education for girls in MozambiqueMozambique is one of the most poverty-stricken countries in the world but it has made economic progress in the past three decades as its income per capita rose from $373 in 1995 to $1,136 in 2017. However, Mozambique still lags behind most other countries when it comes to the crucial topic of gender equality, specifically in education. New funding from the World Bank seeks to address these gender discrepancies and improve education for girls in Mozambique.

Girls’ Education in Mozambique

There are several measurements of educational attainment by gender in Mozambique and none present an optimistic picture. About 60% of men in Mozambique are literate, as of the latest measurement, in comparison to only about 28% of women. This is largely due to high dropout rates for girls in primary school. More than 50% of girls in Mozambique drop out by the fifth grade and this drops to 11% by the secondary level of education. Solely 1% of women in Mozambique attend college, and once they graduate, their job prospects are grim.

In 2017, less than 4% of women in Mozambique had salaried jobs and only one quarter were landowners holding official rights. Due to these facts, many women find themselves forced to marry early in order to gain any financial stability. About 48% of women in Mozambique get married by age 18, most of whom have long since dropped out of school. This lack of education comes with increased health risks as the prevalence of HIV is three times higher among young women than young men. Furthermore, researchers estimate more than half of Mozambican women have experienced domestic violence in their lifetime and believe it is justified.

The World Bank’s Efforts

Acknowledging the bleak state of girls’ education in Mozambique, the World Bank approved new funding for a project addressing low learning outcomes for girls in primary school and low retention rates for girls in upper levels of education. This funding includes grants of $160 million from the International Development Agency and $139 million from the Global Partnership for Education for a total of $299 million. The project will address the first problem of low learning outcomes by building 100 new preschool facilities in rural areas that lack quality education resources. It will also train and support teachers in grade levels one to three and expand children’s access to learning materials to improve reading skills for girls in primary school.

In order to address the second problem of low retention rates, the project will seek to create safe school environments for girls, increase the number of lower secondary schools across the country and make general improvements to the infrastructure of schools in order to retain more students. Furthermore, the funding will provide sexual and reproductive health programs and gender-based violence mitigation programs in an effort to decrease early marriages, HIV infections and domestic violence. The project will also implement mentorship programs for girls and expand the scope of virtual learning facilities, which will likely continue to be incredibly important education resources even in a post-COVID-19 world.

Potential Impact

Hopes are high that this project, with increased funding from the World Bank, will have a positive effect on the education of girls in Mozambique. Many rural families with children will have access to quality preschool facilities for the first time and girls in lower levels of primary school will have more resources to help them become literate. Girls in upper primary and secondary schools will also gain access to improved resources and revamped school infrastructures. New sexual and reproductive health programs have the potential to decrease the number of young women who are HIV positive and mentorship programs will build relationships among young women and provide activities and resources for school-aged girls.

Besides the direct and immediate effects the project will have on girls’ education in Mozambique, the country as a whole stands to benefit from the results of increased learning readiness and retention rates in the years and decades to come. According to the World Bank, increasing the percentage of women with secondary levels of education in a country by 1% boosts annual per capita income growth by 0.3 percentage points. Furthermore, one additional year of education can increase a woman’s personal income by up to 25%. Girls with basic levels of education are three times less likely to contract HIV and children born to women with basic levels of education are twice as likely to survive past age 5.

The Future of Mozambique

Mozambican girls and women have suffered from poor educational attainment due to a lack of opportunities, high dropout rates in primary school and low retention rates in upper levels of education. However, the new funding from the World Bank has the potential to improve girls’ education in Mozambique from preschool through secondary school by building facilities, expanding access to resources, enhancing infrastructure, implementing sexual health programs and introducing mentorship activities for young women. Increasing educational attainment for women has a ripple effect on their incomes, their families and their countries. A government choosing to improve girls’ education makes a sound investment in the country’s future.

– Calvin Melloh
Photo: Flickr

HIV/AIDS in Mozambique
The East African country of Mozambique has struggled to control the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Since its introduction to southern Africa in the late 1980s, the adult prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique is around 12.10% – the seventh-highest rate in the world. However, there is good news. Infection rates and deaths that relate to AIDS are decreasing and the country is feeling a surge of international support. Here are three ways in which Mozambique is currently fighting against the epidemic.

Grants

In February 2021, the Government of Mozambique, the Global Fund and other medical partners launched six new grants to expand treatment and service options for HIV, TB and malaria. Actions like this are causing HIV/AIDS in Mozambique to experience a downward trend in cases and deaths.

