10 Facts about Life Expectancy in Brunei Darussalam
Brunei Darussalam is a small, Southeast Asian country nestled in the Indonesian Archipelago. Currently, the average life expectancy is about 76 years, which is roughly four years higher than the U.N.’s estimated global average of about 72.6 years. While certain factors like an individual’s personal habits and existing health conditions can factor into life expectancy, socioeconomic status drives this number on a larger level. With this in mind, here are 10 facts about life expectancy in Brunei Darussalam.

10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Brunei Darussalam

  1. The life expectancy in Brunei Darussalam has been steadily increasing. Since the 1950s, life expectancy was a mere 50 years old, whereas it is now 75.93 years. Women on average tend to live to 77 years old, while men live to be about 74.
  2. The infant mortality rate is worsening. As of 2018, there were about 9.8 deaths in infants for every 1,000 live births before they reached 1 year old. This number has been creeping up, since it was 7.7 per 1,000 in 2005, due to the high amount of babies being born underweight and the persistence of deficient red blood cells in women and young children.
  3. According to the U.N.’s Human Development Report, Brunei Darussalam is ‘very high in human development.’ It ranked Brunei Darussalam 39th among the world’s powers – tied with Saudi Arabia. Its Human Development Index ranking went up one from 2016, when it ranked 40, still falling within the ‘very high’ ranking in human development. Life expectancy is a component that the U.N. uses to measure a nation’s development index.
  4. The population has been increasing since 1955. While the rate of this increase is lessening, the percentage of the population that has urbanized has been increasing, with the urbanization percentage rising to 79.5 percent from its 34.6 percent in 1955. Urbanization largely occurs with an increased life expectancy, more employment opportunities and physical development within a nation.
  5. Most of the population over the age of 15 has employment. More men have employment than women at 70.6 percent, with the percentage of employed women sitting at 51.5 percent. This is an increase from 1991 when only 44.5 percent of women had work. Studies show that those in the labor force tend to live longer than those who are not.
  6. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death. As of 2007 and holding true to 2017, coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death in Brunei, with it also being the leading cause of premature deaths.  In a study that determined the leading cause of death and disability combined, coronary heart disease ranked second.
  7. The rate of adult literacy in Brunei is 95.3 percent. In 2009, Brunei launched a new education program, which would give the populace a free six years of primary school and four or five years of secondary school, with the option for the pursuit of higher education or vocational school available. Literacy and life expectancy link together through socioeconomic factors, with those who are literate likely living in more favorable socioeconomic circumstances, which ultimately leads to a higher life expectancy.
  8. Brunei has an immunization coverage of 97.8 percent. This exceeds The World Health Organization’s target, which is 95 percent. Immunization is a major contributor to the increased global average life expectancy, as it protects people from diseases that were often fatal prior to vaccines.
  9. Brunei boasts good air quality. According to a real-time map index, the various checkpoints throughout Brunei (Kuala Belait, Pekan Tutong, Brunei Muara and Temburong) have consistently been reporting satisfactory air quality that poses little to no threat, the healthiest setting on the scale. This is comparable to the surrounding checkpoints in Malaysia, which indicate that people who are particularly sensitive to air pollution might be at risk.
  10. Brunei has a reliable infrastructure. Brunei’s population pays no income or sales taxes. Those in Brunei also enjoy low crime rates, free public schooling up through secondary education, free health care and subsidized housing, all of which contribute to a higher life expectancy.

The overall life expectancy in Brunei Darussalam, as well as components that contribute to a higher life expectancy, are doing well within the standards of the developed world. These 10 facts about life expectancy in Brunei Darussalam provide more information on several issues in the country.

Catherine Lin
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Life Expectancy in Mauritius
Known for its tropical warm waters, the Republic of Mauritius is one of the major tourist destinations of the world. Mauritius has the highest life expectancy in the African continent, with a population of nearly 1.2 million. A nation’s life expectancy has proven time and again to be one of the major factors fostering its economic development. Here are 10 facts about life expectancy in Mauritius.

