Burkina Faso's Healthcare System
Healthcare in Burkina Faso is not often in the eye of the media. War and violence have heavily affected the country and taken a toll on its healthcare system. Due to the escalation of violence and lack of financial means, roughly 1.5 million people have seen a significant reduction in their access to healthcare since 2019.

Funding and Outcomes

Violence is not the only problem that affects Burkina Faso’s healthcare system. Healthcare in Burkina Faso also suffers from a past and present lack of financial means to hire healthcare workers. The 5% government funding towards the healthcare system reflects this, which was $82 per person as of 2016. To compare, the United State’s government funding is at 17.7% and Canada’s is 11.6%.

The inability to hire experienced medical personnel has lead to less than one physician per 10,000 people, 3.57 nurses per 10,000 people and 2.39 midwives per 10,000.

This lack of experienced medical personnel strongly affects the outcomes of Burkina Faso’s healthcare system. For example, the minimum accessibility to midwives has led to a 21/1,000 stillbirth rate. Burkina Faso’s healthcare system also has a 49% chance of infant mortality.

Access to Resources

Though war and violence have put a strain on Burkina Faso’s healthcare system, there is also the issue of an inability for households to access resources. More than 45% of Burkina Faso’s population lives on less than $1.25 per day, and as a result, many are not able to afford and access proper food and water. The fact that 10.4% of children under 5 suffer from acute malnutrition illustrates this. Acute malnutrition is a form of undernutrition that can range in severities and cause growth stunting. This affects 30.2% of children in Burkina Faso.

Additionally, there are roughly 3 million people in Burkina Faso who cannot access improved water sources, which causes many digestive issues as well as dehydration. Another issue that Burkina Faso’s healthcare system has to bear is poor sanitation. Poor sanitation can lead to increased transmission of diseases. For example, only 22% of people have access to a toilet, which causes over 2,800 childhood deaths per year for children under 5.

Overall, the low individual income for the citizens of Burkina Faso acts as a barrier between them and healthcare. The fact that healthcare in Burkina Faso does not receive the necessary funding to hire experienced medical personnel, purchase quality products and afford and access technology negatively impacts the quality of care that each individual obtains.

Work to Improve Healthcare in Burkina Faso

Though Burkina Faso’s healthcare system has a long way to go, the United States and the rest of the world have been providing aid. For example, USAID is currently granting amazing services to Burkina Faso in the form of efforts to alleviate child hunger, provide malaria treatment and implement prevention programs targeting children under 5 and pregnant women. As one of the largest donors in the fight against malaria, the United States has contributed to a 62% reduction in mortality from it over the past five years.

In 2018, the World Bank approved an $80 million International Development Association grant and $20 million from the Global Financing Facility (GFF) in Support of Every Woman, Every Child. This money went toward supporting government efforts to increase accessibility and quality of health services in Burkina Faso.

Burkina Faso’s Efforts

Health minister Nicolas Meda has been working to achieve improvement to Burkina Faso’s healthcare system. In 2018, he welcomed the support of the Burkina Faso Reference Group. With the help of the group, the government identified four main goals it wished to achieve; expanding the current access to family planning, ensuring proper food and nutrition, eliminating infectious disease and revitalizing primary healthcare. Meda also wants to limit the household spending on healthcare to 20% instead of its 32% average which could increase households’ abilities to spend money on food, education, etc.

Global Context

Burkina Faso is a country that highlights the importance of foreign aid and healthcare protections. Without U.S foreign aid, the state of Burkina Faso’s healthcare system could be much worse than it is today. Through continued efforts, healthcare in Burkina Faso should continue to improve.

– Hope Arpa Chow
Photo: Pixabay

Displacement in Burkina Faso
Over the last couple of years, the crisis of displacement in Burkina Faso, a small country in western Africa, has become the most pressing refugee situation on Earth. Violence and lack of resources have forced many into displacement and extreme poverty.

Astronomical Growth of the Crisis

The Displacement in Burkina Faso has been called the current fastest growing crisis of its kind—for the last two years, attacks carried out by armed groups have ravaged villages, causing hundreds of thousands of people to flee their homes. Since January of 2019, the number of people displaced in Burkina Faso, which has a total population of 18.6 million, has risen from 50,000 to around 920,000 as of July 2020. The United Nations has recognized that this is the fastest growing population of displaced people on the planet and that activists need to put their resources to work in Burkina Faso as quickly as possible.

Stable But Struggling Economy

Burkina Faso’s people do not benefit from its relatively stable macroeconomic status—Burkina Faso’s economy relies primarily upon agriculture, and though this sector has seen a decline, the rising service sector has allowed the country’s GDP growth to remain 6% in 2019. Yet, Burkina Faso’s people remain largely impoverished: over 40% of its population lives below the poverty line.

