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Health care system in Zambia
Zambia’s healthcare system is decentralized, therefore it is broken up into three different levels: hospitals, health centers and health posts. Hospitals are separated into primary (district), secondary (provincial) and tertiary (central). It offers universal healthcare for its citizens, yet the health care system in Zambia remains one of the most inadequate in the world.

Universal Health Care

Zambia is working on implementing universal health care coverage for its citizens to diminish the burden of accessing life-saving treatments. At the moment, Zambia’s government-run health facilities offer basic healthcare packages at the primary (district)level free-of-charge. Their services are under the National Health Care Package (NHCP). With this being said, due to “capacity constraints” and limited funding, the services sometimes do not reach those who need it most. Luckily, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Zambia and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have come together in order to help restore the health care system in Zambia. They are investigating ways to effectively set priorities so that processes in health facilities can run faster and smoother.

Private vs Public Healthcare

Even though there are a good number of public and private health facilities, a lot of the public hospitals are chronically underfunded. Another major problem in the public healthcare sector is that there is inequality in the order that doctors meet with patients. As mentioned above, the public sector is divided into three divisions, level one hospitals are in charge of provision of services and level two and three hospitals are referral or specialized hospitals.

District Health Offices (DHOs) are staffed by community health assistants (CHAs). Over the course of their one-year training, they are prepared to improve the management of malaria, child and maternal health and common preventable health conditions. DHOs spend 80 percent of their time on disease prevention and health promotion and another 20 percent “at the health post.”

There are good private hospitals in Zambia’s big cities, for example, Lusaka. They offer their services to everyone with the majority of people that participate in the private sector being foreigners or affluent Zambians. Over 50 percent of formal health services in rural Zambia are private clinics or hospitals. They also account for 30 percent of all health care in the nation. Even though they offer higher quality services at a faster rate, when a serious medical emergency presents itself, the majority of the time people will be evacuated to South Africa since they are able to provide better medical services.

Pharmacies

Pharmacies are not always stocked with the medications or drugs that most people need when they are sick. Even though they are available in most major cities and towns in Zambia, they do not operate on a 24/7 schedule. Their typical work week is Monday to Saturday. When people are in need of a pharmacy, it is recommended to go to one that is attached to a hospital or a clinic for immediate assistance.

Diseases

Zambia’s top five killer diseases are HIV/AIDS, neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis and diarrheal diseases. Zambia also sits in the malaria belt, so it is recommended to have a mosquito net to prevent mosquito bites. Other diseases like cholera and dysentery are common during rainy seasons. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been helping Zambia since 2000 after establishing an office in the nation. The CDC “funds and assists international and local organizations” like the Ministry of Health to “provide health services at the national and community level.” In addition, the CDC has performed more than 173,000 medical male circumcisions and has prevented 98 percent of HIV exposed infants from getting HIV in 2018.

– Isabella Gonzalez
Photo: Flickr

Zambia's Growing Energy Sector
Zambia is improving livelihoods, especially for those residing in rural areas without electricity access, through investing in its growing green energy sector. About 70 percent of the population—more than eight million Zambians—lack electricity and could benefit from clean, affordable and reliable power. Electricity access in rural regions is less than 10 percent. Zambia is changing that statistic by focusing on providing affordable and widespread green energy to the nation. Zambia is currently one of the top 10 producers in hydroelectric power, but it is currently focused on diversifying into underappreciated areas within Zambia’s growing energy sector.

Green Energy Developments

The Power Africa: Beyond the Grid Fund for Zambia (BGFZ) emerged in 2016. Sweden funded the BGFZ and the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) manages it. The aim is to provide affordable and clean sustainable energy to Zambia. The program works with the government to provide power for rural areas. As of 2019, more than 100,000 households, reaching 500,000 Zambians, received power as part of the program.

The program’s goal is to reach 1.6 million Zambians by 2021. BGFZ and its partners have created more than 1,100 jobs, about 2.3 MW of energy and affected more than 1,400 businesses. According to a study on the BGFZ program’s impact on the population, more than 25 percent have opened new income streams thanks to electricity access. Also, 87 percent of people in the survey stated that they spend less on lighting and power. Participants in the study mentioned that not having to use candles also alleviates potential fire hazards and helps them feel more at ease with children at home.

