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Drought in Zimbabwe

There has been a severe, ongoing drought in Zimbabwe for the past few years. Zimbabwe is a particularly sensitive country to drought. Because it already has issues with food security, low amounts of rain and other water sources make the situation even more difficult. Due to the fact that most agriculture in Zimbabwe relies on rainwater, the crop harvests in the region have suffered severely as a result of the drought. According to the United Nations World Food Programme, nearly 5.3 million people in the country (about a third of the country’s full population) face food insecurity due to low rainwater killing crops. With about 63 percent of people in Zimbabwe living below the poverty line, they will feel the impact of this drought the most.

Drought conditions are worse than ever

Temperatures as of late have been several degrees higher than average. The years 2015-2018 were the hottest ever recorded around the globe. These hotter, drier conditions have effected Zimbabwe. The heat intensifies the drought’s impacts on crops and livestock, resulting in a decrease in available food. The main crop which Zimbabwe relies on is maize. Typically, Zimbabwe’s annual maize consumption is about 1.8 million tons. However, due to droughts, the harvest in 2019 may be closer to 1 million, which is nearly half of the usually available amount. Experts say this could be the worst drought Zimbabwe has faced in over 30 years, with the country seeing 15 to 45 percent less than average rainfall.

Zimbabwe Flash Appeal program and other solutions

To combat this issue, the UN has launched the Zimbabwe Flash Appeal program, working to provide 234 million USD in aid. The program offers much-needed resources like food, water, sanitation and overall protection to over 2.2 million people in the country. With food prices increasing as a result of new governmental policies, people will be needing this aid more than ever.

There are other potential solutions to this issue, as well. Dispersing silver iodide into clouds (effectively “seeding” them) causes the clouds to thicken. This makes it more likely for the rain to occur, as water droplets are super-cooled and made heavier. Silver iodide mimics the chemical structure of ice. This causes other water droplets that are already cold enough to freeze to attach themselves and fall as rain.

Zimbabwe is one of 56 countries in the world that uses cloud-seeding technology, budgeting about $400,000 for it in 2018. The science is new and uncertain, and whether it effectively alleviates drought conditions is still disputed. However, it could provide one option to help correct the drought in Zimbabwe.

Another avenue to explore is diversifying crops and livestock in the midst of changing environmental conditions. One adaptation undertaken in some regions is an increased reliance on poultry livestock, such as quail and other indigenous birds.

Despite challenges, local farmers are working together to overcome the challenges in the area due to the drought. Economic and environmental crises are severe, but with efforts by the UN and local people in the country, there is still hope amid the drought in Zimbabwe.

-Jade Follette
Photo: Pixabay

Education and Technology in AfricaAccess to education and literacy are two of the most important tools for positive growth in developing nations. Each new educated, literate and technologically-savvy generation can bring with it a host of innovative solutions and boundless potential for future development. However, in rural or impoverished parts of Africa, access to education – and especially technology – can be limited, making it difficult for the millions of people living there to receive these key resources.

Connecting Rural Africa

Intuitive, driven thinkers are determined to change this; the introduction of the XO Laptop and the Inye computer tablet has changed the face of education in Africa with technology, while the WorldReader program is making literacy more accessible than ever with e-readers. Advancements like this help fuel the growth of developing countries from the inside out by starting grassroots dedication to education that can completely alter the future of impoverished nations.

One of the essential first steps for transforming education in Africa with technology is connecting rural villages to the internet, a vital resource when it comes to both teaching and learning. Internet access isn’t guaranteed in villages without the luxury of cables and Wi-Fi, which meant other solutions had to be explored.

The XO Laptop

Two pieces of technology emerged, providing limitless potential to impoverished children throughout Africa. The first is known as the XO Laptop, a compact, inexpensive personal computer with both built-in internet connectivity as well as a host of other features that make it ideal for use in rural areas. The product has surged in popularity in Kenya.

The Inye Tablet

For adolescent users with more advanced technological understanding, the Inye Computer Tablet is the solution helping to bridge the tech gap between first and third-world countries, such as its origin country of Nigeria. At a price just over 250 dollars, it provides competitive features to mainstream wireless devices for a fraction of the cost. The Inye tablet uses dongles to connect to the internet rather than a wireless connection, making World Wide Web access affordable and easy. The Inye tablet has also opened the market for local programmers to develop apps for needs specific to their communities, often featuring education modules focuses on HIV, clean water, and youth education.