The displacement crisis, of course, has not helped the matter. It has caused over 2,000 schools to close, among other major losses in massive fields like medicine. 11,000 teachers felt the impact of this mass closing, and around 300,000 students found themselves without an education.

Lack of Governmental Regulation

Authorities do not know the extent of the situation—the armed groups terrorizing Burkina Faso, some linked with the Islamic State and al-Qaeda, have caused the administrative presence in the northern and eastern regions of the country to virtually disappear. Official regulation throughout the nation has deteriorated as a result. Police and other representatives of the state have fled these areas, which have unofficially fallen to terrorist control.

Moreover, the administration of Burkina Faso has resorted to execution without trial; 60 such executions occurred in 2019 alone. These circumstances make it difficult to say exactly how many lives have been affected by this crisis.

Humanitarian Organizations Strain to Help

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) and other humanitarian organizations need major funding to solve this issue: In response to the massive spread of displacement in Burkina Faso, IOM has begun a project to provide shelter and other resources to displaced people. Through their efforts, IOM delivered on its promise to more than 3,000 people in Burkina Faso. IOM also managed to provide psychological care for over 5,000 displaced people.

However, most of all, IOM needs outside funding to expand the scope of its aid. In June of 2020, IOM appealed for $37.8 million, hoping to extend aid to 460,000 displaced people in Burkina Faso and other neighboring countries.

Displacement and COVID-19

Burkina Faso needs aid for its COVID-19 response as well. The pandemic and displacement in Burkina Faso have created a dual-threat situation for the nation’s people. However, officials at IMO warn that both issues require the world’s attention. Neither of the relief efforts should suffer for the other’s sake—the rise of one issue inevitably worsens the other.

IMO has dedicated itself to solving both problems. They have provided medical supplies and raised awareness, helping over 3,282 displaced people become more aware of the pandemic situation.

Burkina Faso faces an issue that perhaps lies outside the bounds of what its government can overcome alone. Humanitarian agents around the globe need to immediately provide resources in order to alleviate the suffering in this once prosperous nation by helping it fight COVID-19 and its growing displacement crisis.

– Will Sikich
Photo: Flickr

Education in Burkina Faso
Frequent terrorist attacks since 2016 have impacted many sectors in Burkina Faso, especially education. The high cost of education prevents many in poverty from going to school. This is particularly true for girls, as parents are more likely to prioritize the education of their sons. Education remains a challenge for the West African country since Burkina Faso’s education spending relies heavily on aid. Furthermore, violence in the Sahel region displaced more than 765,000 people and caused more than 2,000 schools to close in March 2020. School closures continue to affect about 300,000 students and 11,000 teachers. Although recent violence has impacted education in Burkina Faso, organizations are stepping up to provide aid.

Education to Reduce Poverty

An educated society helps reduce poverty. Burkina Faso has a poverty rate of 40.1% and affordable education could benefit its people. Affordable education could also improve the country’s poor infrastructure and communication. Further benefits include the diversification of knowledge, allowing individuals to better change the world around them. All these benefits encouraged the OPEC to sign a loan of $20 million to Burkina Faso in support of its education development in 2019. A reported 18,500 on-campus University of Ouagadougou students will benefit from expanded facilities.

The loan also helps the government finance its Agricultural Value Chain Support Project, which focuses on poverty reduction and agricultural productivity. Director-General of the OPEC Fund Dr. Abdulhamid Alkhalifa said, “Ensuring inclusive and quality education for all – and promoting lifelong learning – is a fundamental ingredient to sustainable development. To see such a project come to life is inspiring and I believe this university will enable many people – young and old – to play a role in advancing the development of Burkina Faso, and more generally, in contributing toward a more equal global society.”

Improvements in Girls’ Education

Education for children continues to improve although the achievement gap between boys and girls still remains large. For females age 15 to 24, the literacy rate is only 33% in contrast to a 47% rate for boys in the same age range. In the Sahel region, girls’ education is particularly grim. Girls are two times more likely to drop out of primary school than their female counterparts nationally. About half of the girls in the Sahel region are married and give birth before the age of 19. This has created a high-drop out rate of around 30% during the final year of lower secondary school. If tests are not taken during this time, girls cannot move up to upper secondary school, both of which are barriers to furthering education for girls.

In response to these conditions, Education Cannot Wait provides emergency aid to countries without access to proper education. Education Cannot Wait, hosted by UNICEF, allocated $6 million in July 2019 to help children in the Sahel region. This came as a response to the widespread violence in the region that affected 2.3 million children. The organization provides emergency education assistance throughout the world, benefiting 187,000 children through its assistance. Its goals in the Sahel region for 2020 include constructing and rehabilitating classrooms for about 41,000 children who are out of school, distributing learning material for 94,000 children and mobilizing 83,000 community members to help support secure learning environments.

