Heat in developing countries
Earth is getting warmer every day and the heat in developing countries can be fatal. There are ways to take the edge off – air-conditioned rooms, pools and shade – and make even the hottest days bearable. This is not to say that Americans are completely safe from heat-related deaths – it kills 800 people per year, disproportionately affecting people of color and migrant workers. Although this number may seem small compared to the toll of cancer and strokes, any deaths from overheating are unacceptable. They are easily preventable with proper education and access to the right information and technologies.

The Dangers of Overheating

However, in countries like India and in the deserts of Africa, where temperatures can reach up to 120 degrees Fahrenheit, the dangers of overheating are everyday realities. The effects of overheating on a population are difficult to measure because overheating exacerbates other diseases. Symptoms affect the heart (causing irregular rhythm), immune system (decreasing white blood cell count) and cause dehydration, which has innumerable other effects. Statisticians estimate that between 1998-2017, over 160,000 people died as a direct result of overheating and heatwaves worldwide. Technologies such as air conditioners would reduce deaths due to heat in developing countries and improve the livelihoods of people. Unfortunately, barriers such as high cost and the unavailability of electricity remain in developing countries. Luckily, several organizations are working to find ways to mitigate these barriers.

Reducing Heat-Induced Deaths

  • The World Health Organization (WHO): WHO already does much to help reduce poverty. It also takes on the challenge of reducing heat in developing countries. WHO looks at how to compactly design buildings with fewer levels to lower cooling costs. It investigates investment into insulation and the positive economic impacts of finding new markets for air conditioning companies. The Maghreb, a region of North Africa, could particularly benefit from an overhaul of cooling systems because of its rich natural resources. This would incentivize more workers to move there, bringing profit to all.
  • Rocky Mountain Institute: RMI aims to reduce the effect of air conditioners on the environment. These environmental effects often impact poorer communities in particular. Typical AC units run on electricity provided by fossil fuels. These fossil fuels warm the planet, creating a positive feedback loop. Providing everyone with access to air conditioners, therefore, as many organizations are doing, may not be enough. People also need to stop organizations from warming the earth and increasing demand even further. The institute concluded that the world needs units that are at least five times as powerful as they are now while using the same amount of energy, and electricity that comes from either solar panels or wind turbines.

Keeping people safe from the real danger of heat in developing countries is a necessary step to increasing productivity and saving lives. Fortunately, heat-related deaths are preventable if well-equipped countries assist third world economies to start producing the technologies that people need, such as air conditioners.

Michael Straus
Photo: Flickr

healthcare in mauritaniaThe Islamic Republic of Mauritania is a vast desert country with a significant nomadic population. These facets of Mauritania’s geography present challenges for creating healthcare infrastructure. In particular, physical distance and large rural populations make distributing care a massive undertaking. Accordingly, there are only 0.19 practicing physicians per 1,000 people in Mauritania. Here are five facts about healthcare in Mauritania.

5 Facts About Healthcare in Mauritania

  1. A lack of proper infrastructure devastates public health in rural, vulnerable regions. Problems stemming from poor sanitation and a lack of clean water plague Mauritania. Many areas of Mauritania go completely without consistent water sources due to geographic barriers. Overall, the capital city of Nouakchott is the only region with adequate water supply and treatment. This lack of water leads to serious consequences for healthcare in Mauritania. According to the World Health Organization, 2,150 Mauritanians die from diarrheal disease per year. Ninety percent of these deaths are linked to a lack of sanitation and insufficient access to clean water. In addition, droughts and desertification are preventing rural populations from accessing water at all. This is yet another challenge to improving healthcare in Mauritania.
  2. Many political barriers inhibit attempts to improve healthcare in Mauritania. The country suffers from a shortage of doctors and treatment facilities in rural areas of the country. While there are potential avenues for funding expansion, the Mauritanian government tends to keep infrastructure projects centralized to the capital region. Although the capital is the largest city and presents the most promise for economic growth, this neglects rural citizens. For example, the national insurance program prioritizes a portion of the urban population, as it only covers government officials and those who are formally employed. Poverty-stricken people are further disadvantaged by the astronomical cost of healthcare without any insurance. Thankfully, groups like the Institute of Tropical Medicine are working to provide a concerted effort to expand healthcare in Mauritania.
  3. Mauritania struggles with reproductive and neonatal care. According to the World Bank, Mauritania has a birthrate of 4.62. Combined, the birthrate and lack of adequate neonatal care lead to high infant and maternal mortality. However, the International Development Association is dedicating $23 million to expanding the reach and quality of maternal, neonatal and reproductive healthcare in Mauritania. The initiative also aims to combat childhood malnutrition by investing in further healthcare and nutrition services for children. These efforts, part of the Mauritania Health System Support project, aspire to alleviate issues in healthcare beyond the capital city. This will provide much-needed relief to rural and refugee populations.
  4. International aid is going toward healthcare in Mauritania. The International Development Association of the World Bank is providing funds to help local governments build sanitation and water treatment infrastructure. These funds will address the gross centralization of public utilities and expand access to water and sanitation services into rural areas. With tools to manage public services provided through the Decentralization and Productive Intermediate Cities Support project, localities will have the means to create a substantive foundation for healthcare in Mauritania.
  5. The Institute of Tropical Medicine is also promoting healthcare in Mauritania. In her 2018 article for the Institute of Tropical Medicine, public health expert Kirsten Accoe details how the ITM intends to establish a local health system team in the country. This team would tackle healthcare on the district level in conjunction with centralized efforts to improve healthcare. The initiative aims to create sustained quality care by increasing the retention of healthcare workers in each district, which has previously been an issue due to lack of funding, equipment and trained personnel. ITM’s effort can therefore allow more to people get the relief they deserve.