With greater funds, HIV treatment will become more available. In fact, one can attribute greater access to treatment to the “29% decrease in the number of AIDS-related deaths” from 2006 to 2019. These particular grants are significant because they are worth $773,913,131, a figure that is 49% larger than the previous allocation amount.

The financial assistance aims to reach vulnerable populations, especially adolescent girls, and to make testing widespread. Mozambique is working towards creating strong, sustainable health systems. Health officials are hopeful that these grants will put the country on the path to self-sufficiency where external help is no longer necessary.

Medicine

There have also been recent developments in the world of pharmaceuticals. Mozambique launched a new preventative drug for tuberculosis (TB) on March 24, 2021, which is World Tuberculosis Day. Although this drug does not specifically treat people with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique, the two ailments inextricably connect. HIV greatly weakens the body’s immune system and puts people at high risk for diseases like TB.

The Mozambique Health Minister, Armindo Tiago, explicitly stated, “this programme is aimed at people living with HIV/AIDS.” The new system reduces pill intake from nine to three pills a week and the treatment duration from up to 36 months to just three months. According to Unitaid, “up to 3 million patients are expected to be made available for eligible countries this year.” These countries include Mozambique, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe.

This shorter, less invasive treatment intends to attract more people seeking medical therapy. If proven successful, it is likely that the number of HIV-related deaths will drop. As a result, Mozambique should gain the upper hand in the fight against communicable diseases.

Clinics

The U.S. NGO, the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, is helping combat HIV/AIDS in Mozambique. This organization focuses on preventing pediatric HIV and ending pediatric AIDS all over the world. On March 15, 2021, the NGO donated two mobile clinics that will serve the cities of Maputo, Matola and the district of Marracuene.

The organization intends to provide primary care as well as sexual and reproductive health services to 3,000 young people. It chose the areas of Matola, the district of Marracuene and Maputo because of the high number of teenagers who need “more accurate information” about sexual health and sexually transmitted diseases. The mobile clinics have services for HIV/AIDS testing, tuberculosis, cancer screening, counseling and more.

Implementing these three forms of aid furthers the country’s efforts to make healthcare more accessible for those who need it most. Mozambique is a demonstration of how people across the world are still passionately fighting against HIV/AIDS.

– Lucy Gentry
Photo: Flickr

displacement in MozambiqueThe ongoing insurgency in northern Mozambique started in 2017. Four years later, the revolt has resulted in hundreds of thousands of people becoming displaced.  The UNHCR has stated that as of March, the number of displaced people in Mozambique nears 700,000 and the total may exceed one million people by June 2021. As a result of this dire situation, Mozambique’s population is more susceptible to food insecurity and malnutrition. Additionally, those suffering from displacement in Mozambique are at an increased vulnerability to this continuing violence.

Violence in Cabo Delgado

The province of Cabo Delgado in northern Mozambique has the highest population of people suffering from food insecurity in the country. According to The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC), 770,000 people in Cabo Delgado are suffering from crisis and emergency levels of food insecurity. The community is desperate for aid, but it has been a struggle to obtain.

The violence in Cabo Delgado has interfered with the ability of humanitarian aid to provide people with food, water and health services. However, community members have stepped up. Displaced people have been able to find support from host communities in neighboring provinces. This decreases displacement issues but exacerbates the food crisis. Taking in extra families may jeopardize the food security of the host communities. It places an increased demand on already limited supply of resources.

Humanitarian Response

The nonprofit organization Doctors Without Borders has been helping Pemba, Cabo Delgado’s capital, since 1984. The nonprofit has seen a growing mental health crisis among the displaced people that come to Pemba. In response, Doctors Without Borders has also utilized games and activities to give people a place to grieve their losses and share their stores. The nonprofit has used conversation circles as a tool to allow people to safely express their emotions, as the experiences of many internally displaced people is traumatic. Doctors Without Borders also has a focus on physical health. The organization has built latrines in Mozambique and provided internally displaced people with clean water. Additionally, the nonprofit has teamed up with Mozambique’s Department of Health to respond to COVID-19, HIV, tuberculosis and hepatitis C.