10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Mauritius

  1. According to the World Bank, the total life expectancy at birth in Mauritius stood at 74.5 years in 2017. Males live up to 71.3 years whereas females have a higher life expectancy, living up to almost 79 years. 
  2. As one of the top 10 free economies of the world, Mauritius has the second-highest GDP in the African continent and economists estimate the GDP per capita will reach $11,200 by the end of 2020. With a 3.8 percent growth rate, the island nation shows a great promise in improving the quality of life for its residents. Mauritius spent about 4.8 percent of the total GDP on health care in 2014.
  3. Ischemic heart disease and diabetes rank among the top two causes of death in Mauritius, although the number of deaths from diabetes has surged by 37 percent from 2007 to 2017. The Ministry of Health and Quality of Life, Mauritius Institute of Health and World Health Organisation (WHO) have suggested several dietary guidelines to regulate diabetes and other non-communicable diseases.
  4. Several islands like the island of Rodrigues suffer from extreme poverty and lack of access to basic amenities, which decreases life expectancy, even though Mauritius has one of the fastest-growing African economies. However, the economic inequality growing in the nation has been the primary target for The Marshall Plan Against Poverty which tackles several of these hindrances and plans to better the lives of communities falling under the poverty line. The plan allows the people living in absolute poverty to be on the receiving end of cash transfers and the support of social workers to help them battle the challenges faced because of their economic conditions.
  5. As a welfare state, the government of Mauritius provides free health care to its citizens, making it highly accessible. Medical care standards are very high with qualified health professionals attending 98 percent of childbirths, reducing the risk of infant mortality. Additionally, Mauritius had 1.06 physicians per 1,000 people in 2004. 
  6. Physical activity and way of life play a major role in life expectancy. With a surge in its non-communicable diseases, researchers found that only 23 percent of the adult Mauritius population engages in WHO’s recommended physical activity level, which is 150 minutes per week. According to Dr. Anwar Husnoo, the Minister of Health and Quality of Life, the number stooped to 19 percent in the case of young adults. He stated this at a December 2018 workshop in Quatre Bornes, to raise awareness of the importance of the physical activity.
  7. Many parts of the world still heavily stigmatize mental health and Mauritius is no exception. With only 1.6 psychiatrists available for 100,000 people in a country where 28.4 out of 1,000 citizens suffer from severe mental or substance abuse disorders, the nation still has a long way to increase its life expectancy. An upside to this is that the care and treatment of major health disorders receive complete coverage in the country’s health care schemes, making it easier for its citizens to approach treatments more openly.
  8. The infant mortality rate in Mauritius has been on a steady decline since 1969 from 62.8 deaths per 1,000 live births to 13.6 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2018. This was due to the increase in medical standards and supervised childbirths. Access to vaccines has also played a key role. According to UNICEF, 99 percent of the children received doses of a measles-containing vaccine, as administered in the national schedule.
  9. The life expectancy of Mauritius’ male population tends to be less than that of the female population. Research that NCBI carried out analyzed the patterns in the influence of cause-of-death structure on age and found out that the infectious diseases were a major cause of death in younger Mauritian males, while circulatory causes like heart diseases resulted in major deaths among the older male population. Type 2 diabetes is still a major cause of death in Mauritian females, as it affects 21.3 percent of the female population of the country.
  10. The percentage of the urban population of a nation often contributes to its life expectancy. A higher urban population often means easier access to basic amenities and health care which reduces the mortality rate due to preventable causes. By 2018, 40.79 percent of the Mauritius population lived in urban areas. The current percentage has certainly contributed to the steady increase of the life expectancy in Mauritius even though it is nearly 4 percent less than the highest percentage of the urban population that Mauritius ever recorded (which was 44.1 percent).

Taking all these factors into consideration, there is no doubt that Mauritius is moving steadily forward in increasing its life expectancy and making better living conditions more accessible and possible for all sections of its population.

– Reshma Beesetty
Photo: Flickr

Life expectancy in Grenada
Grenada is a country in the Caribbean composed of seven islands. This former British colony attained its independence in 1974, making Grenada one of the smallest independent nations in the western hemisphere. Nicknamed historically as the “spice isle,” Grenada’s traditional exports included sugar, chocolate and nutmeg. From 1979 to 1983, Grenada went through a period of political upheaval, which ended when a U.S.-led coalition invaded the island. Today, Grenada is a democratic nation that is working to ensure the health and well-being of its citizens. Here are nine facts about life expectancy in Grenada.

9 Facts About Life Expectancy in Grenada

  1. The World Bank’s data showed that, as of 2017, life expectancy in Grenada was 72.39 years. While there was a rapid increase in life expectancy from 1960 to 2006, life expectancy decreased from 2007 to 2017.  However, the CIA estimates that this metric will increase to 75.2 years in 2020.
  2. Non-communicable diseases constitute the leading cause of death in Grenada. According to 2016 WHO data, non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes constituted the majority of premature death in Grenada. Cardiovascular diseases, which constituted 32 percent of all premature deaths, were the leading cause of death in 2016.
  3. Grenada’s infant mortality rate stands at 8.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. This is a significant improvement from 21.2 infant deaths out of 1,000 in 1985 and 13.7 deaths out of 1,000 in 2018.
  4. Grenada has universal health care. Health care in Grenada is run by the Ministry of Health (MoH). Through the MoH, the Grenadan government helps finance medical care in public institutions. Furthermore, if an individual wishes to purchase private health insurance, there are several options to choose from.
  5. Around 98 percent of people in Grenada have access to improved drinking water. However, water scarcity still plagues many people in Grenada due to erratic rainfall, climate change and limited water storage. To remedy this, Grenada launched a $42 million project in 2019 with the goal of expanding its water infrastructure. This includes plans to retrofit existing systems.
  6. Hurricanes and cyclones pose a threat to life expectancy in Grenada. While in recent years Grenada has not been significantly affected by a hurricane, Grenadians still remember the devastation caused by Hurricane Ivan (2004) and Hurricane Emily (2005). Hurricane Ivan caused an estimated $800 million worth of damage. In the following year, Hurricane Emily caused an additional $110 million damage. On top of 30 deaths caused by these natural disasters, the damage they inflicted on Grenada’s infrastructure and agriculture can have further harmful ramifications for the people of Grenada.
  7. The Grenadian government is taking measures to improve the country’s disaster risk
    management (DRM). With the help of organizations such as the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), Grenada is recovering from the devastation of 2004 and 2005. In 2010, for example, GFDRR conducted a risk management analysis which helped the preparation of a $26.2 million public infrastructure investment project by the World Bank in Grenada.
  8. The Grenadian government’s 2016-2025 health plan aims to strengthen life expectancy in Grenada. One of the top priorities of this framework is to ensure that health services are available, accessible and affordable to all citizens. Another goal surrounds addressing challenges for the most vulnerable groups in society such as the elderly, children and women.
  9. Grenada received a vaccination award from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). In November of 2014, PAHO awarded Grenada the Henry C. Smith Award for Immunization, which is presented to the country that has made the most improvement in their immunization programs. PAHO attributed this success to Community Nursing Health teams and four private Pediatricians in Grenada.