The WorldReader Project

Finally, literacy has gone from dream to reality for millions in impoverished countries worldwide with technological advances and the initiative of NGOs like the WorldReader Project, which provides e-readers stocked with curated libraries to schools in developing nations. WorldReader programs are tailored based on age group and reading experience, and the long-lasting e-readers they rely on can be used in direct sunlight. WorldReader has taken action in nearly 50 countries and expanded its base to include nearly 10 million readers since 2010.

The revolution to improve and expand education in Africa with technology is already underway, and growing every day. With new innovations like the Inye Computer Tablet and WorldReader e-readers becoming available to millions worldwide, lives are changing for the better, and the future is bright for Africa.

– Emmitt Kussrow
Photo: Flickr

Cyclone Idai SurvivorsCyclone Idai has wreaked havoc upon Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi, leaving destruction in its wake. Survivors suffer from disease, hunger and mental health problems. Humanitarian organizations and governments are joining together to try and help people affected by the disaster.

Background

Cyclone Idai and the resulting floodwaters destroyed infrastructure, homes and crops. As the crisis comes into focus, it is clear that it could take some time for the region to recover.

The death toll between the three countries is over 750 people and rising as government and aid workers assess the damage. An estimated 1.85 million people have been affected and 36,000 homes destroyed in Mozambique alone. Rescue workers have been scrambling to save people stranded by floodwater.

Cyclone Idai is one of the top three deadliest tropical cyclones ever to affect the Southern Hemisphere. Many climbed trees to escape the rising floodwater, with rescue workers lifting 634 survivors out of trees. Others fell into the crocodile-infested waters as they became too exhausted to hold on.

Displaced people are migrating toward the port city of Beira, Mozambique and to makeshift camps to escape areas engulfed by water. The close grouping of people in the camps has created new concerns for aid workers. Disease, hunger and mental health problems threaten these survivors.

Disease Among Survivors

The International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) has reported cases of malaria infections and cholera among Cyclone Idai survivors. Jana Sweeny, a spokesperson for the IFRC, told Earther: “In disasters like this one–one where there is a lack of clean water and sanitation, and potential overcrowding–outbreaks of waterborne diseases are common.”

The standing floodwater is a breeding ground for mosquitoes that may carry malaria. Cholera, a waterborne bacteria, could also infect the floodwaters.

Humanitarian Efforts

At least 16 different humanitarian organizations, several governments and the United Nations are contributing to help Cyclone Idai survivors. The United States government pledged the assistance of its military. IFRC Secretary General Elhadj As Sy said at press conference in Geneva: “We are seeing tremendous collaboration and partnership from National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies from all over the world, and from our international and United Nations partners.”

The United Nations has unloaded 22 metric tons of food supplies, and 40 more are on the way. U.N. organizations have been active in the region, initially in rescue operations, then as aid distributors. The U.N. Central Emergency Fund has allocated $20 million to provide aid to more than 400,000 people.

The IFRC is appealing for over $30 million for disaster relief. They have been delivering Emergency Response Units, which include equipment and teams that can provide sanitation and water purification for 20,000 people per unit. The IFRC is also deploying a field hospital that will be able to administer medical care for at least 150,000 people.

The IFRC has set up an online portal for connecting displaced children with their distraught parents. Cyclone Idai has left many children unaccompanied as they were either separated from their parents or orphaned.  Save the Children is also working to help these child Cyclone Idai survivors.

There is difficulty distributing aid as some of the affected areas are remote. Helicopters are the only safe mode of distribution since the cyclone destroyed roads and communications infrastructure.

The damage done by Cyclone Idai on Southeastern Africa will not be fully realized until some time has passed. But for now, the global humanitarian community is helping the region recover from this disaster.

– Peter S. Mayer
Photo: Flickr

Human Rights Violations in Diamond Trading
Globally, about 90 million carats of rough diamonds and 1,600 tons of gold are mined for jewelry every year, generating more than $300 billion. With billions of dollars being spent on jewelry every year, brands often still face problems of guaranteeing that their products are not tainted by human rights violations in diamond trading.