Improving healthcare in Mauritania is certainly a complex task. But the government and aid organizations can come together to cultivate a coordinated effort to improve infrastructure, assist healthcare professionals at the district level and expand the reach of care. In doing so, they will begin to create an equitable healthcare system and provide all Mauritanians with the care they deserve.

Olivia Bielskis
Photo: Flickr

Playing sports can foster development for developing countries
The implementation of sports programs provides children with the opportunity to learn teamwork, participation and leadership qualities. Physical activity also stimulates health improvements and offers children equal opportunities to engage in activities. Large, sports associations also spread awareness of global poverty and extend campaigns to a much greater audience. Therefore, sports can foster development in developing nations.

World Health Organization (WHO)

In 2018, the World Health Organization published a global action plan to increase the amount of physical activity worldwide. WHO plans to create a healthier world by 2030. Their strategy is to deliver various selections of physical activity including sports, recreational activities and walking. WHO specifically wants to create opportunities for women, middle-aged adults and individuals with debilities. Currently, 75% of children and 25% of adults do not satisfy the global standard for physical activity. Exercise is essential for healthcare and the development of a nation. Physical activity has also been confirmed to prevent heart disease, diabetes, cancer and mental health illnesses. Physical activity is important for child development, teaching children numerous lessons and qualities. Therefore, WHO targets to increase the amount of regular physical activity to reduce the amount of premature mortality. The WHO’s physical activity plan will also further aide in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

UNICEF

UNICEF has also designed sports programs to protect children from violence, disrupt inequality norms and eliminate limits on participation based on physical capabilities. The nonprofit organization strives for “inclusive sport.” UNICEF believes that sports will bring communities together in a positive setting. Sports also provide children with disabilities the opportunity to recognize their potential.  From 2010 to 2013, the Montenegro government and UNICEF ran an “It’s about ability” campaign. The campaign’s primary goal was to create a more accepting society. At the end of the campaign, Montenegro’s citizens recorded more than a 40% increase in citizen approval of their children being in the same class as a child with disabilities. This newfound acceptance will further benefit Montenegro’s government and economy. Therefore, sports can foster development in developing nations.

NFL Athlete Josh Doctson

Over the past couple of months, the coronavirus has dictated several shutdowns across the globe. The rise in the uncertainty of the virus has influenced several U.S. athletes to skip on this year’s upcoming season. One NFL star, Josh Doctson, has decided to sit-out this season and advocate for the world’s poor. Mr. Doctson plans on visiting several African countries, including Rwanda, in hope that he will raise awareness for the underprivileged. The NFL player’s decision to conduct a humanitarian campaign has attracted a lot of attention thus far and therefore already raised attentiveness for the cause.

Sports Events

Local sports events have the potential to generate employment and incentivize the production of goods and services related to the event. Sportanddev.org reports that marathon events hosted by local communities in Peru create a host of economic opportunities. One race, in particular, generated a manufacturing demand and a surge in tourism activities.

