June 20th marked World Refugee Day, a day to honor the many people worldwide who have been forced to flee their homes because of conflict, violence, or persecution. Today there are 43.7 million refugees or internally displaced people (IDPs) worldwide. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) provides protection and aid to 34 million of them.
Public awareness of these refugee crises often drops sharply after the initial news of the crisis wears off, but the crises themselves continue for years on end, with the toll of refugees climbing ever higher. Here are the 5 largest refugee crises in the world according to the latest available data:
1. Somalia- Since the Somalian Civil War in the 90s, Somalia has been a hotbed of humanitarian concerns and crises. Food crises and the violent insurgent group Al- Shabaab have only exacerbated the problems in the country, along with a large rise in piracy just off of the Somalian coast. According to the UNHCR the total number of refugees and IDPs originating from Somalia numbers around 2.4 million. The Somali government will hopefully regain control of its territory enough to sufficiently aid its refugees.
2. Iraq- The US military invasion and subsequent occupation of Iraq topped off decades of conflict in the country, including the Iran-Iraq War, the first Gulf War, and years of crippling sanctions. The combination of these conflicts has put the UNHCR’s population of concern originating from Iraq at 3 million people. The refugee situation there has been augmented as a result of the Syrian Civil War, in which many Iraqis who had fled to Syria are now choosing to return to their war-torn homeland to escape the Syrian violence.
3. Sudan– The secession of South Sudan from its northern counterpart has helped quell the humanitarian crisis there, but the UN estimates a total of 3.2 million people in its total population of concern originating from Sudan. Sudanese refugees have come from the conflicts in Khartoum, Darfur, the Protocol Areas, and Eastern Sudan.
4. Afghanistan– Since the overthrow of the Taliban government in Afghanistan in 2001, lack of security has been a continuous problem for the Afghan people. Tribal violence and Taliban influence continue to displace Afghan citizens daily. The UNHCR puts the total population of concern originating from Afghanistan at 4.2 million people.
5. Colombia– Though it is not often mentioned in the news, according to the UNHCR, Colombia has the largest total population of concern out of these countries: 4.3 million people. Internal conflict has particularly affected the country’s indigenous population. The effects of natural resource extraction and the armed groups involved therein have almost overwhelmed Colombian citizens.
Although it did not make the list of the world’s largest refugee crises, the situation in Syria represents the most rapidly growing refugee crisis. The number of Syrian refugees is around 1.6 million currently, and the UN expects that to increase to 3.45 million in the next seven months. The UN has also stated that it expects almost half of Syria’s pre-war population to require humanitarian aid by the end of 2013.
Though these conflicts fade from the minds of Americans after their initial impact, World Refugee Day is an opportunity to remember the situations these refugees are dealing with and to donate to a cause or pressure your elected officials to take action in support of these refugees.