The Grenadian government is committed to providing the best quality of life for its citizens. However, there is still room for improvement. The prevalence of premature death caused by cardiovascular diseases suggests that Grenada needs to promote healthier life choices for its citizens. With the continued support and observation by the Grenadian government, many hope that life expectancy in Grenada will increase in the future.

YongJin Yi
Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Sao Tome and Principe
Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a small island nation just north of the Equator. This formal Portuguese colony achieved its independence in 1975. As a Portuguese colony, from 1470 to 1975, people knew Sao Tome and Principe for its sugar production and trade. The slave labor utilized in the island’s sugar industry persisted into the 20th century. The country’s economy is largely dependent on agricultural exports, but the Sao Tome and Principe government is making efforts to diversify its economy. Here are the top 10 facts about living conditions in Sao Tome and Principe.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Sao Tome and Principe

  1. Life expectancy in Sao Tome and Principe is 70.2 years old. While this is lower than life expectancy in developed countries such as the U.S. or the U.K., STP’s life expectancy is higher than its neighbors. Compared to other developing nations in Africa such as Gabon, Angola, Nigeria, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, STP has a higher life expectancy.
  2. As of 2018, the literacy rate in STP was 92.8 percent. Primary level education, which lasts for six years, is compulsory and free of charge. This, combined with a high primary school enrollment of 97 percent, resulted in a high literacy rate. However, the quality of education and teachers raises some concerns. To remedy this, in cooperation with the Global Partnerships for Education (GPE) and the World Bank, the STP government is striving to improve the quality of education facilities and training of teachers.
  3. About 97.1 percent of the STP population has access to an improved water source. While STP has access to more than 50 natural water sources, these sources are unevenly distributed within the island. With the support of the U.N. Environment and the Global Environment Facility, STP enacted its first water law in January 2018. The new law guides the use and control of water with the aim of long-term water sustainability and access to water for all populace in STP.
  4. Sixty-eight percent of the population in STP has access to electricity. While 87 percent of the urban area has access to electricity, only 22 percent of the rural areas in the STP have access to electricity. This lack of access to electricity for the rural populace negatively affects the living conditions in Sao Tome and Principe. To remedy this, the STP government is cooperating with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in creating hydro-powered power plants which will utilize STP’s multiple rivers to generate power.
  5. Approximately 66.2 percent of the STP population lives below the poverty line. STP’s economic dependence on cacao export resulted in the country’s over-dependence on its agricultural sector. The majority of STP’s population depends on agriculture for their income. The recent fall in cacao prices severely affected the STP’s economy. To remedy this, the STP government is investing in the country’s tourism industry. STP is also co-developing the recently discovered oil in the Gulf of Guinea with Nigeria.
  6. STP relies on foreign imports to support itself. Living conditions in Sao Tome and Principe depend heavily upon foreign imports. The majority of food, fuels, manufactured goods and consumer goods enter STP as imports. This leaves STP’s economy and access to goods vulnerable to the fluctuating international prices of goods. For example, of the estimated GDP of $686 million in 2017, $127.7 million went into foreign good imports.
  7. STP also relies heavily on foreign aid. UNICEF’s 2018 report showed concern that the GDP of the STP is still heavily dependent upon foreign aid. According to the report, only 14.9 percent of STP’s GDP came from domestic resources. In 2019, 90 percent of STP’s country budget received funding from foreign aid.
  8. Infant mortality in STP is in sharp decline since 1992. Compared to the 69.5 per 1,000 infant mortality rate in 1992, infant mortality in STP declined to 24.4 per 1,000 as of 2018. In UNICEF’s 2018 annual report, UNICEF noted the continuous progress that the STP government is making in improving access to basic services, education, maternal health and treating HIV/AIDS and malaria.
  9. STP will graduate from the U.N.’s list of least developed countries. According to the World Economic Outlook report, STP and Angola will leave the U.N.’s group of least developed countries. Angola will graduate from the list in 2021 and STP will graduate in 2024. This reflects the continuously improving living conditions in Sao Tome and Principe and Angola.
  10. As of 2017, the unemployment rate in STP is 12.2 percent. This unemployment rate was a 0.4 percent drop from 2016. However, some experts wonder if this truly represents the living conditions in Sao Tome and Principe. Since many workers in STP work as farmers, experts are calling for improvements in STP’s manufacturing and tourism sectors.

Living conditions in Sao Tome and Principe are steadily improving. There are still many mountains that the STP government must climb in order to lead its country into a more prosperous future. While the STP economy’s dependence on agriculture and foreign aid is concerning, the high literacy rate in STP reflects the potential for growth. STP’s planned graduation from the U.N.’s list of least developed countries certainly seems to reflect this optimism. With this progress, a better future is surely coming for the people of STP.

