USAID directly trained farmers on new and improved farming practices and techniques. In addition, it also trained the farmers on energy and resource conservations. The second contribution involved connecting the farmers with businesses inside and outside of Haiti to sell their products. The last contribution comprised of creating and maintaining partnerships with corporations, local businesses, government and nonprofit organizations.

The Environment

Haiti is experiencing many environmental issues including deforestation, overfishing, insufficient weather information and lack of support from the government on the issues. USAID is helping by working with communities to set up the working agenda and follow through with set working priorities. It is also providing support during a time of change. In addition, USAID is promoting novel techniques for farming and reforestation. Through its work, USAID reached an agreement to plant more trees to regenerate forests. The agreement also covered boosting cocoa production that resulted in $5.2 million in revenue.

Furthermore, USAID’s work on marine life encompasses the Caribbean Marine Biodiversity Program with a pact of Three Bays National Marine Protected Area and the National Conservation Trust Fund. The Program created an agreement with local fishermen to conserve the environment with provided training. At the same time, USAID hired staff to look over the protected areas.

Finally, USAID has implemented the Climate Smart Solutions program. USAID sets up weather stations for researchers, agriculturalists and environmentalists. This way USAID can monitor the weather and collect accurate data. Additionally, the collected data can help farmers monitor rainfalls and climate change. As a result, the farmers can customize their farming according to their current temperatures.

Health

Haiti’s health system faces many challenges, including that it has a weak health care delivery system in that more than 40 percent of the Haitian population has no access to health care. There is also a lack of qualified health care professionals. As a result, USAID has been working to secure a functional health care delivery system by implementing the U.S. President’s Emergency Program for AIDs Relief (PEPFAR) to address HIV treatment and prevention, maternal and child health and nutrition and reproductive health outside of PEPFAR.

Part of USAID’s care plan involved setting up 164 primary care centers around Haiti to carry out all the necessary care services. USAID’s WASH program collaborates with the Haitian Water and Sanitation Department. The two organizations provide clean water and sanitation to prevent transmitted diseases such as cholera. Hundreds of thousands of children and women are receiving the necessary nutrition that they need. Over 200,000 HIV patients are obtaining testing, prevention and counseling services. Moreover, USAID has allowed the staffing of over 1,400 workers at the 164 health care facilities. As a result, the number of maternal and child deaths have reduced.

Education

Haiti has low school enrollment, poor literacy rates, a lack of government support and limited qualified teachers in the education system. USAID has been involved in upgrading the Haitian education system. USAID invests in reading and teaching programs and helping students with visual impairments to learn. The early-grade reading and writing program trains young children to read and write in Haitian and French. Furthermore, the teaching program trains teachers with new and innovative materials and techniques. USAID has successfully provided thousands of teachers and children with training on children’s reading development. It has supplied teaching and learning materials, including books and other published materials. In addition, USAID enhanced services at the Ministry of Education. USAID also helped schools bounce back from Hurricane Matthew by purchasing furniture for schools and paying for cleaning services.

Other USAID Humanitarian Work

With the political unrest in Haiti, USAID committed to eradicating hunger in the country. USAID has provided the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) with $1 million. The funding will go towards transporting emergency supplies to war-torn regions, maintaining WFP’s operations, information management and supply storage. USAID is working with WFP to give out a total of 4.4 metric tons of food to the people of Haiti. Thus far, USAID has funded a total of $20 million for food emergencies and activities to upgrade the quality of life. For example, USAID funded activities that promote healthy eating and general assistance of water, sanitation, personal hygiene and shelter.

USAID’s humanitarian work in Haiti is particularly notable since the country has suffered heavily from natural disasters and their socio-economic impact. Additionally, USAID has been trying to address the root cause of issues such as health care reforms and food security. It is encouraging to see that the U.S. has been continually helping to improve lives around the world through the work and accomplishments of USAID.

Hung Le
Photo: Flickr

CDC Intervention in Haiti
Haiti is the poorest country in the western hemisphere with a UNDP national poverty index ranking of 68th. The country is also home to one of the world’s most populated cities without a centralized sewage system –  Port-Au-Prince. Although the developing country is vibrant, Haiti is still struggling. Since the initial destruction that the 7.0 magnitude earthquake in 2010 brought, cholera and HIV have ravaged the nation. However, as a direct result of the CDC intervention in Haiti, the nation has not fallen. The CDC has provided financial and technical assistance to the Government of Haiti (GOH) since 2002. In the 2010 earthquake’s aftermath, the CDC refocused on both immediate health necessities and public health systems within days of the U.N.’s arrival. CDC intervention in Haiti assisted the GOH in developing disease surveillance systems and establishing a competent public health force aimed to aid Haiti in developing a proper disease outbreak response.