Sports programs have been proven to create safe environments, disrupt societal norms and teach children valuable lessons. If implemented appropriately, sports can foster development in developing nations. Nonprofit organizations, international sports teams and professional players also spread global awareness for poverty and inequality. As sports products become widely available globally, sports programs will begin to be implemented at an increasing rate and further contribute to the health, development and success of a nation’s upcoming generation and their economy.

John Brinkman
Photo: Flickr

SDG Goal 3 in Vietnam During the U.N. Summit for 2015, world leaders decided on 17 goals that they would like to track around the world. These goals would help motivate changes for a better future and identify where these changes were most needed. Titled, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) — these goals range from conserving and creating a sustainable industry in the ocean (SDG goal 14) to ending poverty in all forms (SDG goal 1). Moreover, the U.N. rates the status of a country and its ability to achieve a certain SDG by 2030. This article will provide a brief update on SDG goal 3 in Vietnam.

Vietnam, a country located in Southeast Asia, has achieved several of the goals. For instance, Vietnam has achieved the goals for quality education (SDG 4), responsible consumption and production (SDG 12) and climate action (SDG 13). One of the goals, however, the “Good Health and Well-Being” (SDG 3) has been rated as the furthest from achievement with the “major challenges remain” status.

SDG 3: A Deep Dive

The description of SDG 3 is simple but will require a great effort to achieve; “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.” Some of the sub-scores — specific statistics that have led Vietnam to the depleted state of wellness and well-being goal include the high incidences of tuberculosis, traffic deaths and the percentage of surviving infants who received two Word Health Organization recommended vaccines.

Some of the greatest identified challenges include the control of communicable diseases, such as the aforementioned tuberculosis score, creating healthcare equality and accessibility. These issues share a strong connection because some new policies that have improved the control of communicable diseases in one sector are not established in others.

Improvements to SDG 3

Though the scores may be an indicator of a national problem in Vietnam, they have led to great improvements. In response to the inaccessibility score, the health service delivery has improved greatly. For example, there has been an increase in investment for healthcare facilities that are accessible to all Vietnamese. Also, the ability of Vietnamese to pay for healthcare is increasing as the coverage from insurance rises. In 2017, 86.4 % of Vietnamese had health insurance. Moreover, the National Tuberculosis Control Programme helps identify those who need treatment. This has continued to reduce the incidence over the years.

Traffic accidents are another low score for SDG goal 3 in Vietnam — something unique to the country. Accidents, injuries and deaths are all counted into the well-being score for SDG 3 in Vietnam. While the number of incidences has decreased, an estimated 14,000 people continue to lose their lives due to traffic accidents each year. The National Traffic Safety Committee and WHO have started a road safety project that works on reducing the number of deaths and accidents. The initiative holds a large focus on motorcycle safety and the prevention of drinking while driving.

What is Currently Being Done?

The inequality and inaccessibility for healthcare and sources of well-being, such as nutritious and reliable sources of food are especially culpable concerning child mortality statistics. The national statistics show a hopeful decreasing trend but have revealed stunning discrepancies between ethnic and regional groups. Highlighting this — child mortality in some mountainous regions in the Northwest and Central Highlands are four times as high as the national average. To create a way in which all children can be treated equitably, the Sustainable Health Development Center (VietHealth) has developed many programs to help mobilize primary care, screenings and disability care.

Vietnam is currently facing several different challenges in reaching the SDGs for 2030. However, with the help of (among others) the National Tuberculosis Control Programme, the road safety programs and VietHealth, much progress can be made in the next decade. Vietnam and the U.N.’s SDGs have proved to be a valuable resource for highlighting severe issues and motivating organizations and governments to improve conditions for citizens around the world.

Jennifer Long
Photo: Flickr

Water Services to the Poor
Water services to the poor are severely lacking around the globe. The World Health Organization estimates that 2.1 billion people lack access to safely managed drinking water services. Moreover, more than twice as many people lack safe sanitation. Consequently, 361,000 children less than the age of five die from diarrhea, every year. Of the people who do not have safely managed water, 844 million do not even have basic drinking water services. These conditions compel 263 million people to collect water from sources far from home — a process that takes over 30 minutes per trip. A further 159 million people still drink untreated water from surface water sources, such as streams or lakes.