YongJin Yi
Photo: Flickr

10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Serbia
The Republic of Serbia gained independence following the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1992. Although birthed from the aftermath of a bloody civil war and a subsequent period of violence and civil unrest, Serbia is a progressive nation with a high quality of life standards. Here are 10 facts about life expectancy in Serbia.

10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Serbia

  1. Trends: Life expectancy in Serbia continues to trend upwards. The current average life expectancy is 76.05, a 0.18 percent increase from 2019. U.N. statistical projections anticipate that life expectancy rates will grow to 80.21 by 2050.
  2. Leading Causes of Death: A 2018 report from the WHO identified the leading causes of death in Serbia as coronary heart disease, which accounted for 21.39 percent of deaths. In addition, around 14.92 percent of death are from strokes.
  3. Infant Mortality: Serbia’s infant mortality rate is steadily improving. In 2000, there were approximately 13.5 deaths per 1,000 live births. Today, the metric stands at only 4.6 deaths per 1,000 live births. Additionally, U.N. data predicts that infant mortality rates will drop even further by 2050 to just over two deaths per 1,000 births.
  4. Health Care: Serbia underserves health care to around 20 percent of Serbian citizens. However, Serbia, in general, has an inclusive and effective health care system. Pregnant women, infants, college students and children 15 or younger all receive free health care. Furthermore, mental health services and treatment of infectious diseases are free for all.
  5. Access to Medical Facilities: The post-World War II Serbian government invested heavily in the territory’s medical schools. Eventually, it hopes to correct its problematic lack of trained medical professionals. As of 2016, there were 3.13 doctors per 1,000 citizens. That same year, Serbia recorded health funding equivalent to 9.1 percent of the national GDP.
  6. Birth Rate: Serbia’s population is shrinking. The estimated fertility rate in 2020 is 1.46 children born per woman. This place Serbia at 211 out of 228 nations. As a result, the population should decline by an estimated 0.47 percent.
  7. Violent Crime: Serbia’s murder rate has significantly declined over the past decade. In 2007, there were 1.9 homicides per 100,000 citizens. By 2017, the number dropped to 1.1. However, Serbia is a strategic corridor in the international drug trafficking trade. This means that multiple organized crime syndicates operate there.
  8. Women’s Health: In general, Serbian women live longer and healthier lives than their male counterparts. Women live on average around five years longer than men. Estimates determine that Serbia’s maternal mortality rate is 12 deaths per 100,000 live births. It places Serbia in the upper half of global maternal mortality figures.
  9. Sexual/Reproductive Health: Serbia is a highly religious nation. In addition, citizens typically hold conservative attitudes towards sex and relationships. Contraceptive prevalence is a comparatively low 58.4 percent. Only 18.4 percent of married or committed women use modern contraceptive methods. The United Nations Population Fund is in the midst of a campaign to ensure universal access to contraception and family planning services.
  10. Ethnic Minorities: Hungarians, Romani, Bosnians and other ethnic minorities comprise 16.7 percent of the Serbian population. Historically, Serbia’s relationship with the rest of the Balkans has been volatile both within and outside national borders. Additionally, this contributed to unequal access to health care, particularly for the Roma population. In concert with UNICEF, the Pediatric Association of Serbia is engaged in improving pediatric care for minorities and children with disabilities.
These 10 facts about life expectancy in Serbia attest to the nation’s rapid recovery from the tragedies of the 1990s and early 2000s. Serbia’s health care system and quality of life standards should improve even further in the coming years.

Dan Zamarelli
Photo: Flickr

10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Lithuania
With strong connections to the Nordic countries of Northern Europe and the European Union, the Republic of Lithuania is located at the shores of the Baltic Seas in Europe. The nation has an intriguing history: while maintaining independence since 1990, Lithuania has also been occupied by foreign powers for many years out of the last two centuries.

Lithuania has an extremely high quality of life under a stable democratic system. This may be connected to continental trade through the E.U.’s free movement agreement and global security through N.A.T.O membership. Despite experiencing stability and growth, life expectancy in Lithuania has seen several fluctuations; even after a decade of continuous growth, it remains below average for the area. Here are 10 facts about life expectancy in Lithuania.

