Hong Kong’s socio-economic advancement has both improved and deteriorated the status of its public health. While infectious diseases are no longer considered a common threat to citizens, illnesses correlated with societal improvement have emerged as common diseases in Hong Kong. The current medical burdens for Hong Kong are long-term illnesses such as obesity, respiratory illnesses and dementia.
With greater food security and economic prosperity comes greater liberty to choose the desired quality and quantity of food sources. An increasingly urban population hungry for the convenience of Western fast-food cuisine has made obesity one of the most common diseases in Hong Kong. A highly susceptible target of obesity in Hong Kong is its middle class; cheaper, high-calorie meals combined with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle strain the status of health for this social class. Although Hong Kong is a high-income region of China, it chooses to buy nutritionally deficient food for accessibility and indulgence.
Poor air quality and the prevalence of smoking among adults make respiratory illnesses an increasing concern. The National Health Center for Biotechnology Information claims that “respiratory disease is responsible for the highest health-care burden locally. Increased efforts in improving management and prevention of these diseases, including tobacco control, improving air quality and vaccination against influenza and pneumococci, are necessary.” Three million deaths induced by respiratory illness associated with smoking occur per year; this statistic is expected to increase to 10 million by 2025 (with two million of those deaths taking place in China) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Addressing Hong Kong’s poor air quality due to industrial carbon emissions and social attitude towards smoking is unavoidable for the future of public health.
Hong Kong’s high life expectancy comes with its drawbacks. With an increasingly older population, dementia is becoming more prevalent among Hong Kong’s citizens. The lack of care facilities specializing in treatment for dementia adds pressure to the medical epidemic. However, the increasing presence of the disease has brought with it awareness, and thus it has received national attention. This awareness may be helpful in accommodating dementia sufferers with more treatment centers and medical options.
Mobilization is the most effective solution, due to the socioeconomic-induced nature of these common diseases in Hong Kong. Citizens must promote and sustain healthier models of living for the health of the public as well as the environment. Through integrated cooperation of Hong Kong’s citizens, corporations and the government, the adverse effects can slow down, creating a healthier future.
– Kaitlin Hocker