At the current pace, the world will fall short of meeting the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal (U.N. SDG) of universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. Accelerating efforts to meet this goal will cost as much as $166 billion per year for capital expenditures alone. It seems that to achieve this U.N. SDG, something must change and soon.

A New Funding Approach

Private finance could play an important role in expanding access to improved, reliable water services to the poor. However, most providers that serve the poor are not privately financeable in their present state and will continue to require subsidies. Hence, development assistance and philanthropic funds are of utmost importance to protect the global poor.

A global funding model, known as a conceptual Global Water Access Fund (GWAF), has been established in other sectors to raise additional funds for targeted interventions. It pools resources in a way that provides incentives for access and utility performance for poor households.

This method is tried and tested. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, received $15 billion in pledges and yielded a net increase in funding. Unitaid, an organization that accelerates access to high-quality drugs and diagnostics in developing countries, generated more than $1 billion through a levy on airline tickets.

Investments in the poor are often perceived as having low or even negative returns. Therefore, pro-poor utilities face challenges entering financial markets. This also explains why profitable utilities are hesitant to expand their services to the global poor. GWAF changes this by bridging the funding gap and placing pro-poor utilities in stronger positions to attract capital for further service investments.

Making Individual Change

Though funding seems like a larger issue, there are ways for individuals to support clean water for all. Many nonprofits focus on bringing clean water services to the poor. Here are three organizations that are dedicated to the proliferation of clean water services to the world’s poor.

3 Nonprofits Tackling Global Water Services for the Poor

  1. Pure Water for the World works in Central American and Caribbean communities. The organization aims to provide children and families with the tools and education to develop sustainable water, hygiene and sanitation solutions. They directly connect fundraising dollars with impact, which immediately helps potential supporters see how their donation or peer-to-peer fundraising campaign will make a difference for the people they serve.
  2. Blood:Water is another nonprofit that works to bring clean water and HIV/AIDS support to over 1 million people. They partner with African grassroots organizations to make a change in 11 countries. Blood:Water works to provide technical, financial and organizational support to grassroots organizations. In this vein, they aim to help strengthen their effectiveness in their areas of operation.
  3. Drop in the Bucket’s mission is another organization that works towards water sanitation. They build wells and sanitation systems at schools throughout sub-Saharan Africa, enabling youth to fully harness the life-changing power of education. They teach the importance of clean water, hands and living spaces. Furthermore, the organization encourages girls to go to school, instead of spending hours fetching water.

Remaining on Track

Although sustainable development goals seem a difficult achievement to reach, innovative techniques such as GWAF and individual efforts through donations take steps in the right direction in ensuring water services to the poor. With nonprofit organizations such as the aforementioned as well as assistance from international organizations and governments like, there is still hope in reaching the U.N. SDGs.

Elizabeth Qiao
Photo: Pixabay

Disability and Poverty in Madagascar
In 2014, Madagascar partnered with the World Health Organization to implement the Disability Action Plan. While there are no specifics on the number of disabled persons in Madagascar, an article in the Journal of Rehabilitation Methods estimates that about 2.8 million persons with disabilities exist in the country. The goals of the Action Plan are to increase access for persons with disabilities to healthcare services and programs, extend support services and rehabilitation, and strengthen data collection on disability so it can be compared internationally. Organizations such as Humanity and Inclusion have also been working to improve the correlation between disability and poverty in Madagascar.

Access to Rehabilitation

The regions around Madagascar have about 1.6 physicians for every 10,000 people, whereas Madagascar has about 1. Eight rehabilitation specialists were trained by “A Rehabilitation Training Partnership in Madagascar” in 2015, contributing to the now 10 total specialists in the country. This means limited access to medical professionals trained in rehabilitation for persons with disabilities

Rehabilitation for people with disabilities can span from fitting them with orthopedic limbs and hearing aids to providing people with mental disabilities education on how their disability affects them as well as how to work with it in their daily lives. Sufficient rehabilitation for persons with disabilities was low in 2011, with The World Health Organization reporting that about 3% of people received it globally. People often view disability and poverty in Madagascar, and globally, as a cycle. A 2017 study called “Poverty and disability in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review” reported that poverty and disability appear to exist in a cycle in lower and middle-income areas, where poverty can lead to disability and disability can lead to poverty.