10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Lithuania

  1. The current life expectancy in Lithuania is 74.6 years. Compared to other European Union nations, who average at 84 years, life expectancy in Lithuania is nearly a decade shorter. The nation also remains below the average of its immediate neighbors in Central Europe and the rest of the Baltics, who have a life expectancy of 77 years. Further, Lithuania lands just above the world average of 72 years.
  2. Life expectancy in Lithuania has had a chaotic trend over the last 70 years. In the 1990s, economic fallout and loss of life caused by riots and chaos during the independence movement led to a low life expectancy rate of 68.5 years in 1994. Since then, however, life expectancy growth rates have more or less stabilized. Lithuanian life expectancy currently shows little sign that the upward trend will change for the worse.
  3. The population of Lithuania has decreased since independence. Having peaked at 3.7 million citizens in 1991, the population has steadily declined. Today, the country is inhabited by 2.79 million people, due to the country’s high death rate of 15 deaths per 1000 people, which results in a negative population growth rate of 1 percent. Furthermore, the emigration of the general populace towards Western Europe has only aided Lithuanian population loss.
  4. Life expectancy in Lithuania has increased at a slower rate than the rest of the world. Lithuanian life expectancy has increased by 8.35 percent from 1986 to 2017. Comparatively, the rest of the world’s life expectancy average has increased by 25.1 percent. Despite the human development index ranking of 34th in the world for development, it is possible high suicide rates in Lithuania substantially influence life expectancy. Unfortunately, the nation has the highest suicide rate in the world at an average of 26 suicides per 100,000 people.
  5. High Lithuanian suicide rates have gained national attention. Having such high suicide rates is clearly a major contributor to the nation’s lowered life expectancies and high death rate. Certain areas of the country are reaching rates of 71.9 deaths per 100,000 people. Subsequently, this has been the focus of intense national efforts. The government has been pursuing support through organizations such as the National Suicide Prevention Strategy; additionally, N.G.O. ‘s like the World Health Organization has supported Lithuania in suicide reduction efforts. As a result, suicide rates have reduced by nearly 15 percent between 2010 to 2016.
  6. Gender disparity is still relevant to suicide rates in Lithuania. On average, men typically live to be 69.2 years while women live to be 79.7 years. Social conditions play a role in this, as men are more heavily affected by the patriarchal norms that drive them into more dangerous work environments. As a result of the intense stress, the suicide rate in men is at heights far above the rate for women.
  7. Lithuanian suicide rates are the result of a complex series of social conditions. As one of the external driving factors behind lowered life expectancy in Lithuania, suicide rates are key as it is affecting all strata of society in the nation. There are various factors besides gender disparity that influences the inclination to commit suicide. One factor is extremely high alcohol consumption, where one in three men report high alcohol intake. Additionally, Lithuania has poor mental health facilities, creating an environment where it is difficult to seek adequate help. Finally, the legacy of historical suicide ideation plays a part in this figure as well.
  8. Biological causes are also a key part of life expectancy in Lithuania. The most considerable influence on life expectancy from biological causes is cardiovascular disease. Thirty-four percent of all deaths in 2017 were due to cardiovascular disease, which is linked to the high rates of obesity in the country. Above 60 percent of the adult population of Lithuania is overweight; obesity is directly linked to poor cardiovascular health and a higher risk of stroke, which is the second-highest cause of death in Lithuania.
  9. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity levels are the primary causes of obesity in Lithuania. The obesity problem affecting life expectancy in Lithuania is the result of a number of factors, crucial amongst them being low rates of physical exercise and unhealthy diets. Only 10.1 percent of the population reported committing to minimal exercise in 2010. Adjunctly, Lithuania’s diet surveys reveal that upwards of 13.2 percent of caloric intake comes from saturated fats; Medline Plus states that saturated fat intake should be less than 10 percent for a healthy diet. However, the government continues efforts to tackle obesity by encouraging exercise among adults and implementing food and drug protocols to reduce unhealthy food consumption.
  10. Health spending in the country is amongst the lowest in the European Union. Public health spending is currently at 6.5 percent of the GDP and remains the sixth-lowest in the European Union. At double the E.U. average, 32 percent of all health spending is privately funded, mostly coming from pharmaceutical expenditures. This means that citizens are forced to spend personal funds on acquiring medication that is often quite expensive. Although, spending has increased from 5.6 percent of GDP in 2005 to 6.5 percent in 2015. Despite this gradual increase, greater strides are necessary for the health system to match the rest of the E.U. and begin increasing overall life expectancy in Lithuania.

These 10 facts about life expectancy in Lithuania outline that despite its tremendous human development index and growing economy, the general health and overall lifespan of the nation’s population are quite poor. Further, the issue is not being addressed as effectively as it could be. Life expectancy in Lithuania could be improved by improved government programming and initiatives. Specifically, the implementation of effective mental health systems would greatly impact public health. Another solution would be to execute physical preventative care, such as exercise infrastructure, to increase public health.

Neil Singh
Photo: Pixabay

Life Expectancy in Latvia
Latvia is a small country located in the Baltics, bordering Estonia, Lithuania, Belarus and Russia. In 2018, the life expectancy in Latvia was 75 years, slightly above the average global life expectancy of 72.6 years. Since 2006, the total life expectancy in Latvia has been slowly growing at a rate of about .35 per year. Here are 10 facts about life expectancy in Latvia.