The 12-month plan also includes hygiene promotion, which includes menstrual hygiene management for more than 68,000 students. Sexual violence against women, child marriage and exploitation in the region are common, so a safe environment, such as a school, can help provide safety to student girls and female teachers in spite of the recent violence.

Moving Forward

Education remains of vital importance to a country’s wellbeing, both socially and economically. Burkina Faso continues to experience widespread violence, yet aid from outside the country is helping provide education to children and adults. However, more can be done to not only improve education but also increase economic development. Continued efforts are needed to reduce poverty and improve education in Burkina Faso.

– Lucas Schmidt
Photo: Flickr

Women and Girls in Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso is a landlocked, Sub-Saharan country in West Africa. Of the 20 million people residing there, 50.3 percent are female. Women and girls in Burkina Faso are likely to suffer from sexual or violent assault, experience forced marriage, be sold as property, die from unsafe pregnancy or abortion and/or undergo genitalia mutilation.

More than 85 percent of the population in the area supports the idea that these practices should discontinue. The government reformation of the constitution in 2016 claiming to strengthen women’s and children’s rights reflects this support. Unfortunately, women living in West Africa are still in immediate need of medical aid in order to live safe and healthy lives.

The organization Lighting the Path launched a new Women’s Aid Fund (WAF) to accomplish just that by helping women and girls in the fight for life. To gain further insight into how WAF is changing the lives of those living in Burkina Faso, The Borgen Project interviewed Dawn Malcolm, founder of Lighting the Path.

Life for Females in Burkina Faso

While the country’s government has put a policy into motion that promotes gender equality, the women and girls in Burkina Faso still face many unfair and cruel practices.

According to a Country Gender Profile by Japan International Cooperation Agency, when it comes to education, it is “socially ingrained that girls should be doing household chores rather than going to school.” In 2018, Burkina Faso saw a mere 32 percent of the female population enroll in schools.

Additionally, it is likely that women and girls in Burkina Faso will experience sexual assault from other students or teachers. In 1998, a Medical Research Council Survey found that 37.7 percent of girls in South Africa said that a school teacher or principal had raped them.

Additionally, there is an issue of forced marriage, including underaged young women. Families force more than half of all girls under the legal age of 17 into unregistered marriage.

Gender-based violence (GBV) is also extremely prevalent in Burkina Faso. Specifically, female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice for the nation. Despite the fact that Burkina Faso banned this practice in 1996 and the majority of the population is aware of the harmful effects, 76 percent of females between the ages of 15 and 49 have undergone mutilation.

Finally, women’s economic status in the country is far below that of men’s status. This occurs for three main reasons. Firstly, many in the country do not value women’s right to own property. Secondly, the right of succession does not apply to women. Thirdly, women cannot seem to buy or inherit the land. All of these economic issues make women reliable for men for a sustainable way of life, continuing the suppressive cycle.

Behind Lighting the Path

Dawn Malcolm founded Lighting the Path with the main goal of ending extreme poverty. The organization works with outreach programs and finds people in poverty who suffer from a lack of food, health care or education. The organization offers support through teaching business and entrepreneurship skills, which Malcolm believes is the best way to help. “Women and the people in poverty have to be empowered to help with the process of writing them out of poverty,” she says. “It can’t just be hand-outs all the time.” One example of this enterprise production model was teaching the women and girls in Burkina Faso to make soap out of the shea butter readily available to them in the village.

LTP is currently working on five fundraising projects: The Girls for Girls Project, The School for Girls Project, The Giving Hope Project, Empowerment Work in Burkina Faso and Microfinancing projects. For sustainable development, building the school for girls is the main focus of LTP’s future, as of now.

The Women’s Aid Fund

The Women’s Aid Fund is a new project that Lighting the Path has had success with. It formed while Malcolm was in Burkina Faso teaching women to make the shea butter soap. While working there, she recognized that women and girls had untreated medical issues. “Women there are husbands’ property, so they’re not always taken care of. Plus, if there’s any money, [the women] would take care of their children before they would get themselves cared for,” Malcolm told The Borgen Project. She typically saw injuries that occurred from FGM or injuries that occurred from fistulas that had not received treatment. Fistulas develop when the body is not ready for birth; in this case, the underaged girls who entered marriage unwillingly commonly developed fistulas.

Most of the things Malcolm witnessed were widespread, occurring on a daily basis and would likely require more than one group’s intervention for eradication. During her time, Malcolm encountered one woman with an injury she knew she could help with if she had the right amount of resources.

A woman named Elizabeth had lost her arm in a domestic dispute with her husband. “Life is very, very difficult [there]. It’s a lot of work, and it’s very hard there already, so when a woman has an injury, or an illness or wound that compromises her further, it just compounds the difficulty of life,” she said. Malcolm saw that by simply purchasing a prosthetic arm, she and Lighting the Path could change Elizabeth’s life for the better.