Save the Children is another humanitarian aid organization working in Cabo Delgado. So far, the organization has reached over 70,000 people, 50,000 being children. In Cabo Delgado, more than 27% of children have been displaced by violence and are unable to attend school. Save the Children offers adolescence programs that provide children with nutrition and the support they need to complete their education. There are also programs for younger children to ensure they don’t suffer from malnutrition and can attend pre-school. In terms of mental health, Save the Children provides therapy to help children deal with the trauma of being displaced. The organization also works toward prevention in addition to treatment, specifically through politics. Save the Children collaborates with the local government to mitigate the effects of displacement in Mozambique. The joint effort strives to prevent illness, strengthen agriculture and prepare children to be self-sufficient through formal skill training.

Looking Forward

Mozambique is in a difficult position to combat the persisting violence within the country. It cannot fight this crisis alone. The country needs aid from outside organizations. As the violence continues, displacement in Mozambique becomes a growing issue requiring a stronger humanitarian response. However, there is hope thanks to organizations like Doctors Without Borders and Save The Children. With continued and increased humanitarian aid in conjunction with the local government’s efforts, displacement in Mozambique can be diminished and the country can strive toward an end to its persisting violence.

Gerardo Valladares
Photo: Flickr

Access to Water and Sanitation
The U.S. investments that have been working toward improving access to water and sanitation have been particularly focussed on building a more water-secure world during the coronavirus pandemic. So far, the pandemic has affected the lives of billions all over the world and the most vulnerable in particular, already struggling with health and sanitation challenges. According to the OECD, before COVID-19, the African continent had already faced a slowdown in growth and poverty reduction. The organization added that “the current crisis could erase years of development gains.”

The pandemic could impact people already struggling with hunger and poverty. Several international organizations estimated that the number of starving people could have increased to 132 billion by the end of 2020.

To support countries struggling with water and sanitation access during the global pandemic, USAID re-configurated the priorities the Water for World Act of 2014 listed.

How does the global pandemic challenge water security and, in turn, how does USAID respond to these challenges? Before tackling these two questions, this article will give a brief background on the Water for World Act of 2014 and discuss its reconfiguration in light of the recent events regarding sanitation.

The 2014 Water for World Act and WASH Programs

The Water for World Act of 2014 is a reform bill that emerged from the 2005 Water for the Poor Act which made water, sanitation and hygiene – conveniently called WASH – top priorities in the federal foreign aid plan. In an attempt to make data more transparent, optimize aid strategies and improve water support, Congress voted for the Water for World Act in 2014. However, in 2020, the pandemic accelerated the need for global access to water and sanitation.

To address this concern, USAID re-designated 18 high-priority countries according to criteria such as lack of access to water, inadequate sanitation conditions and opportunities to make progress in these areas. Some of the high-priority countries are the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, India, Kenya and South Sudan. In doing so, USAID intended to leverage WASH programs and enable vulnerable populations to have continual access to clean water during this critical period.

Current Challenges to Water Security

Access to water and sanitation is a basic human right and the current pandemic underscored the emergency to settle this right in the most vulnerable countries. Populations receive daily reminders to wash their hands and keep a healthy diet to prevent the propagation of the virus and save lives. However, the lack of clean, drinkable water is not only amplifying the already precarious living conditions of vulnerable populations, but it is also making it harder for these countries to stop virus transmission.

COVID-19 tends to affect vulnerable populations the most: poor communities, minorities and people living in crowded areas. According to UN-Habitat, it is clear that the pandemic affects the world’s most vulnerable populations the hardest because they lack sustainable access to water and sanitation.

For instance, India is the second-leading country in the world for most cases of COVID-19. It had almost 11 million cases on February 21, 2021. This number directly links to the country’s crowded rural areas and the lack of access to running water. At the end of 2020, more than 21% of the Indian population showed evidence of exposure to the virus. Meanwhile, in Bangladesh, Rohingya refugees living in a refugee camp are crowded with a population density four to seven times more than New York City, putting them in high-risk situations.

How WASH Programs Help

WASH programs helped high-priority countries respond to the pandemic in 2020. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, USAID and the World Bank financed WASH campaigns to improve the population’s handwashing behaviors.

Meanwhile, in Ethiopia, they collaborated with the local authorities to improve access to water and sanitation in health care facilities. In Haiti, WASH services included purchasing chlorine to clean water and installing water supply in markets, health centers, orphanages and prisons. According to the World Bank report, ensuring that these countries have safe access to water and sanitation is a necessary medium-term response to the pandemic.

US Investments and Improving Access to Water and Sanitation

U.S. investments aim to provide financial support for water service providers. For instance, in June 2020, USAID partnered with UNICEF in Mozambique to provide subsidies covering the cost of private water providers.