10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Latvia

  1. Differences Based on Sex: The life expectancy for women in Latvia was 79.6 in 2018, as opposed to 70 for men. Generally, there is about a 10-year difference in life expectancy between men and women in Latvia, as opposed to the five-year difference which is the average in the European Union. The Baltic News Network has attributed this to greater rates of cancer and a general culture of ignoring health problems among men in Latvia. 
  2. Leading Causes of Death: The leading causes of death in Latvia are ischemic heart disease, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and lung cancer. The only of these causes to increase in percentage from 2007-2017 is Alzheimer’s disease. The rest have decreased by at least 17 percent during that span.
  3. Risk Factors: There are several risk factors involved in Latvian fatalities. Among the leading risk factors are dietary risks, alcohol and tobacco use, high blood pressure and a high body-mass-index. In addition, there are environmental risk factors in Latvia. For example, estimates determine that air pollution is the eighth largest risk factor for Latvians in 2017. Recently Latvia has seen legislation geared at reducing some of these factors, such as a law passed in 2016 requiring health warnings on cigarette packaging.
  4. Spending: In 2016, the average Latvian spent $995 a year on health care. People spend around $437 out of pocket and $549 came from the government. By 2050 projections determine that the number will double. For reference, the average American, the world’s highest spender on health care, spends approximately $10,000 a year on health care.
  5. Self-harm: Self-harm is a major problem in Latvia, causing 729 deaths per 100,000, significantly above the mean in Europe. Likewise, Latvia had the lowest rate (31 percent) of people who reported being happy within the last four weeks of any European nation in 2018. In 2014, Latvia launched its first campaign called “Don’t Turn Away,” to address these issues, increase social awareness of self-harm and destigmatize talking about mental health issues. From 2014 to 2016, Latvia saw its suicide rate drop from 19.31 percent to 18.73 percent.
  6. Infant Mortality: The infant mortality rate in Latvia was 3.3 deaths per 1,000 births in 2018. This was a significant decrease from an infant mortality rate of 15.8 in 1994. Also, this is significantly lower than the global infant mortality rate of 29 deaths per 1,000 births in 2017.
  7. Health Care System: Though Latvia has universal health care, patients still have to pay out of pocket for a lot of treatments. Latvia has a negative list of benefits, which means that the government pays for all treatments except those specifically listed. General taxation pays for this universal health care plan.
  8. Physicians: Latvia currently has 3.19 physicians for every 1,000 people who live in the country. A steep drop off occurred between 2009 and 2010. Back then, the number of physicians dropped from around 3.7 physicians to 3.1 physicians per 1,000 people. However, since then, the number of physicians has been steadily rising. This is significantly higher than the world average of 1.5 physicians, but slightly below the average in the European Union of 3.57 physicians per 1,000 people.
  9. Government Treatment Towards Health Care: The Latvian government gives a low priority to health care, as it makes up only 5.5 percent of its annual budget. The average country in the E.U. spends about 10 percent of its budget on health care. Latvia has seen major reform in its health care system, which helps the country increases its overall life expectancy. The low wages in Latvia contribute to a lot of corruption within the health care system. This corruption comes in the form of out-of-pocket payments from individuals to doctors, who use it as a supplement to their salaries. Surprisingly, the general public is accepting of this practice, since many believe it promotes honesty and good service.
  10. Relationship with the European Union: The European Union has worked to invest in better infrastructure for Latvian hospitals. The European Union allocates 64 million euros for new equipment in Latvia’s biggest hospital located in Riga in 2017. This will increase access to high-quality health care for Latvia’s 2 million citizens by 2023.

These 10 facts about life expectancy in Latvia show that there needs to be an improvement in the Latvian health care system. On the other hand, there is a lot of promise in the betterment of this health care system. The steady increase in life expectancy has shown the positive effects of some reform. This will likely continue in the future as the government works to better address health problems, and the Latvian health care system receives aid from the European Union.

– Ronin Berzins
Photo: Flickr

According to data accumulated by the United Nations, life expectancy in Burkina Faso has increased by 32 years since 1950. Contemporary estimates place Burkina Faso’s current life expectancy at 62 years, while in 1950 life expectancy was measured to be 30 years. Despite these gains, contemporary figures remain low compared to the developed world. These 10 facts about life expectancy in Burkina Faso showcase the massive strides made in public health and standard of living while also describing challenges yet to be overcome.