The WAF formulated with the goal of buying Elizabeth the prosthetic arm. The arm cost about $1,700 but Lighting the Path decided that was not enough. Not stopping at the prosthetic, WAF is continuing to help other women and girls in Burkina Faso who have disabilities or need medical attention. Malcolm says that even small things—a cut on the finger, for example—can sometimes become septic and lead to death if it does not receive treatment. There will always be ways we can help the women and girls in Burkina Faso. Malcolm said, “There’s always going to be women in need of some support to get some treatment or some care that they can’t otherwise afford.”

 Sadly, things like sexual assault, FGM, illegal marriage and unsafe abortion still happen to women and girls in Burkina Faso. Change may come in the future, but it is likely that everyday women and girls in the country are experiencing harm while waiting for that change to arrive. Thankfully, organizations like Lighting the Path and funds like the WAF are improving the way these women heal.

Marlee Septak
Photo: Flickr

Ending Violence in Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso is a small African nation that lies between the more well-known countries Ghana and Mali. Like many other underprivileged nations, Burkina Faso experiences excessive rates of violence. Fortunately, humanitarian organizations noticed and began efforts to calm the violence. Keep reading to find out who and what organizations are ending violence in Burkina Faso.

The Statistics

In Burkina Faso, the United Nations’ report reveals the harsh reality that citizens live through. The homicide rate is 9.8 per 100,000 people. The homicide rate for men is 14.1 out of 100,000 people, while the homicide rate for females is 5.2. In addition, with a population of 20,321,378, the total number of homicides for 2019 was 1,991 deaths. For comparison, the homicide rate in the United States in 2018 was 5.0 people per 100,000 people, which is nearly 50 percent less Burkina Faso’s homicide rate. These astronomical homicide rates are why ending violence in Burkina Faso is a crucial issue.

How Violence Affects the Nation

The extreme homicide rate in Burkina Faso is detrimental to society, but in many more ways than just an increased death toll. Between January 26 and February 15, 2020, approximately 150,000 people fled their villages in the Sahel region. In addition, United Nations News reported that nearly 4,000 people flee their communities every day. The violence in Burkina Faso forces communities from their villages. Additionally, the violence forced over 2,000 schools to close due to threats toward education personnel, military usurping school facilities and assaults directed at the schools themselves in February 2019. As a result, about 133,333 children had their education interrupted, and 3,050 teachers became jobless.

Who is Ending Violence in Burkina Faso?

Fortunately, the violence in Burkina Faso is not going unnoticed. Many different humanitarian organizations are working toward ending violence in Burkina Faso. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a branch of the United Nations that focuses on the well-being of refugees, people forcibly removed from their communities and stateless people. The UNHCR is working to provide safe zones for fleeing individuals. Its distinct focus is relocating the elderly, children and single women.


The United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) works to decrease the impact of the closure of schools on the youth’s education. Additionally, UNICEF works toward this goal by implementing innovative learning methods. For example, radio learning is a way that UNICEF works toward ending violence in Burkina Faso. Radio learning is an inventive way to provide education to the many children who have to flee their homes because of violence. The radio lessons follow a basis of literacy and arithmetic.
 Moreover, UNICEF works with education and government officials to bring a resolution to the table. The organization works on the ground to assist teachers in resolving the threat of violence to their schools. Also, UNICEF provides psychological support to students and teachers who have become emotionally scarred from the harsh reality they witness daily.


– Cleveland Lewis
Photo: Flickr

Higher Education in Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso is a presidential republic in Western Africa. After the country’s independence from France in 1960, Burkina Faso went through a period of political turmoil between 1970 and 2015. Between 2016 and 2018, Burkina Faso also suffered three terrorist attacks in its capital. The growing insecurity, due to more terrorist threats in the country’s northern and eastern regions, resulted in multiple tragedies. In 2019, more than 1,800 people died, nearly 500,000 people experienced displacement and more than 2,000 schools closed. This article will examine the state of higher education in Burkina Faso.

The Importance of Higher Education

This displacement of school closures resulted in a low literacy rate in Burkina Faso, where only 41.2 percent of the population above the age of 15 is literate. However, these conditions have improved in recent years. While the participation rate in education from pre-primary to higher education is still low compared to most of the world, recent UNESCO statistics show an upward trend in people’s participation in education.

One cannot underestimate the importance of higher education in a developing country such as Burkina Faso. While it is important to raise the literacy rate, many economic experts suggest that the governments of developing nations should invest in higher education. The World Bank, as early as 2000, recognized this importance. The report suggested that human capital, which is the knowledge, skill and resourcefulness of a country’s people, is increasingly becoming more important for a country’s future economic development. The World Bank’s 2020 education plan further reflects this.