This past decade, Haiti has not seen much progress due to reform efforts growing stagnant. Subsequently, the changes the country has seen thus far have turned out to be unsustainable and/or have been ill-fitted solutions to Haiti’s unique predicament. Fortunately, CDC intervention in Haiti has been critical to the continued survival of many, and the number of people saved will hopefully continue to grow.

Haiti’s Cholera Epidemic and the CDC

The GOH and the CDC have also been collaborating to devise a longterm plan to eliminate cholera. CDC intervention in Haiti has increased patient case surveillance, laboratory capacity, oral cholera vaccine (OCV) administration and clean water and sanitation access in efforts to curb cholera’s spread

One of these efforts includes the Haitian Ministry of Health (MOH) building the National Cholera Surveillance System (NCSS) in conjunction with the CDC support. The platform is a rapid identifier of concentrated outbreaks, providing critical guidance to further prevent future outbreaks. Thanks to these efforts, along with others, incidence rates dropped from 112 cases per every 100,000 in 2017 to 25.5 cases for every 100,000 in 2018.

The CDC’s “Foot-Soldiers” in the Battle Against Cholera

Through the design of training programs, protocols and supplemental assistance, the CDC has created an entirely new workforce titled TEPACs or officially the Techniciens en Eau Potable et Assainissement pour les Communes. Having been key in Haiti’s disease prevention, these “foot-soldiers” ensure the safety of water sources, improve sanitation standards and routinely assess communal water systems and sources for free chlorine. They also performed Haiti’s first inventory of those sources; inventory of resources provide valuable information to donation/volunteering groups. Alongside the efforts of the CDC, TEPACs has launched the WASH initiative – coordinated work in the area of water, sanitation and hygiene – in a supplemental effort to eradicate cholera from Haiti.

CDC Impact On the AIDS Crisis

It is estimated that 150,000 people living in Haiti have HIV/AIDS. CDC intervention in Haiti is achieving more control over the AIDS epidemic. Outlining the concern of the epidemic and the impact of CDC support, 98 percent of all pregnant women and 100 percent of TB patients that CDC clinics saw received tests for HIV. Further, all TB patients that tested positive for HIV also received antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2018. 

The CDC and the President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) have sought to better medical treatment, fortify health care systems, improve laboratory information networks and cover medical fees. The development of information-sharing systems to track data of HIV patients has saved countless lives.

CDC Provides Household Water Treatment and Storage

The CDC also implemented household water treatment and storage (HWTS) to support adequate sanitary conditions for Haitians. HWTS has the potential to provide safe drinking water in primarily rural households. CDC intervention in Haiti has offered HWTS product certification developmental protocols and a national strategy for HWTS programs and product evaluation. The Direction Nationale de l’Eau Potable et de l’Assainissement (DINEPA) intends these programs to support disease prevention and treatment in Haiti.

A Solution to the Underlying Sanitation Problem

While recovery has been slow, CDC intervention in Haiti has been an immensely influential factor in public health. One aspect of public sanitation the CDC does not have a direct influence on is the waste that litters Haiti.

Today, the capital, Port-Au-Prince, is still without central sewage. With every rainfall, a potentially lethal flood of human fecal matter, urine and other harmful substances accompany the water. 

The country is in dire need of infrastructure reforms specifically for the needs of Haiti and its people. The CDC has dedicated itself to controlling and minimizing epidemics, but it has yet to address flooding latrines and a lack of proper sewage disposal systems despite their inflammatory influence on disease.

Flaure Dubois has a potential solution to Haiti’s flood problem. Dubois proposes the Haitian government hire those working to clean latrines, called Bayakous, to create jobs for Haitian citizens. Officializing the Bayakou occupation would bring a wage increase and higher public esteem. If the GOH and the CDC work in conjunction with Bayakous to educate citizens about the dangers of raw sewage, people might be more willing to pay for Bayakou services. Further, it would encourage the sewage shipment to treatment plants, rather than it going into canals. A larger influx of latrine waste enables Haiti’s one functional plant to operate at peak performance and support economic growth in the sanitation sector.

Government-funded Bayakous provide a basis to expand Haiti’s waste-management industry, eventually increasing aptitudes for efficient waste treatment/disposal methods. Expansion of this industry could result in a higher degree of sanitation and a lower rate of disease transmission.

