Many developing countries have reduced their maternal mortality rates by expanding maternal care through policy innovations. Between 1990 and 2015, maternal mortality has dropped by 44 percent. While this is a considerable amount, maternal mortality remains high in developing countries. For example, in Nigeria, only 61 percent of pregnant women visit a skilled antenatal care provider at least once during their pregnancy. The average rate for similar lower-to middle-income countries is 79 percent.
Maternal health concerns the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. During this time, major causes of maternal mortality include hemorrhaging, infection, high blood pressure and obstructed labor.
Every day, 830 women die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and birth. In fact, 99 percent of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. It is necessary for policy innovation in developing countries because sustained use of maternal and antenatal care and increased rates of institutionalized delivery reduce maternal mortality.
Antenatal Care in Nigeria
Of the women who did access and antenatal care, 41 percent did not deliver in a health care facility. Nigeria ranks in the top 16 nations in maternal mortality: 576 deaths per 100,000 births. Containing only 2.45 percent of the world’s population, Nigeria contributes to 19 percent of maternal deaths globally.
There is a stark difference in the number of women who seek antenatal care in urban and rural areas: 75 percent versus 38 percent, respectively. Studies also show that more skilled professionals attended births in urban areas, revealing that 67 percent of women had a trained professional helping them. In rural areas, only 23 percent of women had the help of trained professionals. In these rural areas, only 8 percent of newborns receive postnatal care, whereas 25 percent of children do so in urban environment.
Due to the lack of health coverage and used resources, many of Nigeria’s infants die from preventable causes. Approximately:
- 31 percent die from prematurity,
- 30.9 percent die from birth asphyxia and trauma and
- 16.2 percent die from sepsis.
Ways to Increase Access to Antenatal Care in Nigeria
Improving maternal and antenatal care in Nigeria can encourage women to utilize services such as improved facility infrastructure and amenities. Policy innovation in Nigeria can result in better equipment, more available drugs and an increase in overall comfort for the spaces.
In a study of antenatal patients in Nigeria, women responded positively to increased interpersonal interactions with providers. The study also suggested that improved maternal care should include access to providers who have technical performance skills and experience. Improved maternal care also includes access to providers who display empathy for their patients. Furthermore, policy innovation in Nigeria could improve increased access to facilities for those in rural areas.
Accessed to maternal and antenatal care in Nigeria can be improved with policy innovations made throughout the country. By making health facilities more accessible to more women and giving them the supplies and support they need, Nigeria will be able to decrease its maternal mortality rate and save its families from preventable complications of during pregnancy and infancy.
– Michela Rahaim