USAID also financed programs that relay information about handwashing. In April 2020, U.S. investments financed radio campaigns in Burkina Faso promoting a new handwashing system expanding access to hygiene in more areas. Data has shown that these programs made a difference in terms of transmission. In fact, transmission levels went down in both Mozambique and Burkina Faso from June to December 2020.

USAID also focused on health care facilities and on supporting health care workers in priority countries by training and protecting them. WASH programs trained more than 16,000 workers in diverse locations such as Senegal, India, Bangladesh, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. USAID support in Senegal was one of many successes: 447 officers and 549 health workers received training while the programs also resulted in the installation of 497 public handwashing stands in health facilities and high-risk places. They also distributed 2,423 handwashing kits to families with COVID-19.

Looking Ahead

Despite the crises of the past year, one can spot at least one positive outcome: global leaders have had to rethink access to water and sanitation. The pandemic increased global awareness about the importance of water and sanitation security, all over the world. U.S. investments to improve water and sanitation accessibility under the Water for World Act provide help during sanitary and water emergencies, even during these challenging times. The recent update about the high-priority status for designated countries is not the only positive news on the horizon. USAID administrator John Barsa has also signed the Sanitation and Water for all World Leaders call to action. His signature confirms what many have come to realize over the past year; international collaboration is key to fight the pandemic and secure better living conditions for all.

– Soizic Lecocq
Photo: Flickr

Eliminating Poverty in MozambiqueLocated on the southeastern coast of Africa, Mozambique is home to approximately 29.5 million Mozambicans. With a 52% female and 48% male population growing at a rate of 2.5%, high child mortality rates, increased 12.6% HIV prevalence, low life expectancy and low literacy rates, Mozambique is struggling with most of the U.N.’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Mozambique ranks 136 of the 162 countries measured by the Sustainable Development Index. The first SDG is eliminating poverty in Mozambique.

Poverty in Mozambique

According to Mozambique’s Household Budget Survey, 46.1% of the population lives below the poverty line. There exists multidimensional poverty measured by the quality of family, nutrition, education, work, health, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), resulting in 46% of children 17 years and below living in poverty.

The country’s location makes it vulnerable to many natural disasters that often stunt its economic growth, making it difficult to eliminate poverty in Mozambique. Mozambique faces a combination of tropical and dry climates, an abundance of natural resources ranging from renewable energy sources to agro-ecological regions, forests and wildlife. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate fell from 7.4% to 3.7% between 2007 and 2017 as a result of drought, flood and cyclone natural disasters.

Barriers to Eliminating Poverty in Mozambique

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has brought an additional burden to Mozambique, coming just as the country was recovering from major economic shocks related to its recent debt crisis and the devastating 2019 cyclones. Since the onset of the pandemic, Mozambique has already experienced a 4% decline in its economic growth expectations with significant adverse effects on its already struggling economy. Mozambique is expected to feel the lasting effects of this shift in the coming years, facing even larger external and fiscal financing gaps than previously anticipated. Further, there is concern that large numbers of Mozambicans are on the verge of re-entering poverty, erasing much past progress and setting the country back on the SDG to eliminate poverty.

One of the main barriers to eliminating poverty in Mozambique is its long-standing exclusion regarding gender and other vulnerable groups and regional public policy imbalances. In order to have sustainable poverty reduction, Mozambique must give special attention to eliminating these key issues.

Current Efforts and Solutions

The Nation Basic Social Security Strategy (ENSSB) was developed to help achieve the government’s five-year plan (2015-2019) to implement actions aimed at reducing poverty and vulnerability. Between 2016 and 2024, it seeks to ensure impending economic growth is of benefit to all its citizens, particularly the most vulnerable. A strategy based on the Agenda 2063 of the African Union and the U.N.’s SDGs, the ENSSB was designed to build an efficient and effective social security system in Mozambique. It directly aims to sustainably support and strengthen Mozambique’s most impoverished population’s capacity to defend themselves against social risks such as violence, abuse, exploitation, discrimination, and social exclusions due to their elevated vulnerability.

The World Bank Group (WBG) currently supports a wide and diverse lending portfolio for the benefit of eliminating poverty in Mozambique. Focusing on Mozambique’s most vulnerable and underserved populations, the WBG has lent its resources to 27 operations with contributions of $3 billion funded by the International Development Association (IDA). The International Finance Corporation additionally has existing investments of up to $176 million, with $15 million in advisory services alone as of June 2020. The WBG’s portfolio consists of two Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency exposures of up to $89.1 million as well.