The GOH or the CDC’s involvement in waste management would lead to superior safety and higher circulation of information for Haitian citizens and workers in the sanitation industry. Employing Bayakous has the potential to sponsor the country’s most important pillar in ensuring safe water sources and sanitation. By offering better equipment, methods and working conditions CDC intervention in Haiti can support sustaining health improvements. Haiti needs a sustainable solution to the root of its sanitation problem before it can begin to have lasting-recovery.

– Hana Burson
Photo: Pixabay

Global Health News
The start of 2020 is the time to look back and see global health news for 2019. From new drug recommendations and global vaccination efforts to ongoing diseases and funding to eliminate them, health agencies and national governments are working tirelessly to keep everything in place. They are making sure the general public, especially those in affected countries, get the right information and the best resources to address these health issues. They are gathering enough funding to implement different health programs for treatment and prevention. Finally, they are continually conducting research to find new treatments to make the world a healthier place.

Global Health News Updates for 2019

  1. Tafenoquine use for malaria is under new guidance: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were about 219 million malaria cases around the world in 2017. People can use Arakoda (tafenoquine 300 mg) and Krintafel (tafenoquine 150 mg) to treat malaria. The government of Kenya joined Ghana and Malawi to test the malaria vaccine for children. Results of clinical trials show that vaccinated children do not contract malaria as often as unvaccinated children.
  2. Poliovirus outbreaks increase sharply: Poliovirus (cVDVP) outbreaks have increased worldwide. Twenty-nine outbreaks occurred in 15 countries within a one-and-a-half-year period (2018-2019). The 29 outbreaks also tripled the number of outbreaks in the year prior (2017-2018) among six different countries. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has send staff to the affected areas to provide treatment and prevention efforts.
  3. Measles numbers increased: Measles cases have increased tremendously in the last three years. In 2018, there were approximately 10 million measles cases with 140,000 deaths. The number of deaths has increased from 90,000 in 2016. People are not receiving immunizations due to different vaccination beliefs and the availability of vaccines. UNICEF is trying to address the issue; however, Xavier Crespin, UNICEF’s chief of health in the Democratic Republic of Congo, said it has been difficult.
  4. Global vaccination coverage has stayed the same since 2010: The global vaccination rate has stayed between 85 percent to 86 percent for the past eight years. This is due to the low availability of vaccines reaching areas of countries that are experiencing high poverty and warfare. False vaccination beliefs are also a factor in holding back coverage. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) is working to address the issue by setting up vaccination stations in these countries as well as solving any vaccination challenges that stand in the way of vaccinating people. 
  5. New Respiratory Syndrome from Wuhan, China: Chinese health authorities have confirmed a case of new coronavirus in January 2020. The number of deaths has reached 80 with more cases expected. The virus has spread to Malaysia, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Korea and the United States, and the situation is on its way to becoming a global epidemic. WHO is closely monitoring the situation and issuing health advisories to affected countries.
  6. Preparing for Ebola in South Sudan: South Sudan is preparing for Ebola as its neighbor, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, had an outbreak. Warfare has devastated the country’s health system; health experts are suggesting ways to prevent and treat diseases. The country’s health governance deployed fully-immunized health workers to support prevention efforts with 32 outposts for screening and care along the border.
  7. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV mortality in Kenya: The use of antiretrovirals to treat HIV has reduced HIV-related death rates in Kenya as one researcher at the CDC Zielinski-Gutierrez confirmed. The CDC is leading the AIDS-control effort as part of the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) all over the world including Kenya (PEPFAR Kenya).
  8. Shigella developed resistance to azithromycin and ciprofloxacin: In a research study, the virus that causes Shigella in men who have sex with men (MSM) has developed resistance to azithromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. WHO put preventative measures in place like the Water and Sanitation Decade Development Project to promote water sanitation and hand-washing education.
  9. Tuberculosis (TB) is low in the U.S. but not globally: Residents who were born outside of the U.S. are much more likely to contract tuberculosis and carry latent TB infection. The CDC stated that 69.5 percent of newly diagnosed TB cases are of those who were born outside of the U.S. compared to 29.5 percent of those who were born in the U.S. Furthermore, countries other than the U.S. have higher TB death rates. The United Nations and WHO are targeting to end TB in 2030 and 2050 respectively.
  10. Donors pledge to donate $2.6 billion to end polio: Donors pledged to donate $2.6 billion at the Polio Conference in Abu Dhabi to help put an end to world polio. Donations come from the Gates Foundation, the U.K., the U.S., Pakistan and Rotary International. WHO will use the funding to vaccinate 450 million children each year.