10 facts About Life Expectancy in Burkina Faso

  1. Malaria: The Center for Disease Control (CDC) lists malaria as the number one cause of death in Burkina Faso. Severe Malaria Observatory reports that malaria is responsible for 61.5 percent of all hospitalizations and 30.5 percent of deaths occurring each year due to malaria. Similarly, for children under 5, malaria is the leading cause of hospitalization with 63.2 percent of all admittances. Malaria accounts for nearly half of all deaths for children under 5.
  2. HIV: Tremendous strides in reducing the prevalence of HIV are further improving life expectancy in Burkina Faso. The population affected by HIV has been reduced from 2.3 percent down to 0.8 percent between 2001 and 2018. Representing an overall decrease of 65 percent, Burkina Faso reduced HIV prevalence more than any country in that period. Further, in 2007 HIV was still ranked as the fifth most likely cause of death in Burkina Faso. By 2017, HIV had plummeted to the 16th most likely cause of death. Working with major international partners including the University of Oslo, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Terre des Hommes and the Global Fund allowed Burkina Faso to develop and implement methods to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV. 
  3. Sanitation Improvements: According to the Burkinabè government’s Ministry of Water and Sanitation between 2018 and 2019, Burkina Faso successfully constructing 26,039 family latrines and 966 public latrines. In the same year, the Burkinabè government assisted in the construction of 553 kilometers of additional water supply infrastructure and 188 new standpipes in urban areas. This construction increased national access to drinking water from 74 percent to 75.4 percent within a single year. Similarly, the national sanitation rate rose from 22.6 percent to 23.6 percent. Inadequate access to proper sanitation and clean water are the primary contributors to diarrheal disease, which is one of the leading causes of death in Burkina Faso. Improvements in sanitation have reduced deaths attributed to diarrheal diseases and increased overall life expectancy in Burkina Faso.
  4. Infant and Maternal Mortality: Infant mortality has decreased from 91 deaths per 1,000 births in the year 2000 to 49 deaths in 2017. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate dropped significantly between 2000 and 2017 from 516 deaths per 100,000 live births to 320 deaths per 100,000 live births. These advancements are due to greater access to hospitals, particularly in urban areas, as well as innovations in public health such as the Maternal Death Surveillance and Response system. The initiative trains health care professionals across the country to properly identify, notify and investigate instances of maternal death. Since its inception, the program has been nationalized leading to maternal and neonatal death audits so that health facilities regularly address the shortcomings of the health system to avoid future deaths.
  5. Child Mortality: A recent study conducted by the World Bank found that one in eight children born in Burkina Faso will die before the age of 5. The risk of under-5 mortality is 6 percent higher for children born to mothers younger than the age of 18. The average age of a woman in Burkina Faso at the time of childbirth is 19 years old and the birth rate for women aged 15-19 is 122 births per 1,000. To curb adolescent pregnancy the Burkina Faso Council of Community Development Organizations launched a campaign to reduce sexually transmitted disease, unwanted or adolescent pregnancies and unsafe abortions in Burkina Faso in 2019.
  6. High Fertility Rates: Even as life expectancy in Burkina Faso has improved, high fertility rates influence public health as women, on average, give birth to 4.5 children. Though contemporary efforts to address high fertility rates have been promising, the population demographic distribution is largely 14 years old and younger. With these demographics dominating the population Burkina Faso’s rate of growth will continue to increase as this younger generation reaches adulthood.
  7. High Growth Rates: Despite life expectancy increasing, Burkina Faso still displays a young age structure — typified by a declining mortality rate coupled with particularly high fertility rates. Burkina Faso’s population is growing at a projected rate of 2.66 percent, making the nation the 18th fastest growing population in the world. This precipitous growth places a greater strain on the nation’s arable land as well as economic well being, causing challenges in maintaining the growth of life expectancy in Burkina Faso’s future.
  8. Security Crisis: Since 2016, Burkina Faso has been targeted by several militant Islamist extremist groups primarily based in the country’s Northern region. Attacks committed by these groups claimed 1,800 lives in 2019, according to the United Nations. In 2019, there was a 10-fold increase in the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs); the total people displaced is estimated at around half a million. This large number of IDPs and people who have been fleeing violence to neighboring Mali have compounded economic and ecological problems in Burkina Faso. Although, the government is looking to continue to propel growth in life expectancy in Burkina Faso.
  9. Humanitarian Aid: Around 948,000 people need security and 1.5 million people are currently dependent upon humanitarian aid to cover basic medical needs. Basic health care is crucial in effectively reducing poverty and improving life expectancy. Humanitarian aid is focusing on impacting 1.8 million people by providing $312 million in funding.
  10. Continued Growth Projections: Regardless of concerns,  recently presented data from the 2019 Revision of World Population Prospects, the United Nations projects continued growth in the area of Burkinabè life expectancy. Life expectancy in Burkina Faso is projected to increase to 70 years by 2050 according to the U.N. study.

These 10 facts about life expectancy in Burkina Faso depict a nation that has made great achievements and is ready to face its contemporary problems with assistance from international partners. 

– Perry Stone Budd
Photo: Flickr

Life Expectancy in Equatorial GuineaEquitorial Guineans (or Equato-Guineans) are people from the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (EG). EG is a relatively small country of roughly a million people that includes the Bioko Islands as well as Annobon, a volcanic island. These nine facts about life expectancy in Equatorial Guinea reflect a country in progress.

9 Facts About Life Expectancy in Equatorial Guinea

  1. For the entire population of Equatorial Guinea, life expectancy is now 59.8 years old (61.1 years for women and 58.8 years for men). The overall life expectancy has been trending upward for the last half-century and survival to the age of 65 now stands at 55.7 percent for women and 50.5 percent for men.
  2. The leading causes of death in EG are generally preventable. Some of the leading causes include HIV/AIDS, influenza and pneumonia, chronic heart disease, stroke and diabetes mellitus. While HIV prevalence was estimated at 7.1 percent of the population in 2019, the Equatorial Guinean government is committed to ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030. For example, the country has scaled up its capacity to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the percentage of pregnant women accessing antiretroviral medication increased to 74 percent in 2014 from 61 percent in 2011.
  3. Many Equatoguineans also face chronic hunger. According to Human Rights Watch, one in four children is physically stunted due to poor nutrition. Half of the children who begin primary school never transition to secondary schools, which also affects life expectancy. At the same time, the government of Equatorial Guinea took the lead role in 2013 in providing the Africa Solidarity Trust Fund (ASTF) with $30 million to improve agriculture and food security. ASTF’s projects have especially benefitted women, family farmers and youth across the continent.
  4. Poor sanitation and ineffective infection control create a risk of exposure to diseases like diarrhea, malaria and tuberculosis. Inadequate sanitation and unhygienic conditions contribute to increased infant mortality, as 20 percent of children die before the age of 5. Equatorial Guinea is also considered the least prepared country for an epidemic, mainly due to its inability to prevent pathogens and toxins.
  5. Less than half of Equatorial Guinea’s population has access to clean water. The Clean Water Initiative is one effort to meet global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by supplying clean drinking water in 18 rural sites.
  6. Frequent and prolonged blackouts, particularly during the dry season, often result from old generators and an unreliable power supply. Electricity can be a matter of life or death in hospitals if medical equipment fails. According to reports, an infrastructure makeover has been underway since 2014 when new roads and power lines were built.
  7. From 2006-2012, a public-private partnership called the Program for Education Development of Equatorial Guinea (PRODEGE) began working with the country’s education ministry to improve the nation’s education system. A major focus on the training of teachers’ classroom skills aimed to improve the quality of teaching and learning in primary school settings. PRODEGE 2012-2017 sought to amplify the program’s initial achievements on a broader scale by focusing on students in post-primary settings. Both goals align with EG’s 2020 Plan to achieve universal primary school enrollment, which was 84.46 percent in 2012.
  8. Other barriers to longer life expectancy in Equatorial Guinea include a lack of resources such as condoms and trauma care facilities to handle emergencies. Tensions exist between traditional and modern medicine as well, which affect treatment adherence. Finally, the use of various languages across communities and lack of comprehension regarding basic medical terms also hampers communication between health care providers and patients.
  9. Interventions for malaria control and studies of incomplete adherence to TB treatment reveal both promise and peril for the country’s capacity to prevent and treat infectious disease. After eight children were paralyzed by polio in the first half of 2014, their immunity strengthened following disease surveillance and vaccination campaigns. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative recommended that further improvements such as routine immunization and community mapping were key components to preventing another outbreak.