Such large and varied contributions and investments have the following primary goals: diversification for economic growth and development, human capital development, and increased sustainable development, prosperity and resilience.

COVID-19 Relief Support in Mozambique

As a result of the onset of the pandemic, Mozambique is struggling with a growing fiscal gap and economic fallout. In order to prevent deepening long-term economic effects, the WBG approved a $100 million grant from the IDA on October 22, 2020. This funding aims to mitigate the pandemic’s adverse impact by providing emergency government financing, supporting affected businesses and households and improving fiscal sustainability reform.

This effort of the WBG will serve as part of its existing plans to aid Mozambique in post-crisis recovery in the form of improving health services, access to water and sanitation, extending social protection and labor, improving business, job creation and retention and economic management. These goals will help push Mozambique forward, improve Mozambicans’ quality of life and lift people out of poverty. These investments will be implemented through a two-pronged approach. First, the health sector will be addressed, along with social security, safety and water access for all Mozambicans, with a particular focus on the urban poor and vulnerable populations. Secondly, supporting small and medium enterprises’ (SME) access to financing and liquidity will help catalyze economic growth in the financial sector and industry reform and strengthen Mozambique’s fiscal and debt framework.

Though Mozambique has faced many setbacks in its economic development in recent years, the above strategies will hopefully set the country on its way to achieving the very first Sustainable Development Goal of eliminating poverty in Mozambique.

– Rebecca Harris
Photo: Flickr

Human Trafficking in Mozambique
The exploitation of human beings for labor and sex reduces individuals to property and demands that governments address these trafficking monopolies through policy and prosecution. Typically, the nation of Mozambique struggles to castigate the human trafficking rings within its borders; however, both international groups, as well as the national government itself, recognized significant improvement within 2020. According to the 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report, the government in Mozambique significantly expanded the effort to combat human trafficking through national awareness and new education standards.

The Situation

Human trafficking involves the movement of victims across borders and forced labor–particularly child labor. Without parental support to protect them, orphaned children frequently live in constant fear of exploitation. According to UNICEF, the orphan population in Mozambique numbers roughly 2 million children, and another 700,000 children live fearing abandonment due to a variety of causes. Even in light of its substantial progress, Mozambican society consists of historically rooted gender roles. Thus, orphaned girls live with the highest levels of instability, vulnerable to forced marriages or transactional sex at young ages. Most of the young victims of human trafficking in Mozambique work in agriculture, mining or forced domestic work. Traffickers lure children from rural areas with promises of education and employment enticing families to send children away with hope in the opportunities available in urban life.

The U.S. Department of State recognizes Mozambique as a “source, transit, and destination” for trafficked victims with the city of Maputo linked to rings reaching South Africa. In addition to the orphaned population, individuals with albinism identify as the most threatened population.

Unfortunately, weak infrastructure overshadows any successes the country made within 2020. While an action plan against human trafficking in Mozambique has emerged, the implementation of this policy generally fails to meet international standards and decrease the number of victims trafficked. However, 2020 witnessed an improvement in the prosecution of trafficking crimes and increased training for designated front-line workers to recognize and work on such cases. National awareness campaigns continue to bring this issue to light, exposing the presence of trafficking rings and highlighting the government’s goals to implement better policy.

Improving Education Standards

One government strategy involves developing new education standards, which requires a transformation of national infrastructure and policy. From 2014-2015, around 46.1% of the population lived in extreme poverty, an improvement from 2003 with 58.6% impoverished. Yet after two major tropical cyclones in 2019, UNFP reported that the economic situation had worsened considerably. Furthermore, the lack of economic security often results in the utilization of child labor to increase profits. While the solution to this issue is multifaceted, the nation is developing new ways to address it.

As the World Bank noted, Mozambique has begun a results-based approach to finance improvements with the intention of enhancing education and health through workforce development and the extension of education. Ideally, this will incentivize cities to implement these new educational strategies to send their children to school and equip them for the future. By providing Mozambican children with education and encouraging them to recognize that they are capable of more, they will have the ability to evade the common lures of human traffickers. When children attend school, they are less likely to feel forced into accepting any form of employment for survival and thus become less vulnerable targets for human trafficking rings.