Enel Green Power, a renewable energy business, will build Zambia’s first power plant as part of the World Bank Group’s Scaling Solar program. It will be a 34 MW solar PV plant in Ngonye and is part of Zambia’s goal of diversifying its energy sector and providing power to the entire population. Zambia’s Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) carries out the project. Enel owns about 80 percent of the project and the IDC owns 20 percent.

“With the connection to the grid of Ngonye in Zambia, we are reconfirming our commitment to helping the country leverage on its vast wealth of renewable resources, which poses a great opportunity for growth,” said Antonio Cammisecra, Head of Enel Green Power. The facility should generate 70 GWh once complete.

Widespread Impact of Power

Electricity provides much more than a simple electric light in a room. It enables schools to use the technology they could not utilize without power. Computers, calculators and lights to illuminate a chalkboard are all benefits that appear simple but are important in educating and developing a country. Educating a country is yet another way of reducing poverty, yet that is hard to achieve without electricity, whether from green sources or traditional sources.

Health care is another area that Zambia’s growing energy sector impacts. Equipment, such as x-ray machines, requires some sort of power and providing electricity to almost 70 percent would affect more than 8 million Zambians. An important and basic aspect of developing a country is electricity access, as an economy cannot thrive without a widespread and reliable power source. Zambia understands that developing the energy sector, particularly green technology, is the first step to not only sustainable energy and economic development, but also the health of its people.

Outlook

Zambia’s growing energy sector is improving thanks to involvement from businesses, the government and the World Bank. One of Zambia’s largest food suppliers is constructing an approximately $42 million 50 MW solar farm, demonstrating that major businesses are also transitioning into affordable and sustainable energy sources. Zambia’s impact on providing electricity to its people has only begun in recent years, yet its progress shows promise in helping to develop the economy through increasing electricity access.

– Lucas Schmidt
Photo: Flickr

Art Programs Alleviating PovertyGlobal youth art programs aim to alleviate a range of poverty issues from addressing social injustice or trauma to promoting healthier living. They are ambitious and innovative with results that are not only beautiful in the final product but in their process as well. Many of these five youth art programs alleviating poverty worldwide function as localized, hands-on projects centered around at-risk children.

With a need for such necessities as health care, clean water and adequate sanitation, why is art viewed as a beneficial use of resources? Thematic art, such as a creating a mural, can collaboratively explore a social topic and tell a personal story, not only creating strength of community between artists and student artists but also acting as a form of therapy. Many programs cite improved mental health as a goal. Participants benefit from investing time on a project with a positive tone. Below, we explore five outstanding art programs that are alleviating poverty worldwide.

5 Youth Art Programs Alleviating Poverty Worldwide

  1. Art Sprouts
    In Kafue, Zambia, the Amos Youth Centre (a project of the African Education Program) provides before and after school support for kids through a variety of programs. The center trains youth toward leadership and provides the education girls need to avoid marriage or pregnancy at a young age, which directly combats a situation of ongoing poverty.In 2016, Amos Youth Centre began a collaboration with Art Sprouts which organizes volunteers and creates programming around the world. Art Sprouts recognizes that schooling for impoverished kids tends to lack subjects such as art, focusing instead on the basics. The organization aims to help children express themselves creatively and discover artistic talent while exploring social issues, such as gender inequality. The chance to engage in art is fulfilling, fun and fosters the commitment of youth at Amos.
  2. Artolution
    Max Frieder and Joel Bergner founded this organization in 2009 with the hope of changing the lives of individuals through the creation and public display of art. Since then, Artolution has received several accolades, including the 2018 World of Children Crisis Award, a UNICEF seal and a GuideStar Seal of Transparency. The organization believes that through community-based art, resiliency and healing can take place.As such, Artolution’s projects take on such themes as environmental sustainability in exploring the effects of plastic in the ocean. The organization also addresses the global refugee crisis by creating public art with communities of displaced kids, building a nurturing and impactful experience with a theme of unity in the midst of crisis.Artolution tackles the stigma associated with mental health issues by creating a safe space to discuss them and how to access help. Artolution’s scope of issues is broad, their programming is implemented worldwide and the administration of their efforts is top-notch. Artolution has established programs in countries around the world.
  3. ASTEP
    The mission of artists striving to end poverty is to give strength to individuals, especially children. They recognize that those living in poverty lack personal choice and that engagement in art is a safe way for individuals to experience the dignity and human right that goes with making choices and creative exploration. Unlike the first two of the five youth art programs alleviating poverty worldwide, ASTEP utilizes performing arts as well as visual arts in its approach.Broadway Musical Director Mary-Mitchell Campbell along with a group of Juilliard students wanted to fight poverty and knew the best tool they had to do so was their art. ASTEP works to awaken creativity and promote critical thinking. A commonality of all these programs is the discovery and strengthening of one’s self in recognizing the effects of poverty and how to proactively fight that determination for one’s future. ASTEP’s programming is located in India.
  4. Global Art Project
    The Global Art Project is on a mission to joyously create a culture of peace through art. The organization was nominated for a UNESCO prize for their accomplishments. Every year they create an art exchange with participation from 93 countries and 155,000 participants. The program is implemented on the ground by more than 200 Regional Coordinators around the world. This program, unique in its worldwide scope of artists, nurtures an appreciation for cultural diversity while finding the commonality of peace-seeking through the theme, “We Are All One.” This view of our interconnectedness creates a global culture of healing, goodwill and reconciliation, bringing awareness and unity.
  5. Adding Color to Lives
    Joel Bergner is a street artist and muralist who found a unique way of bringing his large-scale projects to youth around the world. He created the Adding Color to Lives program through corporate sponsorship with Park Inn by Radisson hotels. The program not only builds relationships and brings hope and inspiration to refugees and impoverished communities but also creates artist mentors who can continue their mission of healing and partnership through art.For Bergner, art is the tool by which he reaches communities in need. He brings art out of the museum and onto the streets where youth can feel the positive impact of their teamwork and self-expression and also feel their voice in the world, as students design the murals themselves through the process. Bergner observes the natural gravitation of people to art during difficult times. The artists create a hopeful image for the world to see, as love and compassion are expressed through collaborative art.