How Disability Impacts Poverty

According to “A Survey of World Bank poverty Assessments” by Jeanine Braithwaite and Daniel Mont, when receiving the same income as persons without disabilities, persons with disabilities will have a lower standard of living. This is due to the different needs of persons with disabilities. Braithwaite and Mont’s studies into disability in developing countries revealed that households with persons with disabilities were slightly more likely to be in poverty.

How Poverty Impacts Disability

Poverty has been shown to limit access to healthcare in Madagascar. About 75% of Madagascar’s population lives below the international poverty line, according to The World Bank. The cost of healthcare, and transportation to healthcare centers, can be barriers for people in poverty to accessing treatment. USAID reported that less than 40% of Madagascar’s population lives within an hour’s walk, or 5 kilometers, from a healthcare center, meaning many people face additional transportation costs when they need to access healthcare.

A study about the barriers to implementing the Disability Action Plan in Madagascar stated that of “disability-adjusted life” in 2004, 29% was caused by non-communicable diseases. The report concluded that the data correlates with limited access to treatment, revealing a link between disability and poverty in Madagascar through the way that poverty impacts healthcare access.

Solutions

Madagascar has previously passed the Law on Disability, which promoted the freedoms and equal rights of persons with disabilities. The National Decade of Disabled Persons, a time frame in which the government would work to improve conditions for those with disabilities, was ratified in Madagascar in 2002 and ran from 2003-2013. Since passing those pieces of legislation, Madagascar has been working to implement The World Health Organization’s global Disability Action Plan since 2014. Expectations have determined that it will wrap up in 2021.

The country has already made some strides toward completing the program and impacting disability and poverty in Madagascar. In 2015, Madagascar ran a workshop and training program in partnership with Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, which the Rehabilitation Medicine in Madagascar and a counterpart in the United Kingdom then delivered. This workshop trained and licensed eight new doctors. The doctors have now created the Association of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of Madagascar (AMPRMada), which has created a database for Madagascar rehabilitation centers to use. Today, according to an AMPRMada report, its database greatly helps rehabilitation planning nationally because it provides a single place to access all the rehabilitation centers’ data.

Humanity and Inclusion have also been working to improve the lives of persons with disabilities in Madagascar. The organization has been in Madagascar for 30 years. One of its ongoing projects focuses on ensuring persons with disabilities have access to adequate rehabilitation by:

  • Examining barriers to accessing rehabilitation services
  • Assessing the related economic areas
  • Setting up and improving rehabilitation services and “orthopedic fitting,” which means ensuring things like prosthetic limbs and metal braces fit patients correctly
  • Looking into increasing “education, training, and networking” in order to increase the number of rehabilitation workers
  • Improving funding for rehabilitation services
  • Keeping track of how the “National Rehabilitation Plan” progresses
  • Raising awareness

A report that details the progress of ongoing Humanity and Inclusion projects estimated that, when it is completed, its rehabilitation project will benefit 5,000 people, 47% of whom are children with disabilities.

It can sometimes be hard to calculate the effects of disability in Madagascar due to a lack of data. Research studies have, however, been able to estimate the number of disabled persons and the link between disability and poverty in Madagascar. Through the country’s legislation and partnerships with outside organizations, such as The World Health Organization, Madagascar is continuing to address and attempt to improve access to healthcare and rehabilitation for persons with disabilities. Organizations like Humanity and Inclusion have been contributing to those changes with ongoing projects that address access to rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities.

– Melody Kazel

Photo: Flickr

Healthcare in TunisiaThe North African country of Tunisia is sandwiched by two relatively unstable nations, Algeria and Libya. However, Tunisia has had consistent development in human wellbeing for the past couple of decades, ranking among the best nations in Africa. In part, this success can be attributed to Tunisia’s relatively strong healthcare system. According to a World Health Organization report, Tunisia possesses a “national health strategic plan” as well as a relatively high life expectancy at 75 years. Healthcare in Tunisia is a promising sign that the country can adequately support its population and promote longer, healthier lives for its citizens. Here are six facts about healthcare in Tunisia.