Child Labor

In 2019, the U.S. Department of Labor stated that 22.5% of Mozambique’s population between the ages of 5 to 14 are working, while only 69.5% of children within this age group attend school. Of this 69.5%, only 52% complete their education. While the government has enacted policies such as the Prohibition of Child Trafficking in the most recent Penal Code that Mozambique enacted in June 2020 to push back against the predatory nature of human trafficking, the country has consistently struggled to adapt the infrastructure necessary to enforce these policies. The lack of manpower in the justice system limits its effectiveness and leaves a gap in Mozambique’s ability to prevent further trafficking.

Since child labor policies repeatedly fail to meet international standards, Mozambique has raised the legal working age to 15 years old to encourage children under this age to attend school. However, this gesture has proven ineffectual, as the lack of significant literacy improvement has shown — likely a result of an insufficient number of labor inspectors in ratio to the number of people in the workforce. As of October 2020, the Global Education Monitoring Report launched a program implementing new national and international education goals in Mozambique. These goals emphasize accountability measures to improve the availability and quality of education. “Inclusion and education: all without expectation” is a common theme throughout this report, signaling a desire to not only change the educational institutions but the social expectations.

Improving Female Education

Expanding education for women is one promising method of inclusion that has the potential to increase literacy. The disparity between the opportunities that men and women receive often leaves women vulnerable and void of choices regarding the direction of their lives. As many in Mozambique still consider child marriage a socially accepted practice, Girls often marry between the ages of 15 and 18, and after marriage, education is no longer an option. To encourage more consistent female enrollment in schools, the government must address child marriages and protect the rights of women to pursue academic careers. According to UNESCO, educating women builds lasting change because they can invest the money they earn into their children and prepare them for a more prosperous future.

The government in Mozambique must continue working to provide more effective means of identifying and protecting victims of human trafficking. However, the improvements already beginning in education signal the achievability of change and expanded hope for a bright future within Mozambique.

– Katherine Lucht
Photo: Unsplash

Healthcare in MozambiqueThe state of healthcare in Mozambique has drastically changed in the last few decades. While Mozambique was once a country with little access to healthcare services, the country has decreased mortality rates since the launch of its Health Sector Recovery Program after the Mozambican civil war, with assistance from the World Bank.

History of Mozambique

The Mozambican civil war that took place from 1977-1992 had lasting effects on the country’s healthcare system and economy, resulting in limited funding for health services and insufficient access to care providers.

The Health Sector Recovery Program was launched in 1996 in order to refocus on funding healthcare in Mozambique, which desperately needed expanded resources to address the growing health crises. New health facilities were constructed throughout the country increasing accessibility to healthcare. The number of health facilities in Mozambique from the start of the civil war to 2012 quadrupled from 362 to 1,432 and the number of healthcare workers increased along with it.

Improvements to Healthcare and Accessibility

About 30 years ago, Mozambique had one of the highest mortality rates for children under 5 but was able to significantly reduce this number after the success of the Health Sector Policy Program. In 1990, this rate was 243.1 mortalities per 1,000 children. The rate has been reduced to 74.2 mortalities as of 2019. Maternal health was also targeted by the program, with increased health facility births from 2003 to 2011.

Conflict in Cabo Delgado

Despite these improvements to healthcare in Mozambique, Cabo Delgado, a northeastern province, is facing one of the worst healthcare crises in the country since violence struck the area in October 2017. Conflict between non-state armed forces clashing with security forces and other armed groups has caused more than 200,000 people in the area to become internally displaced. Coupled with the aftermath of Hurricane Kenneth, one of the strongest hurricanes to hit Africa, the area is facing severe food shortages and lack of shelter for people.

Cabo Delgado has also seen a rise in COVID-19 cases and other diseases such as cholera, diarrhea and measles, resulting from inadequate clean water and sanitation.

Intervention by UNICEF

On December 22, 2020, UNICEF shared a press release on the increased need for healthcare in Cabo Delgado. As the rainy season begins, there is an increased risk for deadly disease outbreaks. It appealed for $52.8 million in humanitarian assistance for 2021 projects aimed at aiding Mozambique.

UNICEF is expanding its water and sanitation response in order to prevent the outbreak of water-borne diseases like cholera and the further spread of COVID-19.

UNICEF also aims to give crucial vaccines to children in Mozambique, increasing its numbers from 2020. The 2021 targets include vaccinating more than 67,000 children against polio and more than 400,000 measles vaccinations. Children will also be treated for nutritional deficiencies from food insecurity and UNICEF plans to screen more than 380,000 children under 5 for malnourishment and enroll them in nutritional treatment programs.