Life expectancy in Equatorial Guinea continues a slow upward trajectory. According to UNICEF, drinking water coverage has improved over the last two decades and sanitation coverage improved as well, estimating at over 70 percent. The number of children attending school has also increased over the last five years. Deprivations remain most severe for children living in rural areas, in the poorest households, with mothers who lack education.

As a small oil economy, at a time when oil prices can fall steeply without warning, the challenges to life expectancy in Equatorial Guinea will persist. The government’s willingness to accept outside assistance from international NGOs may hold the greatest promise for its citizens.

– Sarah Wright
Photo: Flickr

Healthcare in MongoliaMongolia is 19 in the largest countries in the world. During the 1990s, Mongolia transitioned from a socialist country to a market economy. This resulted in a drop in funding to healthcare, education and social security. The country has experienced economic growth since the early 2000s and is likely to see future economic development. However, Mongolia is still reliant on agriculture. Stable growth, poverty and unemployment are still prevalent struggles for the country. Below are 10 facts about health care in Mongolia.

10 Facts about Healthcare in Mongolia

  1. Mongolia provides free and universal healthcare to its citizens. Despite this, free access does not mean ensured access. The availability of basic healthcare services within certain facilities is not sufficient. Readiness is stunted by a lack of diagnostic capacity and a lack of medicine.
  2. All healthcare service centers offer preventive and curative care services for children five and under. Service readiness is only at 44.5 percent and medical supplies only at 18.9 percent. Access to essential medicines, such as cotrimoxazole syrup, paracetamol suspension and albendazole capsules, has fluctuated between 6.5 to 12.9 percent.
  3. Routine immunization occurred at 23 percent of facilities. Despite the fact that these facilities housed well-trained staff, vaccines were not always available.
  4. Family planning is offered at 30.8 percent of healthcare facilities. Counseling and family planning tool readiness only occurs at 44 percent of family health centers. There is a lack of oral and injectable contraceptives as well as condoms at many of these facilities.
  5. The Mongolian Red Cross sent teams to factories and herding communities to educate them on sanitation and disease prevention. They set up infant and elderly care workshops. These efforts helped in the reduction of smallpox, typhus, plague, poliomyelitis and diphtheria by 1981.
  6. The 2008 financial crisis caused the government to drop its healthcare expenditure from 10.7 percent to 8.6 percent where it has stayed as of the last World Health Organization recording in 2013. Total healthcare expenditure from GDP has remained around 5.7 percent since 2008.
  7. The Health Sector Strategic Master Plans services are offered at three different levels. Primary health is provided by family health centers, soum (district) health centers and inter-soum (inter-district) hospitals. Secondary health is served by the district, aimag (tribe) general, rural hospitals and private clinics. Tertiary healthcare is served by multispecialty central hospitals as well as specialized centers in Ulaanbaatar.
  8.  Life expectancy increased by five years over several decades. In 2010, the average life span was estimated at 68.1 years. This placed Mongolia at 116 among 193 World Health Organization measured member countries. So far, this number has only increased to almost 70 years.
  9. Respiratory system, digestive, genitourinary and circulatory disease are among the leading causes of death in Mongolia. The death rate of respiratory system diseases dropped from 5.77 per 1000 in 2000 to 2.72 per 1000 in 2010. The death rate of digestive system disease, however, has been steadily increasing. In 2000, it was 4.68 percent; by 2010 it was at 5.30 percent.
  10. The national maternal mortality rate between 1990-2000 was 170 per 100,000. This was considered high compared to the average of developed countries. However, this rate has since fallen to 45.5 as of 2010.

These facts about healthcare in Mongolia show that the country has a history of putting effort into improving the health of its citizenry. However, it has a way to go until it is ranked up to first-world nation status. With time, and as more nations show interest in trading for Mongolia’s resources in exchange for medicine and healthcare devices, Mongolia’s health status in the world is likely to change for the better.

– Robert Forsyth
Photo: Unsplash