6 Facts About Healthcare in Tunisia

  1. More than 90% of the population is covered by health insurance. While some citizens use private insurance, others are covered by programs in place to assist the most disadvantaged in society. However, Tunisia still lacks truly universal coverage. One of the top complaints about healthcare in Tunisia is gaps in payment for important medical procedures, which can burden families.
  2. Tunisia’s 2014 constitution granted healthcare as a human right. The government is still working to make this a reality and provide universal, effective healthcare in Tunisia. Specifically, the government is trying to improve the dilapidated health infrastructure in the south of the country. This manifested in a 9% increase in the healthcare budget in 2016, which went toward improving infrastructure in remote areas.
  3. Private healthcare in Tunisia is booming. In recent years, before the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of private clinics built in the country was expected to surge. Seventy-five new facilities are set to be completed by 2025, doubling the number of hospital beds in the country. These improvements should help make access to quality healthcare more readily accessible to the general population.
  4. Tunisia successfully combated many diseases in the past. Most importantly, Tunisia has been able to eradicate and control many deadly diseases that put a strain on its healthcare system. Malaria, polio and schistosomiasis are well under control. In addition, Tunisia’s healthcare system has worked to address HIV/AIDS.
  5. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Tunisia has done relatively well. Sitting at 1,327 confirmed cases and 50 deaths as of July 2020, the country is positioned to recover economically from the virus, which is devastating in other parts of the world. Though it is still early in the pandemic, it appears that the healthcare system in Tunisia was able to absorb the influx of cases in order to slow the death rate.
  6. Robust preventative measures enabled Tunisia’s positive response to COVID-19. Seeing the potential for a rise in cases early on, the government, as advised by healthcare experts, quickly went into a rigorous lockdown that lasted for months. This was especially difficult considering that tourism accounts for 10% of the country’s GDP. According to a WHO spokesman, a strong sense of community and respect for the lockdown measures eased the country’s caseload and death toll. Because the Tunisian population was willing to make sacrifices for the broader community, they are now in a comparatively better place than some other nations around the world.

Healthcare is a critical issue for any nation. While there is always room for improvement, Tunisia has succeeded in using its available resources to ensure medical coverage for its people.

Zak Schneider
Photo: Pixabay

Healthcare in Suriname
The Republic of Suriname is an upper-middle-income country located on the northeastern coast of South America. Around 90% of the country’s population lives in urban or rural coastal areas. Healthcare in Suriname is accessible for both the public and private sectors. Here are eight facts about healthcare in Suriname.

8 Facts About Healthcare in Suriname

  1. Infant and Maternal Mortality: Suriname’s infant mortality rate in 2013 was around 16 deaths per 1,000 live births. The most prevalent reasons for mortality reported in children under 1 year of age were respiratory problems, fetal growth retardation, congenital diseases, neonatal septicemia and external causes. The maternal death ratio averaged 125 deaths per 100,000 live births from the years 2000 to 2013. For mothers, the most prominent causes included gestational hypertension and hemorrhage. In 2010, prenatal checkup coverage was around 95%, and more than 65% of pregnant women had had four prenatal checkups. In addition, almost 93% of births happened in a health center, and trained health workers carried out around 95% of births.
  2. Life Expectancy: In 2016, the average life expectancy of a male was 69, while the average life expectancy of a female was 75. These estimates are slightly below the average male and female life expectancies in the rest of South America.
  3. Mosquito-borne Illnesses: In late 2015, the preliminary issue of Zika virus was found in Suriname. The disease spread quickly throughout the country’s 10 districts, but there are no current outbreaks. Conversely, Suriname has eradicated malaria from all but one district of Suriname. However, the rate of new imported cases (principally among gold miners from French Guiana) increased by more than 70% in 2015.
  4. HIV and Tuberculosis: By 2014, Suriname’s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rate among the 15-49 age group was 0.9%. HIV/AIDS caused 22.4 deaths per 100,000 people in 2010, decreasing to 16.4 deaths per 100,000 people in 2013. From 2012 to 2014, the estimated tuberculosis diagnosis rate increased from 58% to 71%. To combat the disease, the country started the direct implementation of observed treatment, resulting in higher treatment success from 61% in 2010 to 75% in 2013.
  5. Government Contribution and Coverage: Suriname experienced vast economic growth from 2010 to 2014. During this period, healthcare in Suriname received increased funding for various services and facilities. It expanded and decentralized private laboratory diagnostic services, private primary care, dental care and paramedic practices. In 2015, vaccination coverage was almost 90% for DPT3 and above 90% for the trivalent vaccine (MMR1). In 2014, the total estimated health expenditure as a percentage of GDP was 6%. For health insurance, employees’  premium rate is 50%, and employers pay the other half. For low- or no-income citizens, the government subsidizes health coverage.
  6. Hospitals: Of Suriname’s five hospitals, two are private and three are public. The Academic Hospital in Paramaribo has recently renovated and expanded its facilities and invested in equipment and staff for specialty care like gastroenterology, oncology, intensive care, renal dialysis and more. In 2013, government and external funds also helped other hospitals invest in new facilities and healthcare worker training programs.
  7. Sanitation: Suriname’s lack of an integrated waste management policy has created illegal dumps and caused refuse to accumulate on roadsides and in open waters. This infrastructure problem results in health risks and environmental hazards. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Suriname does not have facilities for storing or eliminating hazardous waste, nor does it regulate the safe use or storage of pesticides.
  8. Accessibility: In 2014, Suriname passed its national basic health insurance law. It provides access to a basic package of primary, secondary and tertiary care services for all Surinamese citizens. In 2013, all people under the age of 16, as well as people aged 60 and over, had the right to free health care that the government paid for. Universal access to healthcare for pregnant women and newborns remains a challenge for healthcare in Suriname.