Mental health support services will be provided to more than 37,000 children and caregivers in need, especially those experiencing displacement from armed conflict and those affected by COVID-19.

The Future of Healthcare in Mozambique

While healthcare in Mozambique has significantly improved in the last few decades, a lack of health services still affects the country’s most vulnerable populations. Aid from international organizations like UNICEF aims to tackle these issues to improve healthcare in Mozambique.

– June Noyes
Photo: Flickr

Aid Poverty in MozambiqueThe country of Mozambique, located in southern Africa, has 46.1% of its population living below the poverty line. Children living in rural areas are among the most impacted as poverty in Mozambique hits rural areas the hardest. Economic growth has occurred in the country over the last decade but rural poverty persists due to meager transport infrastructure ultimately segregating rural regions. However, a new initiative is underway to help aid poverty in Mozambique.

The Integrated Feeder Roads Project

Funded by the World Bank, the Integrated Feeder Roads Project is an ongoing initiative that is enhancing road access in selected rural regions of Mozambique to support the well-being of local communities. For Mozambique and its segregated rural regions, added transport infrastructure that the Integrated Feeder Roads Project provides will connect these poverty-stricken rural regions to greater Mozambique. As a result, poverty in Mozambique is set to improve through imports, exports and overall improved levels of accessibility to and from rural regions.

Cyclones Strike

In 2019, the powerful Cyclone Idai and Cyclone Kenneth ravaged their way through the Southern Hemisphere and Mozambique was one of many countries deeply affected. Cyclone Idai was deemed to be one of the worst natural disasters to ever hit southern Africa over the last 20 years. Only six weeks later, Cyclone Kenneth hit Mozambique, marking the first time that two strong tropical cyclones struck the country in the same season. The aftermath of both cyclones was devastating, and in the destruction, the already minimal roads connecting rural regions were further damaged and relief efforts from humanitarians became nearly impossible. Poverty in Mozambique worsened after these cyclones and so did the transportive means of aiding it.

The World Bank Helps Aid Poverty in Mozambique

The Integrated Feeder Roads Project was initially approved by the World Bank in 2018 as Mozambique’s transport infrastructure has long been insufficient to sustain steady economies in rural areas and support local communities. Following the cyclones and the damage they left behind, the World Bank approved an IDA grant of $110 million to further aid reconstruction efforts given the severe aftermath of Idai and Kenneth. Overall, the World Bank is financing the Integrated Feeder Roads Project with an estimated total of $185 million.

COVID-19 in Mozambique

As if Mozambique had not endured enough, COVID-19 has been yet another unfortunate obstacle thrown at the country in its rebuilding process after the cyclones. Negatively impacting poverty, Mozambique’s economy has further declined as a result of COVID-19 due to travel restrictions and precautions affecting the flow of goods and services. Transport infrastructure built from the Integrated Feeder Roads Project will aid relief efforts and boost the economy even though COVID-19 is impacting poverty relief efforts.

The Future of Mozambique

In the face of much adversity, the Integrated Feeder Roads Project offers plenty of hope for poverty relief success in Mozambique. Added transport infrastructure will connect rural regions to greater Mozambique, and in a time of heavy need, these opened connections will help rural communities and affected individuals who desperately need it. Overall, foreign aid will help aid poverty in Mozambique.

– Dylan James
Photo: Flickr

Natural Gas Industry Creates Job Opportunity for MozambiqueBy now, most of the world has put some form of social containment measures into place for COVID-19. Unfortunately, it has had a negative reversal effect on the progress of economic globalization. Mozambique is a place with an abundance of natural resources. However, it is still one of the poorest countries in the world. An opportunity has now presented itself after the DFC (U.S. International Development Finance Corporation) recently approved two substantially large natural gas projects in Mozambique.

Poverty and Social Inequalities

Within the last 20 years, Mozambique has had a growing period in predictive expansion in agriculture and natural resources. The growth has been at a slow pace. Although the poverty numbers are not what they once were, there is a noticeable space between social and financial equality. A recent report from ClubOfMozambique.com suggests that the abrupt lockdowns from COVID-19 have shined a light on the wide gap between the well-off and the impoverished. Hunger has been another major issue for struggling families due to spikes in inflation and boundary restrictions. There is public blame that is directed toward the government and the failure of equal distribution of wealth.