Creating access to arts education for underprivileged youth worldwide nurtures communities on many levels. When children are provided the structure, guidance and materials to create art, they engage in self-expression beneficial to their development. They also have an outlet to tell the story of their culture or community. Children participating in after school art programs are safe and engaged. Arts education can be an agent of social change and address powerful injustices such as violence, trauma and gender inequality. Sharing joy and struggle, relationships are built through the creation of art. Art can promote healing, resilience and healthy living and break the cycle of poverty for individuals.

Susan Niz
Photo: Flickr

HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia

Antiretroviral therapy in Zambia has been one of the most effective HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in recent years. Thanks to the efforts of the CDC and the Zambian government, the spread of HIV/AIDS has decreased steadily by 13 percent since 2010.

HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia – Strategies

  • Education and Awareness: The effective response and resource allocation from the Zambian government through early HIV testing had a profound effect on the stigma surrounding the virus, encouraging more people to get tested. To that end, the government implemented the GIPA policy, emphasizing equality in medicine free from discrimination. In addition, the National Health Services Act is a government policy aimed at strengthening the structural power of Zambia’s medical field to increase its influence on rural communities. Aside from spearheading research, the act more clearly defines Zambia’s medical infrastructure with a power structure to allocate resources as effectively as possible. Integrating these government programs into the heart of Zambia’s most impoverished communities decreases the chances of an outbreak.
  • Antiretroviral Therapy: As mentioned above, the CDC is also active in Zambia, focusing on early antiretroviral therapy in highly affected areas like the Copperbelt and the western provinces. Within these parameters, 89 percent of those who began treatment immediately are less likely to spread the virus. Outreach programs to reach the more impoverished and marginalized groups have also been successful, with antiretroviral therapy increasing among children from 23 percent in 2009 to 79 percent as of 2019. The government has also promoted the use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily course of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) taken by HIV-negative people which reduces the risk of contracting the virus.
  • Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission: Through the PMTCT (Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission) plan, Zambia has made great strides aimed at preventing the spread of the virus from mother to offspring by providing lifelong antiretroviral therapy in Zambia. According to the CDC, through early education and effective policy implementation, the health protection agency has prevented 98 percent of HIV-exposed babies from contracting the virus.

Final Thoughts

The lack of access to basic health care and a comprehensive understanding of how HIV spreads, especially in rural communities, produces a hostile environment where exposure risk increases. Furthermore, high poverty and unemployment levels create a shaky foundation where socio-economic growth is key to eliminating the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia. However, increased government spending has sprouted new testing facilities in rural areas, providing quality service where “…the Government is scaling up social protection by increasing allocations to the Social Cash Transfer (SCT) and Food Security Pack (FSP) program[s] and other poverty mitigation measures.”