Global health challenges are ongoing; however, many are working to address these challenges. Global health efforts will not go unnoticed as the world will become a healthier, happier and safer place for all. Finally, global health news updates are an excellent way to communicate all global health trends, challenges and ongoing projects. 

– Hung Minh Le
Photo: Flickr

Quotes On Poverty

There are many quotes on poverty from world leaders that make it clear what their stance is. American leaders are no different; they too have things to say about poverty. These former presidents understood the roots and the long-term effects of poverty on human beings. Below is a list of seven quotes on poverty with some background information on the former American presidents.

Seven Quotes On Poverty From Former U.S. Presidents

  1. John F. Kennedy: Kennedy served in both the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives until he became the 35th U.S. president in 1961. Some of his top achievements include the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the Alliance for Progress. It was also Kennedy’s administration that established the Peace Corps by executive order in 1961, thanks to the increasing activism that was spreading among the West. The idea behind the Peace Corps was to find volunteers who would be willing to work on improving the social and economic conditions across the globe in order to promote modernization and development. Kennedy was quoted saying, “If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. [Inaugural Address, January 20, 1961]”
  2. Bill Clinton: William Jefferson Clinton enacted the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. His two terms as President were correlated with economic prosperity from 1992 to 1998. Clinton’s vision in terms of foreign policy was intertwined with globalization as he believed that domestic events can be sharply affected by foreign events. He was quoted saying, “It turns out that advancing equal opportunity and economic empowerment is both morally right and good economics, because discrimination, poverty and ignorance restrict growth, while investments in education, infrastructure and scientific and technological research increase it, creating more good jobs and new wealth for all of us.”
  3. Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected to be president four times even though he was known at Harvard to be an ‘unimpressive C student.’ He led the United States both during the Great War and World War II. He established reforms in the powers of the federal government through the New Deal, including the CCC, the WPA, the TVA etc. In the earlier period of his presidency, he led the “Good Neighbor” policy for Latin America and other countries in the Western Hemisphere. Roosevelt was quoted saying, “The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little.”
  4. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Dwight D. Eisenhower was first appointed as U.S. Army chief of staff in 1945. In 1951, he became the first Supreme Allied Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The following year, he was elected President. Eisenhower served two terms before retiring in 1961. The policy of containment became popular under the Eisenhower administration through the introduction of bilateral and multilateral treaties, including the CENTO and the SEATO. Eisenhower was quoted saying, “Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. This is not a way of life at all in any true sense. Under the clouds of war, it is humanity hanging on a cross of iron.”
  5. Lyndon B. Johnson: Lyndon B. Johnson initially served as vice president under John F. Kennedy in 1960. After Kennedy’s death in 1962, he became the 36th president himself. Johnson was widely acknowledged for his ‘Great Society’ social service programs, the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law. Johnson was quoted saying, “The hungry world cannot be fed until and unless the growth of its resources and the growth of its population come into balance. Each man and woman – and each nation – must make decisions of conscience and policy in the face of this great problem.”
  6. George W. Bush: George W. Bush served as the 43rd President in the United States. He is remembered as the leader of the country during the 9/11 attacks in 2001. He was involved in the policy of the fight against HIV/AIDS where he proposed a $15 billion initiative known as the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This initiative led to an increase from 50,000 to 3 million Africans receiving AIDS medication. Bush was quoted saying, “Many in our country do not know the pain of poverty, but we can listen to those who do. And I can pledge our nation to a goal: When we see that wounded traveler on the road to Jericho, we will not pass to the other side. America, at its best, is a place where personal responsibility is valued and expected.”
  7. Barack Obama: Barack Obama was elected as the 44th president and the first African-American president of the United States. Before being elected president, Obama served in the U.S. Senate in the state of Illinois. Obama’s main stance on foreign policy was restraint. He tried his best to limit large-scale military operations and maximize diplomatic cooperation. He shared the burdens and responsibilities of international leadership with leaders from other countries. Obama was quoted saying, “As the wealthiest nation on Earth, I believe the United States has a moral obligation to lead the fight against hunger and malnutrition, and to partner with others.”

It is important to highlight these seven quotes on poverty from our leaders to remind us how national and global poverty can affect everyone’s daily lives. This effect can come through in the forms of policies or everyday interactions.

Nergis Sefer
Photo: Flickr