There are three major public universities, three private universities and one technical university in Burkina Faso. The biggest public university, Universite de Ouagadougou (University of Ouagadougou), has 30,000 to 34,999 enrolled students. The University of Ouagadougou provides curriculums in humanities, arts, business and engineering. Meanwhile, the Universite Polytechnique de Bobo-Dioulasso (Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso) focuses its curriculum on science and technology. These universities bear the responsibility of improving and continuing higher education in Burkina Faso.

Challenges of Improving Education for Students

Higher education in Burkina Faso must overcome numerous challenges, but the state of education in the country has steadily improved over the past decade. There has also been a rise in the number of people who are eligible to participate in higher education. The gross enrolment ratio in higher education in the country rose from 3.58 percent in 2010 to 6.5 percent in 2018. However, there are concerns over the lack of infrastructure and teacher staffing levels in the nation’s higher education institutions.

While the Burkina Faso government’s expenditures in education have been steadily increasing since 2010, reports suggest that most of the investment went into building new universities instead of creating new fields of study. Gender disparity is another issue that higher education in Burkina Faso must overcome. According to the World Bank, the gender disparity in Burkina Faso’s education widens with each rung of the education ladder. UNESCO data shows that while female enrollment in tertiary education is steadily increasing, it is still significantly below male participation in higher education.

Improving Higher Education

There are efforts, both domestic and international, to improve higher education in Burkina Faso. The World Bank, for its part, invested in a $70 million project to improve the higher education in Burkina Faso.

In 2020, the Virtual University of Burkina Faso (UV-BF) is one of the projects with the aim of improving higher education in Burkina Faso. Professor Jean Marie Dipama, who set up UV-BF, said in an interview that she hopes that UV-BF will make higher education more available to Burkina Faso’s people. The Burkina Faso government also recently launched its new Education Sector Plan for 2017 through 2030, which aims to improve the quality and access to education across all academic levels

Higher education in Burkina Faso is striving to improve. As the world economy gets more complex, the need for better higher education in the country seems paramount. While the steadily rising literacy and education rate is a good sign, this is giving rise to concerns over Burkina Faso’s ability to provide quality higher education to all who desire it. However, the Burkina Faso government’s continuous effort to improve the country’s overall education aims to also improve the nation’s higher education. With the help of foreign investors and communities, such as the World Bank, many hope that Burkina Faso’s higher education will continue its improvement in the coming years.

YongJin Yi
Photo: Flickr

According to data accumulated by the United Nations, life expectancy in Burkina Faso has increased by 32 years since 1950. Contemporary estimates place Burkina Faso’s current life expectancy at 62 years, while in 1950 life expectancy was measured to be 30 years. Despite these gains, contemporary figures remain low compared to the developed world. These 10 facts about life expectancy in Burkina Faso showcase the massive strides made in public health and standard of living while also describing challenges yet to be overcome.

