The city of Jacobabad in Pakistan is currently experiencing a heatwave that is “hotter than the human body can handle,” per Ben Farmer in The Telegraph on June 28, 2021. The temperatures can reach up to 52 degrees Celsius, or nearly 130 degrees Fahrenheit. When measured using “wet bulb” techniques, which measure not just heat but humidity, Jacobabad is one of only two places in the world that has crossed a point where humans cannot sweat enough to cool themselves down. Put another way, Jacobabad’s heatwave is something that the human body literally cannot withstand.
Many residents of the city cannot afford air conditioning, and some must venture outside, despite the dangers, because their jobs demand it. Even those who can afford air conditioning are in danger due to frequent power cuts. This means that the impact of poverty on coping with Jacobabad’s heatwave can be life-threatening; the hospitals in the city can fill up with heat-stroke victims during the summer. “People are aware that the heat is getting up and up, but they are poor people. They can’t go anywhere, they can’t leave their places,” Zahid Hussain, a market trader, stated.
New Ways of Keeping Cool
Because of how expensive energy is for many residents, people are finding new ways of keeping cool. For example, roadside stalls sell ice in “10p chunks.” The chunks have been mass-produced in factories across Pakistan; for years as the heat in Jacobabad has continued to rise, so too does the need to escape it. Many markets also sell hand fans, which are far cheaper to produce and buy compared to electric fans.
Hospitals and Energy Access – Solutions
USAID has been active in the city for years, building the Jacobabad Institute of Medical Sciences (JIMS) to provide better medical care. Due to a large number of heatstroke victims, new hospital beds serve as essential assets to the city. The USAID effort also seeks to update infrastructure, building and repairing many health care facilities.
Many organizations are working to combat energy poverty. For example, Sustainable Energy for All (SEForAll) is an organization that works with the United Nations, as well as private companies, to spread energy access to poorer countries. Initiatives address the impact of increasing heat and its possible deadly effects, with SEForAll publishing a story on the Pakistani city of Karachi, which faced similar problems to Jacobabad earlier in 2021. Jacobabad’s heatwave was not a specific focus of the organization; however, by campaigning and advocating for causes similar to it, and trying to bring energy access to cities like it, SEForAll is improving the possibility that Jacobabad’s problems may receive attention.
A New Focus
At the same time, Ben Farmer, when contacted, said there was, to his knowledge, no NGO activity in the city specifically to combat the impact of poverty on coping with Jacobabad’s heatwave. Despite the ingenuity shown by the city’s residents in keeping cool, the problem would still be able to greatly reduce due to foreign aid.
The lack of meaningful aid suggests an unnecessary vacuum in Jacobabad that organizations can fill. While NGO efforts are meaningful, it is key to note that the city’s efforts prioritize citizens and their health. As Jacobabad faces its heat-related challenges head-on, efforts to help must prioritize the people to build on current work toward a safer future.
– Augustus Bambridge-Sutton