Persistent voids in access to healthcare in Suriname are related to drawbacks in funding. The healthcare system has seen an expansion in the past decade, but there are still plenty of health challenges to confront and improve.

Anuja Kumari
Photo: Flickr


The country of Oman (officially know as Sultanate of Oman), located on the Arabian peninsula, can provide an example of a recovered and thriving healthcare system. Since 1970, Oman has been developing a highly esteemed healthcare system that is based on an efficient three-tiered system. The primary care model has produced a considerably healthier population compared to 50 years ago.

Oman’s Healthcare Progress

The progress of healthcare in Oman is represented in the statistics. Before His Majesty Sultan Qaboos first sat on the Omani throne in 1970, only 13 doctors were working for the 724,000 citizens of Oman. Since then, the number of doctors, as well as the number of hospitals, have grown tremendously. In 1958 there were only 2 hospitals while today there are 70 hospitals that are world-renowned for their medical treatment. There was also a significant growth in life expectancy from around 50 years in 1970 to over 76 years today.

At the beginning of his reign, His Majesty Sultan Qaboos made universal healthcare a goal, pushing for additional resources and policies to create accessible healthcare. The commitment of the government, including a law that ensures that the government will invest “in health care as a means of ensuring citizens’ well-being,” proved to be the momentum that the healthcare system needed to expand. With this commitment, a large amount of the government’s revenue from gas and oil, one of Oman’s largest exports, provided the healthcare sector the funding it needed to build hospitals, and improve medical staff and policy. By 2000, healthcare in Oman was ranked number eight in the world by the World Health Organization.

Moving Toward Universal Care

In addition to funding, healthcare needs policies to create a strong and lasting infrastructure. The platform on which Oman would grow its healthcare sector toward universal care was the focus on free primary care for all citizens. The aforementioned three-tiered healthcare system implemented in the Oman consists of primary care (hospitals at a local level), secondary care (care from a regional and district level), and tertiary care (any national care a citizen might receive.) By funding and creating ubiquitous accessibility for primary care, citizens can access healthcare in their community and be directed into a higher level or specialty if needed. Free primary healthcare for all has increased the quality and efficiency of healthcare in Oman.

Preventative Care

Healthcare in Oman has been effective in increasing life expectancy, decreasing child mortality and detecting diseases because there is a focus on preventative care. Preventive care is intertwined with the idea of accessible primary care because it encourages early detection of disease as well as easy and unburdened emergency care. Citizens can access the care they need without worrying about the cost of visiting a hospital in an emergency. In addition, the increasing amount of doctors who have an international perspective allows citizens to be better informed about their health issues and for doctors to take proactive measures in stopping development.

The progress made by Oman’s healthcare sector has caused significant positive change. From the efficient use of oil and gas revenue in the funding of hospitals to free primary healthcare for all, healthcare in Oman has arranged a secure and community-based framework that promises even greater future progress towards exemplary healthcare for all citizens. As the country continues to grow its investment in preventive care as well as the expansion of privatized healthcare, other healthcare systems can learn from Oman’s effective resource and policy implementation that has greatly improved healthcare for its citizens.

– Jennifer Long
Photo: Flickr

Healthcare in Somalia
Many challenges come with being one of the poorest countries in the world. In Somalia, a country located on the Horn of Africa, garnering a quality healthcare system for everyone is a major struggle. With a population of over 12 million, the people of Somalia have one of the lowest life expectancies in the world. Grappling through years of civil war and natural disasters, it has been difficult to overcome widespread disease, malnutrition and an overall lack of healthcare resources. Thankfully, organizations have noticed the absence of a healthcare system and many efforts are going towards improving healthcare in Somalia.