10 facts About Life Expectancy in Burkina Faso

  1. Malaria: The Center for Disease Control (CDC) lists malaria as the number one cause of death in Burkina Faso. Severe Malaria Observatory reports that malaria is responsible for 61.5 percent of all hospitalizations and 30.5 percent of deaths occurring each year due to malaria. Similarly, for children under 5, malaria is the leading cause of hospitalization with 63.2 percent of all admittances. Malaria accounts for nearly half of all deaths for children under 5.
  2. HIV: Tremendous strides in reducing the prevalence of HIV are further improving life expectancy in Burkina Faso. The population affected by HIV has been reduced from 2.3 percent down to 0.8 percent between 2001 and 2018. Representing an overall decrease of 65 percent, Burkina Faso reduced HIV prevalence more than any country in that period. Further, in 2007 HIV was still ranked as the fifth most likely cause of death in Burkina Faso. By 2017, HIV had plummeted to the 16th most likely cause of death. Working with major international partners including the University of Oslo, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Terre des Hommes and the Global Fund allowed Burkina Faso to develop and implement methods to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV. 
  3. Sanitation Improvements: According to the Burkinabè government’s Ministry of Water and Sanitation between 2018 and 2019, Burkina Faso successfully constructing 26,039 family latrines and 966 public latrines. In the same year, the Burkinabè government assisted in the construction of 553 kilometers of additional water supply infrastructure and 188 new standpipes in urban areas. This construction increased national access to drinking water from 74 percent to 75.4 percent within a single year. Similarly, the national sanitation rate rose from 22.6 percent to 23.6 percent. Inadequate access to proper sanitation and clean water are the primary contributors to diarrheal disease, which is one of the leading causes of death in Burkina Faso. Improvements in sanitation have reduced deaths attributed to diarrheal diseases and increased overall life expectancy in Burkina Faso.
  4. Infant and Maternal Mortality: Infant mortality has decreased from 91 deaths per 1,000 births in the year 2000 to 49 deaths in 2017. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate dropped significantly between 2000 and 2017 from 516 deaths per 100,000 live births to 320 deaths per 100,000 live births. These advancements are due to greater access to hospitals, particularly in urban areas, as well as innovations in public health such as the Maternal Death Surveillance and Response system. The initiative trains health care professionals across the country to properly identify, notify and investigate instances of maternal death. Since its inception, the program has been nationalized leading to maternal and neonatal death audits so that health facilities regularly address the shortcomings of the health system to avoid future deaths.
  5. Child Mortality: A recent study conducted by the World Bank found that one in eight children born in Burkina Faso will die before the age of 5. The risk of under-5 mortality is 6 percent higher for children born to mothers younger than the age of 18. The average age of a woman in Burkina Faso at the time of childbirth is 19 years old and the birth rate for women aged 15-19 is 122 births per 1,000. To curb adolescent pregnancy the Burkina Faso Council of Community Development Organizations launched a campaign to reduce sexually transmitted disease, unwanted or adolescent pregnancies and unsafe abortions in Burkina Faso in 2019.
  6. High Fertility Rates: Even as life expectancy in Burkina Faso has improved, high fertility rates influence public health as women, on average, give birth to 4.5 children. Though contemporary efforts to address high fertility rates have been promising, the population demographic distribution is largely 14 years old and younger. With these demographics dominating the population Burkina Faso’s rate of growth will continue to increase as this younger generation reaches adulthood.
  7. High Growth Rates: Despite life expectancy increasing, Burkina Faso still displays a young age structure — typified by a declining mortality rate coupled with particularly high fertility rates. Burkina Faso’s population is growing at a projected rate of 2.66 percent, making the nation the 18th fastest growing population in the world. This precipitous growth places a greater strain on the nation’s arable land as well as economic well being, causing challenges in maintaining the growth of life expectancy in Burkina Faso’s future.
  8. Security Crisis: Since 2016, Burkina Faso has been targeted by several militant Islamist extremist groups primarily based in the country’s Northern region. Attacks committed by these groups claimed 1,800 lives in 2019, according to the United Nations. In 2019, there was a 10-fold increase in the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs); the total people displaced is estimated at around half a million. This large number of IDPs and people who have been fleeing violence to neighboring Mali have compounded economic and ecological problems in Burkina Faso. Although, the government is looking to continue to propel growth in life expectancy in Burkina Faso.
  9. Humanitarian Aid: Around 948,000 people need security and 1.5 million people are currently dependent upon humanitarian aid to cover basic medical needs. Basic health care is crucial in effectively reducing poverty and improving life expectancy. Humanitarian aid is focusing on impacting 1.8 million people by providing $312 million in funding.
  10. Continued Growth Projections: Regardless of concerns,  recently presented data from the 2019 Revision of World Population Prospects, the United Nations projects continued growth in the area of Burkinabè life expectancy. Life expectancy in Burkina Faso is projected to increase to 70 years by 2050 according to the U.N. study.

These 10 facts about life expectancy in Burkina Faso depict a nation that has made great achievements and is ready to face its contemporary problems with assistance from international partners. 

– Perry Stone Budd
Photo: Flickr

Economic and Scientific Development in Burkina FasoBurkina Faso is a country plagued by violence and poverty. There is little opportunity for work in Burkina Faso outside of agriculture. The country also has recently become the victim of Jihadist attacks. Jihadists exploit the country’s impoverished citizens to gain recruits. Violence and climate change contribute to the country’s poverty. Despite this, the government aims to prioritize economic and scientific development in Burkina Faso. The country adopted a National Policy for Scientific and Technical Research in 2012. The goal of the project was to improve research and development. Additionally, the project hopes to improve the country’s agricultural output to improve food security.

Burkina Faso’s Economic and Scientific Development

The country’s objective is to promote an effective and accessible health system. This implementation yielded some positive results in economic and scientific development in Burkina Faso. Fortunately, there is a growing number of doctoral candidates in medicine and other similar fields. However, most of the researchers working in Burkina Faso are from European nations, such as France.

The country passed the National Policy for Food and Nutrition Security in 2014 and the National Program for the Rural Sector in 2011.  The country also passed the Science, Technology and Innovation Act in 2013. The act established three mechanisms for financial innovation: the National Fund for Education and Research, the National Fund for Research and Innovation Development and the Forum for Scientific Research and Technological Innovation.

To attract researchers and developers in an effort to improve economic and scientific development in Burkina Faso, the country held a major event in 2017. Burkina Faso’s National Center for Scientific and Technological Research organized the event. The event hosted investors, innovators, researchers and other players in the technology field to suggest and showcase their ideas on how to improve technological research. As a result, Burkina Faso has received funding from organizations, including the World Bank.