The Natural Gas Project

In July 2020, a major French oil company, Total, put together a near $15 billion contract agreement to begin the production and distribution of the country’s abundant natural gas resources. The scale of this project is set to be one of the biggest industrial initiatives in the history of Africa. The World Bank and The International Monetary Fund (IMF) have given their assistance both financially and publically. This is needed amid pushback from the use of fossil fuels. An environmental organization called Friends of the Earth International has concluded that ever since the country first discovered natural gas reserves 10 years ago, it has contributed to the public imbalance of wealth and prosperity. From the opposite point of view, the African department of the IMF suggested that the fuel project could be a very unique window of opportunity to bring a fresh start to the economy of Mozambique.

Possible Job Opportunity

The country’s economic statistics would suggest that this project would be a significant milestone for those that are deep in poverty. Proper instruction and leadership from international fuel companies can eventually lead to job opportunities for locals. Currently, job opportunities are few and far between with a high majority having to rely on agriculture for survival. In addition, this is a main key factor that went into the government’s extensive plan. This would work toward converting natural gas into nutrients for crops, bringing higher yields for working farmers. Perhaps most importantly is the fact that this project has the potential to rectify one of the main problems in the country: dependable energy. Bringing in the fuel industry would allow the chance for energy in expanded locations. As a result, it would inevitably bring back Mozambique’s travel and vacation business.

When a country such as Mozambique is going through such disheartening conditions, it is hard to argue against taking the risk to majorly improve their economic situation. When Mozambique takes part in the natural gas business sector, it would lead to more international attention and inclusion.

Brandon Baham

Photo: Flickr

Foreign Aid in MozambiqueThe provision of foreign aid from the United States serves as a multifaceted solution and preventative measure to many issues that ultimately impact the United States. In assisting with the development of under-resourced countries and those afflicted by natural disasters and conflict, the country’s interest in strengthening U.S. eminence in the global political ecosystem is served, as is the initiative to foster and stabilize democracies that are essential in maintaining global peace. Mozambique is one such country that receives aid from the United States. Nearly half of the population lives in poverty and while having managed to combat that statistic with an annual decrease of 1%, the country continues to see rising levels of inequality. USAID’s 2019 assistance investment in Mozambique totaled $288 million. Foreign aid in Mozambique is being used in several key developmental areas.

Developing Education

A significant portion of U.S. foreign aid has been invested in providing basic education. This foreign aid in Mozambique has been applied in conjunction with the country’s national budgetary allocation of 15% for basic education. This initiative has led to improved access to education with the abolishment of enrollment fees, an investment in free textbooks, direct funding to schools and the construction of classrooms. With access to education improving, Mozambique now moves to focus on developing the quality of education it provides and extending the initiative of improving access to those who are in the early learning stage. Only 5% of children between the ages of 3 and 5 have access to such services. Moving forward, educational initiatives aim to focus on the improvement of teacher training, the retention of students (as only 8% continue onto secondary level) and optimizing the management and monitoring of education nationally.

Addressing Humanitarian Needs

A large part of foreign aid in Mozambique has been committed to battling humanitarian crises. Cabo Delgado is the northernmost province of the country and is experiencing an insurgency that is decimating its infrastructure and food security. As a result, there is an ongoing displacement of the population. In November 2020 alone, more than 14,300 displaced people arrived in the provincial capital Pemba. The World Food Programme estimates the cost of feeding internally displaced people in northern Mozambique to be at approximately $4.7 million per month, aside from the housing costs and the complexity of managing the crisis amid a global pandemic. This allocation of the country’s foreign aid will be vital in maintaining the wellbeing of people during the conflict and restoring the country’s infrastructure once the insurgency has subdued.

Improving the Health Sector

The bulk of foreign aid in Mozambique goes toward the many challenges the country faces with regard to health issues such as funding family planning, battling tuberculosis, maternal and child health as well as water and sanitation. More than $120 million goes toward this initiative but the most pressing of the issues is mitigating the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2014, Mozambique ranked eighth globally for HIV cases. With the support, antiretroviral therapy and testing has expanded, which is evidenced by more than a 40% drop in new cases since 2004. Additionally, with a sharp increase in the treatment of pregnant women who carry the virus, one study recorded a 73% drop in cases among newborns between 2011 and 2014. The executive director of UNAIDS, Michel Sidibe, has claimed that the epidemic could be completely eradicated by 2030 if such a rate of progress continues.

The developmental progress in Mozambique is reflective of the substantial impact that foreign aid has on developing countries. As U.S. foreign aid to developing countries continues, the hope is for other well-positioned countries to follow suit.

– Christian Montemayor
Photo: Flickr