Efforts to combat these violations include the introduction of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS), a system of export and import controls for rough diamonds. Almost two decades have passed since governments came together to end the trade in “blood diamonds” that fueled several brutal wars in Africa, yet injustices occur as mentioned in top10binary.com.

Certified Humane

The Kimberley Process unites administrations, civil societies and industry in reducing the flow of conflict diamonds — ‘rough diamonds used to finance wars against governments’ — around the world. It is a binding agreement that imposes extensive requirements on every participant. The visible evidence of this commitment is The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme which both safeguards the shipment of ‘rough diamonds’ and certifies them as conflict-free.

Under the terms of the KPCS participants must:

  • satisfy ‘minimum requirements’ and establish national legislation, institutions and import/export controls
  • commit to transparent practices and to the exchange of critical statistical data
  • trade only with fellow members who also satisfy the fundamentals of the agreement
  • certify shipments as conflict-free and provide the supporting certification.

The process unites 81 countries around the world which have their participants being responsible for stemming 99.8 percent of the global production of conflict diamonds. The Kimberly Process is underpinned by the United Nations mandate and is backed by leading civic organizations.

Diamond fields located in eastern Zimbabwe’s Marange, have shown that even with the Kimberley Process, the trade in diamonds still gives rise to abuses. Residents living near the diamond fields have suffered forced labor and torture, among other abuses.

Theft of Livelihoods in Marange

Thousands of villagers around the area took to the streets in late April to protest the alleged looting of diamond revenue by state-owned companies. These protests quickly turned violent with witness interviews by Human Rights Watch stating how armed soldiers and police firing tear gas canisters to disperse the demonstrators.

In March 2016, former president Robert Mugabe, with no evidence being provided, told the state broadcaster that diamonds worth more than $15 billion had been looted in Marange. No one was held to account for the alleged looting and years have continued to pass with alleged diamond revenue looting by state-owned companies, with no benefits to the local communities, adding to growing frustrations and protests of villagers.

Violence has been a reoccurring response by Zimbabwe’s armed forces with documentation from Human Rights Watch on these armed forces having coerced children and adults into carrying out forced labor, and tortured and harassed local villagers when they seized control of the diamond fields. More than 200 people were killed by armed forces personnel in Chiadzwa, a previously peaceful but impoverished part of Marange, in late October 2008.

Human rights violations in diamond trading led Marange communities to petition the Parliament of Zimbabwe in March to “ensure diamond mining contributes to the development of the health, educational and road infrastructure of the Marange community, especially areas affected by diamond mining.”

Combatting Human Rights Violations in Diamond Trading

More work needs to be done to fight human rights violations in diamond trading. It is estimated that in order to produce one gold ring holding a diamond, 20 tons of mined waste is produced. The earth mined ore is mixed with cyanide, a known toxic poison, to dissolve the gold or silver from the ore, making the land and waterways around the mining area poisoned.

This contributes to communities facing ill health due to the mine’s pollution of waterways with toxic chemicals. Zimbabwe authorities have failed to ensure greater revenue transparency from diamond mining. Regulating mechanisms for diamond mining are needed to ensure the rights of local communities to information and to protect them from forced evictions and from negative health and environmental impacts of mining.

The European Union is a major centre for diamond trade and within the EU, Council Regulation 2368/2002 sets out the criteria for trade in rough diamonds in order to ensure adherence to the requirements of the Kimberley Process. This year, the EU will hold the Kimberley Process Chairmanship. In this capacity, the EU aims to make progress in supporting the honest diamond trade and meet the call of the international community to ensure that the Kimberley Process is equipped to continue playing its role in combatting human rights violations in diamond trading.

– Ashley Quigley

Photo: Flickr

poverty in ZimbabweAfter 57 years of colonial rule, African guerilla forces wrested control of the territory that had been Southern Rhodesia since 1923. By 1980, Robert Mugabe was elected to the position of Prime Minister of Zimbabwe.

Following Zimbabwe’s independence, the economy, which was mainly supported by the agricultural industry, fell on tough times. In 2000, the government chose to instigate a policy of land redistribution from whites to native Africans. This reorganization placed the fate of the country’s economy in the hands of comparatively inexperienced farmers.