Development Challenges

Much of the funding Burkina Faso and other Sub-Saharan African countries receive comes with expectations. As with many African countries, there is often a condition requiring the country to bring a portion of its own money to be eligible for grants for research projects. Many funding agencies expect contributions of 20 to 50 percent of the project’s cost, according to the Executive Secretary of the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Donors often ask for this contribution as a method to ensure the country’s commitment to a project.

Burkina Faso cannot obtain the necessary funding due to these restrictions. As a result, there are a number of problems facing Burkina Faso’s research and development programs. The country has a small pool of researchers, a lack of research funding and outdated research facilities.

Success Stories

Despite the lack of funding, there have been small success stories of economic and scientific development in Burkina Faso. Aminata Sinka, the founder of Linea’s Ideas, embroiders gadgets, baby gift sets, sheets, t-shirts and blouses for businesses or individuals. She takes inspiration from designs she sees on the internet and tries to ensure her designs are unique. As of now, she is the only reference for digital embroidery in Burkina Faso.

Another success story is Sotria-B, an industrial nut processing company in the city of Banfora. Sotria-B nut processing is uplifting the lives of women in Burkina Faso. More than 300 people have employment, 90 percent of whom are women. Most of these women come from impoverished backgrounds. Since 2006, the company has processed 3,000 pounds of cashew nuts. The company sells its nuts in both Europe and America and obtained investors through the European Union. The owner’s goal to improve the lives of women is slowly coming to fruition as the company flourishes.

It is probable that more success stories will come out of Burkina Faso. A higher chance for success requires additional funding and understanding concerning Burkina Faso’s inability to bring forth its own funding. With more grants and other funds, Burkina Faso can implement more economic and scientific developments.

Robert Forsyth
Photo: Flickr

Helen Keller International
Helen Keller International (HIK) is an organization that is dedicated to helping the world’s poor by combating poverty, blindness, poor health and malnutrition for all people. It predominately helps those who are less fortunate and do not have accessibility to the resources that help maintain an adequate living.

The Main Focus

HIK primarily focuses on preventing blindness in people by providing them with cataract surgery, vision correction and distributing treatments and cures for tropical diseases. This is how it plans on combating poverty in developing countries. It currently has more than 120 programs in about 20 countries all over the world.

It works with various partners to implement strategies that will combat poverty and strengthen these programs. Some of its partners include organizations such as the West African Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization, UNICEF, World Health Organization and the World Food Program.

Helen Keller International’s Accomplishments

According to reports from Impact Information in 2018, HIK provided 15,000 free precision glasses to disadvantaged youth and performed 40,000 cataract surgeries.

In 2014, USAID funded a five-year Morbidity Management and Disability Prevention Project (MMDP) to strengthen illness management and prevent disabilities in African countries. HIK has led the MMDP project in Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Ethiopia since July 2014. As a result, thousands of people have benefited from HIK’s help and dedication to the project.

The project combats painful diseases such as trichiasis which can cause scarring to the cornea because it causes the eyelash to grow backward. The project also treats hydrocele, which causes the male scrotum to swell causing extreme pain. This is most common in male newborns.

HIK’s work with the MMDP project in the countries above has helped 2.1 million people get screenings for trichiasis and 76,000 people received trichiasis surgery. Additionally, HIK was able to train 280 trichiasis surgeons. This organization also provided hydrocele surgery to over 2,000 men and trained 200 hydrocele surgeons. HIK has changed the lives of many people at risk.

Global Impact

Helen Keller International is combating poverty by improving the lives of the world’s poor at a global level as well. The MMDP project improves data availability and use by sharing knowledge worldwide. The project also assisted in developing tools and resources for communities to use internationally in trachoma and LF programs around the world.

HIK believes that neglected tropical diseases are direct consequences of poverty. To combat this poverty it has turned its focus to protect health. HIK aids in the fight against five diseases including trachoma, river blindness, intestinal worms, snail fever and lymphatic filariasis. All of these diseases cause extreme pain and can even lead to death.

To combat these diseases, HIK has helped deliver thousands of trachoma surgeries to poor communities and will continue to do so in hopes of eliminating trachoma by 2020. The organization has helped develop a platform that is effective in the treatment of river blindness across Africa. HIK also helps developing countries distribute deworming medication to children in at-risk communities.

Helen Keller International is combating poverty all over the world through efforts to protect health and advert the causes of blindness and more in poor countries. Through its efforts, it has aided many in poverty and that number should only grow.

