The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the largest Sub-Saharan country and has the fourth largest population in Africa. Throughout the years, the DRC has been faced with a combination of local, national, and regional tensions. Those tensions were the result of violent conflicts to mass migrations, militias, and profound poverty. These issues have ultimately limited the opportunities for achieving peace and stability in the country. One of the most consistent efforts to improve the country’s conditions comes from the work of the European Union in the DRC.
History of Financial Aid
The history of the European Union in the DRC starts with the first European Development Fund (EDF) of 1958-59. After a ten-year suspension, the cooperation dynamics have been increasing exponentially. For instance, in January of 2002, the National Indicative Program (NIP) was signed under the 8th EDF with a value of 120 million Euros, while the number increased to 205 million Euros the following year.
Between 2001 and 2003, the DRC received a total of 1,868 million Euros from the EU, making the country one of the bloc’s main aid recipients. Most of the money was destined for development efforts (72%), followed by humanitarian aid and cooperation in the areas of politics and security (23.5% and 4.5% respectively).
The EU institutions persistently rank within the three top donors, together with the United States and the United Kingdom, in humanitarian aid for the DRC. Moreover, ECHO Flight is the European Union in the DRC provision for humanitarian air service, especially directed to remote areas lacking a proper road infrastructure.
Currently, under the 11th EDF National Initiative Program, the work of the European Union in the DRC designates 620 million Euros for the period of 2014 to 2020 to fund the following sectors:
Health: assisting the Congolese government in the development of a health system that is accessible, efficient, and of good quality
Environment and sustainable agriculture: financing conservation efforts and development through electric accessibility and sustainable agriculture
Governance and rule of law: strengthening policy reforms in spheres such as defense, justice, and security
Transport: contributing to the completion of the key transportation axis, which is a national road of a 150km
The EU has also undertaken three civilian missions and two military ones. This makes the DRC the country with the most Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) missions. The contributions of one of the military missions, EUFOR RD Congo (requested by the UN in 2006), were crucial for preventing the spread of violence on the eve of celebrating their first democratic elections in more than 40 years while ensuring a peaceful process. Civilian missions tend to focus on strengthening the DRC’s security forces and justice sector. These missions helped result in the creation of the Police Reform Monitoring Committee. They also assisted with the draft of the Congolese National Police’s framework of activities.
More recently, the EU agreed to contribute to policy reform initiatives with 60 million Euros. The aim of this funding is to increase civilians’ trust in the security forces and warranting the rule of law. Its four objectives are:
Enhancing the implementation of reforms and police accountability measures
Improving the professional level of the police and the criminal justice system
Improving human resource management
Activating and maintaining community security to restore public confidence
According to Jutta Urpilainen, the European Commissioner for International Partnerships, “There can be no development and sustainable growth without a more peaceful environment. That is why the European Union is stepping up its support for security, peace, and stability in the DRC”.
Finally, the European Union is providing 19.5 million Euros of humanitarian aid to help the DRC in its fight against COVID-19. The DRC is the most impacted country in the region after Cameroon. The money will help improve access to healthcare and awareness-raising efforts. This will occur while the ECHO flights continue with their regular assistance, especially to those most vulnerable.
– Helen Souki