United Nations Development Program

According to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 58% of Somalis are without healthcare. Recognizing this issue, the UNDP set the goal to have complete universal healthcare in Somalia by 2030. Since the COVID-19 global pandemic, the UNDP has realized how destructive a pandemic can be in all facets of life in a developing nation. In addition to the goals for universal healthcare, it aims to set up structures to strengthen resilience to any future disasters. The UNDP created a blueprint proposing a multi-step initiative to improve healthcare and ensure that it does not leave anyone behind. The program would provide basic healthcare consisting of two tiers of costs and services to choose from. However, the core service will involve the implementation of telemedicine. This will be an immense advancement, considering that most Somalis have to walk miles to get to their nearest healthcare facility.

The UNDP has also been addressing HIV/AIDS issues in the country since 2004. It has implemented investment programs totaling $5.4 million between 2005 and 2009. Its work includes creating knowledge and awareness programs, increasing testing for Somalis and lobbying for HIV/AIDS legislation. The impact of the program’s efforts is notable. As of 2019, there were approximately 11,000 children and adults living with HIV in Somalia in comparison to the approximate 22,810 in 2008.

For immediate attention to the fight against COVID-19, the UNDP is supporting an emergency call center that the Somali government runs. The UNDP contributed by offering transport to volunteers, office equipment and staff. Anyone needing advice on COVID-19 or feeling ill can simply call the center and find assistance from volunteers comprising of medical students, doctors and other health professionals. Additionally, if a patient has severe symptoms or is sick with underlying health conditions, an ambulance can transport them to their local hospital. The center helps roughly 8,000 people a day.

The World Health Organization (WHO)

The World Health Organization (WHO) pledged to assist health authorities in Somalia in increasing the number of healthcare workers and stabilizing primary healthcare services in the country. In September 2019, the organization assisted in launching the plans for universal health coverage (UHC) for the time period of 2019-2023. The WHO understands the importance of improving health systems in the country and hopes to develop powerful health systems to prevent future epidemics. Thus, the UHC initiative aims to give all Somali people improved protection from healthcare emergencies.

The WHO has declared maternal health one of its priorities and advocates for maternal health as a human right. About one in 20 women die during labor due to an overall lack of health resources, which gives Somalia one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world. The WHO is bolstering investments in the issue, mobilizing health resources and strengthing healthcare systems to decrease maternal mortality rates.

UNICEF

UNICEF is also fighting to improve healthcare in Somalia. One focus has been to develop safe motherhood and child healthcare programs. The organization worked with Somali health authorities to provide the Essential Package of Health Services (EPHS). Predictions determine that these packages will aid 4.2 million Somalis. The EPHS structure is an extensive range of free health services that will help establish a medical standard for the country. The goal is to provide essential medicines, supplies and equipment as well as train and expand human resources. The program includes aid for neonatal and reproductive health, child immunizations and treatment of widespread diseases like HIV.

Somalia has one of the highest child mortality rates in the world. Due to the lack of sanitation, medical resources and vaccinations, one in seven children will not make it past age 5. Since 1990, deaths among children under 5 have reduced by half. Deaths have decreased thanks to the vaccine initiative that UNICEF and WHO launched in 2013. The program consisted of 1.3 million doses of an innovative “five-in-one” vaccine for the prevention of the top fatal childhood illnesses along with a parental awareness campaign.

The Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM) that UNICEF and WHO organized has also improved healthcare systems. This community-based approach brings experienced and supervised health professionals to the area to help decrease the common childhood illnesses contributing to the high child mortality rate. The system plans to continue developing a solid staff of health leaders and administrators to manage future health disasters.

Moving Forward

Some organizations are making great progress in improving healthcare in Somalia. Since the efforts to create an overall healthcare infrastructure, the country has seen improvements in how it controls widespread diseases. In 2004, the average life expectancy was 50, but as of 2018, it was 55. Life expectancy should increase as chronic malnutrition, infant mortality rates and the spread of preventable diseases decrease with improved healthcare systems. Thanks to these resolutions, overall health and wellbeing in Somalia should be on the horizon.

Tara Hudson
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