– Jessica Jones
Photo: Flickr

BARKA Foundation

Burkina Faso is a small, land-locked country located in western Africa. Due to recurring droughts and the lack of efficient infrastructure, access to clean water remains an issue in Burkina Faso, especially during the dry winter months when two of the country’s three rivers dry up. In addition to water scarcity, many areas still do not have the sanitation facilities necessary to ensure drinking water is clean and safe. An organization called the BARKA Foundation is working to change that.

Barka is an African word meaning gratitude, blessing and reciprocity. These three words embody the mission of the BARKA Foundation, an American non-profit that strives to bring clean water to all parts of Burkina Faso. In 2015, 93.3 percent of the rural population and 80.3 percent of the total population did not have improved sanitation facility access. Nearly half the country still lives without clean water. Dirty water can spread diarrheal diseases and other infections to the public. Below are descriptions of the BARKA Foundation’s current clean water projects, and the positive effects these projects have had on communities in Burkina Faso.

WASH

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Education (WASH) is a long-term initiative that not only supplies rural villages with clean water but also educates the villagers on important sanitation and water purification practices. The goal here is sustainability. By giving village members lifelong sanitation skills, BARKA can be confident that their positive impact will continue after they have left. WASH objectives include digging wells, building latrines and educating members of the community.

Part of what makes the BARKA Foundation special is its culturally sensitive and community-based approach to clean water. Before any project starts, BARKA makes sure it is in accordance with the Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples’ Principle of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC). This principle ensures that all beneficiary communities agree to the non-profit’s presence and initiatives, have the right to negotiate the terms of the agreement and can withdraw consent at any time.

BARKA also makes a point of developing sustained personal relationships with each village, so the two groups can develop trust and collaborate effectively. The foundation establishes water and sanitation committees in each town, which are run by the villagers and must be made up of equal parts men and women. These principles are central to WASH’s desire to create a sustainable system of clean water and sanitation. So far, more than 25,000 rural villages have been improved by WASH. The organization has drilled 6 wells and built 14 bathrooms in 5 primary schools in rural areas.

Social Art

BARKA recognizes the cultural importance of song, dance and performance in Burkina Faso. Therefore, to engage village members, the BARKA Foundation uses theater to relay information to the public. These performances involve a portable stage along with light and sound equipment. The plays often contain themes such as female empowerment and sustainable agriculture. After a performance, the audience and the actors on stage have a lively debate where questions may be asked or points challenged. The goal is to create an immersive and interactive learning experience in which everyone can participate.

The adult literacy rate in Burkina Faso is only 34.6 percent. For this reason, engaging and participatory education is extremely important in rural areas. BARKA wants to get the necessary information out there in an effective way that does not exclude illiterate members of society. BARKA has involved 10,023 people in villages and public performances to date, benefiting more than 16,000 people. The average audience size per performance is 432 people.

Walk for Water

A great way for people in their home countries to get involved with the BARKA Foundation is to do a Walk for Water. When there are no wells close by, villagers must travel to a water source to fill up heavy jugs of water and lug them home. The chore typically falls on the shoulders of women and girls in the village, so they usually have to attend to small children while making the journey. Often, those going to get water are barefoot or equipped with poor footwear. This practice is physically tiring and time-consuming and takes time away from girls’ education.

Walks for Water are an imitation of this daily burden. Classrooms, schools and clubs raise money and awareness by carrying water jugs and walking for a set distance (usually 6 kilometers). The fundraiser engages the entire community and is a great way to get everyone involved in an important cause.

Ceramic Filters

Ceramic water filters are a cheap, environmentally sustainable and generally effective way to purify household water. The CDC found that people who used ceramic filters were 60 to 70 percent less likely to contract diarrheal diseases from their drinking water. While these filters are useful for removing most protozoa and bacterial pathogens, they are typically not as effective at removing viruses. For this reason, filters should not be considered a long-term solution but rather an important step.

The BARKA Foundation uses a “cross-subsidization” model to distribute filters to impoverished areas. Essentially, BARKA sells the filters to NGOs and the Burkinabe middle class that can afford them. They then use those profits to distribute ceramic filters to poor areas, often visiting rural villages with little to no sanitation facility access. These filters represent a simple and effective way to ensure every household has at least some method of water purification.

The Future of Clean Water in Burkina Faso

Although the federal government recognized the importance of clean water distribution with the Water Act in 2001, Burkina Faso’s local governments largely do not have the money or resources to maintain filtered water and sanitation practices. The BARKA Foundation seeks to fill these gaps, and its efforts have no doubt resulted in success on the ground.

While it can be difficult to quantify exactly how much improvement BARKA has brought about, they are headed in the right direction. In 2005, a year before BARKA was founded, the life expectancy in Burkina Faso was 53.3 years. Today, the country’s life expectancy is about 61 years. BARKA’s various projects will continue to fight poverty by bringing clean, safe and sustainable water to Burkina Faso.

Morgan Johnson
Photo: Flickr