Cash crop production, once a huge contributor to the Gross Net Product, was nearly lost as a result of unyielding droughts. Additionally, those farmers who produced the dietary staple maize faced further difficulty in production, due to the government’s lack of support in areas such as water management.

To further demonstrate the severity of the country’s situation, look no further than the 72.3 percent of the population living in poverty in Zimbabwe.

10 facts to clarify the state of poverty in Zimbabwe

  1. Since the early 1990s, roughly 20 percent of Zimbabweans have emigrated in search of greater economic prosperity elsewhere. This has left a large gap in the nation’s workforce and knowledge base.
  2. With the majority of males moving from rural agricultural towns to the cities, women are increasingly becoming single heads of household.  
  3. Poverty in Zimbabwe is mainly concentrated in the northern province of Matabeleland, and in the southeastern regions of Manicaland and Masvingo, where water is extremely scarce.
  4. As of 2015, 16 percent of Zimbabweans were food insecure, meaning they were unable to obtain nutritious and plentiful food for their families.
  5. Just 7.6 percent of farmers in Zimbabwe practice conservation agriculture, a method of soil management that ensures nutritious soil and increases crop production.
  6. Zimbabwe suffered from 12 years of sanctions imposed by the U.N. in opposition to President Mugabe’s continued rule after the disputed election of 2002. In 2015, the U.N. lifted those sanctions and offered the government $273 million in aid, which was intended for collaborative development projects.
  7. About 28 percent of children in Zimbabwe are stunted by a lack of adequate nutrition in their diets.
  8. Zimbabwe’s Gross Domestic Product has been declining since the 2008 financial crisis. In the years immediately following the crisis, it fell by 17 percent.
  9. 86 percent of households in which the woman is widowed are impoverished.
  10. 57 percent of women living in rural areas use contraceptives. The maternal mortality rate is 960 out of 100,000 births, with a dramatic increase in rural areas.

The question now is whether or not Zimbabwe will be able to improve its situation in the coming years. Unfortunately, with the economic growth rate dropping to just 0.5 percent between 2015 and 2016, there may be a need for an increase in external development aid if there is any hope of reversing the effects of poverty in Zimbabwe.

-Katarina Schrag

Photo: Flickr

Human Rights in Zimbabwe
Tensions run high in the landlocked Southern African nation of Zimbabwe. Protests and civil disobedience exploded in recent years in response to the government’s persistent incompetence and malpractice. Worse still, the government in Harare responded to the mass demonstrations with violence and unethical treatment, worsening the state of human rights in Zimbabwe.

Today’s tumultuous wave of popular dissatisfaction is tied to the ruinous drought in the region, which threatened food security for millions and contributed to shortages of cash. With the government largely unable to prevent mass starvation nor compensate civil servants, the Zimbabwean people fear another period of national suffering.

Only nine years removed from the beginning of the crippling 2008 economic crisis, Zimbabweans directed their anger at the government for its failure to develop the country and its disregard for human rights. These grievances only worsened with the government’s retaliatory agenda, which resulted in the unlawful treatment of activists and others.

Protesters in Zimbabwe often encounter police violence and arbitrary imprisonment, and many are charged with false accusations of criminal activity. Even non-protesters are arrested and imprisoned for days, demonstrating the government’s blatant disregard for the rule of law and due process.

Also, freedom of expression in Zimbabwe is incredibly limited, showing that human rights in Zimbabwe are far from meeting acceptable standards. Police forces in Zimbabwe frequently deny the media the right to cover protests, and many journalists are arrested and detained for indeterminate amounts of time on false charges. Violence towards the media is common as well. One journalist covering protests in Harare was even clubbed by riot police.

The government’s general disregard for human rights reflects the influence of Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe. Mugabe has been in control of the government for over three decades, during which time he did little to modernize Zimbabwe’s social and economic institutions. Mugabe uses political violence and unlawful seizures of personal property to further his own interests, tyrannical behavior that is common practice for the government.

Under the Mugabe regime, human rights in Zimbabwe are vulnerable to repeated, malicious attacks. When the people remain submissive, they suffer from economic, social, and political destitution. When they speak out, they experience brutal reprisals.

Despite its long history of transgressions, the current regime will not last. At 93 years old, the geriatric President Mugabe’s days are very limited. Hopefully, Zimbabwe can peacefully oust out Mugabe’s pawns and develop a stable economy and strong human rights protections. With enough support from the U.S. and other countries, the people of Zimbabwe can evade another economic crisis and inch closer to a truly egalitarian democracy.

Isidro Rafael Santa Maria

Photo: Flickr

Common Diseases in ZimbabweZimbabwe is an African country situated just above South Africa. Known for their rich culture and sense of community, Zimbabwe is the twenty-second poorest nation in the world, according to Business Insider.

With 66 percent of Zimbabweans working in agriculture, it is not uncommon for diseases with agricultural origins to spread. Here are some of the most common diseases in Zimbabwe for those working in agriculture:

Cholera

Cholera is a contaminated food- or water-borne disease that causes diarrhea and vomiting. Both of these symptoms can lead to dehydration and even death. Between August 2008 and July 2009, there was a massive cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe. According to World Nomads, “cholera deaths have decreased recently, although the disease is still present and may break out again with little warning.”

Malaria

This terrifying disease spreads through mosquitos. For Zimbabweans working in the fields, malaria is a highly possible occurrence and “a major killer across Africa.” Protection from this deadly disease is a simple mosquito net. However, with the average African living on about $3 a day, even a tool that could save their lives is too costly.

Rabies

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that is spread in the saliva of infected animals.” Working outside with livestock, Zimbabweans in agriculture can be very prone to this terminal disease.

Although these three common diseases in Zimbabwe are especially susceptible to those in agriculture, anybody in Zimbabwe could become infected with them. Here are some of the other common diseases in Zimbabwe that could affect everyone:

HIV/AIDS

Zimbabwe has a very high rate of HIV/AIDS. According to World Nomads, “15 percent of the population has the virus,” and it is the number one killer of people in Zimbabwe. This sexually-transmitted disease is incredibly harmful and a huge issue in many African countries.

Typhoid

Typhoid fever is very similar to cholera in that this disease spreads through the intake of unclean food or water. However, typhoid is not always as serious as cholera. Symptoms of typhoid include high fever, weakness and stomach pains, but rarely death.

Measles

Measles starts when an infected person sneezes or coughs, and continues with fever, cough and red patches on the body. Although there has been some progress on the measles disease, it is still among common diseases in Zimbabwe. In the 1990s, “measles was considered one of the five major causes of morbidity and mortality among children aged <5 years,” according to the CDC.

These common diseases in Zimbabwe are an issue in the everyday lives of natives. With increased education and aid, these health problems will become a thing of the past.

Sydney Missigman

Photo: Flickr


Over the last few years, Zimbabwe has been in a major drought due to climate change. According to NewsDay, the residents of this African country have experienced “suffocating dry spells with uncertainties on when exactly the rains [will pay them] the long awaited visit.”

The uncertainty of rain has led many Zimbabweans, especially children, to become undernourished and thirsty at all times. With 90 percent of agriculture being rain-fed, most of the food sources are also being destroyed.

This is where the international NGO Practical Action steps in. These expert problem solvers have developed a way to contain the little rain that does fall and allow it to be used for everyday water needs by harvesting rainwater in Zimbabwe.

Practical Action states that one key source of clean water is through “harvesting rainwater as it falls and retaining it in the soil or in tanks below ground.” There are a couple of methods it has come up with to help store rainwater, for both irrigation and drinking purposes.

First, by constructing divots into the earth, people can trap the rainwater instead of letting it run off the land. This better sustains crops, which improves nutrition.

A second way to capture and store rainwater is with tanks. Practical Action gives many examples of how to do this, including water falling off of roofs, flowing out of dams or gathering up in puddles. Underground or above ground, tanks are useful for collecting rainwater and storing it for an indefinite amount of time until it is needed.

There are many benefits to this innovation. Harvesting rainwater in Zimbabwe can be done whether there is a little sprinkle or a storm. The Zimbabwe National Water Authority said: “The claim that rainwater harvesting is only possible when the rains are heavy is, unfortunately, one of the biggest misconceptions that have scuttled rainwater harvesting efforts in the past.”

People can harvest rainwater year-round, so Zimbabwean families can see more impactful results.

Zimbabwe local and Rainwater Harvesting Chairman Tias Sibanda has noticed a change in his life due to his use of this system. He remarked: “Thanks to the water harvesting techniques shown to us by Practical Action… and with the contour field structures, we are now more ‘food secure’ and have no worries about soil loss.”

Harvesting rainwater in Zimbabwe could be a hugely beneficial technique to keep families healthy and happy for the duration of the drought.

Sydney Missigman

Photo: Flickr

Water Quality in Zimbabwe
Lake Chivero, a key water source for Zimbabwe’s capital Harare, is one of the several major dams that have reached full capacity countrywide. The synchronized overflow of the dams followed incessant rains that have pounded Zimbabwe for two weeks. Contrary to popular belief, this overflow is a good thing – at least in regards to the water quality in Zimbabwe.

The spilling of Lake Chivero, according to Harare Water Director Eng Hoslah Chisango, would improve not only the availability of water but also the water quality in Zimbabwe. When the lake spills, the downstream pour carries dirt with it and so the quality of the raw water is improved.

According to the Zimbabwe National Water Authority, Lake Chivero has risen to 108 percent capacity. But Lake Chivero’s overflow is just one of many across the country. Other water reservoirs have also been full as a consequence of the heavy rains, and the national dam level average has risen to 65 percent. This is a huge landmark, especially in Zimbabwe, where the residents suffer from scarce water supplies.

The two weeks of heavy rains may not seem noteworthy, but in Zimbabwe, they are just the opposite. The domino effect set in motion by the overflow of dams across the country could help Zimbabwe get access to clean water for the near future. This is especially important as the country’s overall water coverage is a mere 56 percent. Most people rely on water from boreholes (narrow shafts drilled into the ground), which is almost all contaminated. Women and children, who are often the ones responsible for going to the borehole, often have to wait up to five hours to collect water.

Water quality in Zimbabwe is nevertheless an important problem that needs to be addressed, but the dams may provide momentary relief for the country. On a large scale, the overflow will not offer the necessary relief to the Harare residents who have been suffering from both the country’s droughts and the council’s inefficiency to find a long-term solution. Hopefully, the dam overflow sheds light on the poor water quality in Zimbabwe and the need for additional aid.

Mayan Derhy

Photo: Flickr

Sista2Sista Club Empowers the Women of Zimbabwe
Gender inequality is a crippling factor that debilitates women and young girls in impoverished countries, such as Zimbabwe. In response to the increasing rate of dropouts and sexual abuse that is prevalent in Zimbabwe, the Sista2Sista club was established in 2013 to assist in empowering  Zimbabwe women to learn about personal rights and advocate for themselves.

Stories like 15-year-old Shamiso Nyamutamba are far too common in Zimbabwe. By age 5, both of Shamiso’s parents had passed away and she was sent to live with her uncle, who planned to force her hand in marriage and send her to work instead of pursuing an education. Shamiso’s time with her uncle included abuse and discrimination and though she was fortunate enough to eventually escape the harmful environment, she was still required to make work a priority in her life in lieu of an education. Soon after her transition, Shamiso heard of the Sista2Sista club that offered a safe place for vulnerable girls, such as herself.

Shamiso eventually learned she was HIV positive since birth.  Through the advocacy and empowerment that Sista2Sista provides, she continues to grow with their health services and school programs. She has “proven to be academically gifted, ” and as described by Shamiso, Sista2Sista “taught [her] that early marriage is wrong… and to report cases of abuse right away.”

Since the organization of Sista2Sista started, 10,388 Zimbabwean girls have joined the club. Financial support is provided by the U.N. Population fund, which supports the initiatives of promoting sexual and reproductive health rights. UNFPA works to reduce maternal mortality rates, provide family planning education, and prevent new HIV infections and gender-based violence. The UNFPA supports the need for an informed “understanding of population dynamics and using an integrated, rights-based and gender sensitive approach.”

Ongoing support for women through organizations such as Sista2Sista has created a movement in Zimbabwe that continues to invent new methods needed to advocate for furthering women’s rights. As outlined in the Girls and Young Women’s Empowerment Framework, the Government of Zimbabwe plans to increase accessibility to sexual and reproductive health services. Additional goals include increasing female participation in the decision-making processes and equality in all levels of education, as well as increasing the rate of violence reporting experienced by girls from three percent to 50 percent by 2020.

Amy Williams

Photo: Flickr