The key to a structural change in Zambia’s HIV epidemic lies partially in assisting Zambia’s fairly large impoverished community. In addition, antiretroviral therapy in Zambia continues to be a focal point of the government’s long-term plan to eliminate the virus with increased spending on antiretroviral therapy and sex education in a bid to secure more prosperous futures for its citizens.

Adam Townsend
Photo: Pixabay

UNICEF Soccer AidFor over a decade, UNICEF has hosted its annual Soccer Aid, a charity soccer match featuring both professional and celebrity players to raise money for keeping kids around the world happy, healthy and safe. This year, the match was held in London on June 16, and raised a record-breaking £6,774,764 ($8,577,528.70 USD) in one night alone and £1,000,000 more than last year. The UK public, ITV and STV users all contributed, and the UK government matched each donation up to £3,000,000 to defend play for every child.

Helping Sierra Leone and Zambia

The money raised from the match will support the work of UNICEF to ensure that over 80,000 children in Sierra Leone and Zambia can have a childhood of play. The funding will help to provide lifesaving food, vaccinations, clean water, support for caring for mothers and babies and protect children from violence, exploitation, and abuse.

Sierra Leone’s under-five mortality rate is in the 2nd percentile, having one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world. The many causes of death in children are preventable. Most deaths are due to nutritional deficiencies, pneumonia, diarrhoeal diseases, anemia, malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Some of the attributable factors include limited access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, poor feeding and hygienic practices, and limited access to quality health services.

Zambia is a country with many adolescents. 53 percent of the population is under 18 years old, and many of these children–45.4 percent–are affected by extreme poverty. Almost 65 percent of children in rural Zambia are affected by three or more deprivations: access to nutrition, education, health, water sanitation, adequate housing, and physical and emotional abuse. While the infant mortality rate improved by 37 percent between 2007 and 2014, it is still in the 25th percentile. However, with the help of UNICEF Soccer Aid, these conditions can be improved.

UNICEF’s Impact

UNICEF has worked in 190 countries and territories over 70 years to fight for the lives of children around the world. Through their projects, including child protection and inclusion, child survival, education, emergency relief, gender discrimination, innovation, supply and logistics, and research and analysis, the organization saves the lives of nearly 3,000,000 each year.

UNICEF believes in the power of play and the joy of a carefree childhood. However, millions of children around the world are unable to be included in this objective due to disease, conflict, hunger and poverty.
Through play, children are able to learn how to interact with their peers and learn abstract concepts. Just 15 minutes of play can spark thousands of connections in a baby’s brain, and playing before they enter school has an impact on how they will perform.

Since its first match in 2006, UNICEF Soccer Aid has raised more than £35,000,000 and through projects funded by Soccer Aid and the UK government, they have improved the lives of 2,000,000 children and 903,000 pregnant women.

Over the last 13 years, UNICEF Soccer Aid has been able to change the lives of children by helping them reach their full potential. By bringing people together to watch a match and encourage donations, they are able to change lives in many in parts of the world.

– Alexia Carvajalino
Photo: Unsplash

Discrimination in ZambiaDiscrimination in Zambia of any group causes economic inequalities, barriers to education, and a disadvantaged access to water and sanitation. These few barriers are regular battles for women and those living in rural areas of Zambia.

Distribution of Wealth

As of 2011, 74.5 percent of Zambians lived below the poverty line, which means they lived off of $1.25 a day. Luckily, Zambia’s labor minister, Fackson Shamenda, instilled a minimum monthly wage in 2012 for all of Zambia’s domestic workers. For the average domestic worker, this increased their pay from $30 a month to $105. The increase also targeted workers such as shop assistants, farmworkers, sweepers and construction workers, who were typically being paid $50 a month. Now, these workers receive a monthly payment of $220.

A young woman named Mwemba spoke on the topic, stating that she was forced into domestic work simply because she was obligated to quit school at age 13. She states that her mother could not afford the school fees. Too often, girls are required to follow in their mothers’ footsteps, continuing a trend of poor, uneducated domestic workers unable to do any other job. Except now Mwemba has the opportunity to break this trend and provide education to her children in hopes that her girls will earn higher-paying jobs outside of domestic work.

The idea is for this to occur on a large scale, seeing how there are around 50,000 domestic workers in the city of Lusaka alone. In only three years, the implementation of a minimum wage has witnessed a decrease in poverty rate to 54.4 percent. Ideally, this rate will continue to fall and alleviate discrimination in Zambia.

Disparities by Residency

The good news is that the overall enrollment rate in basic education is favorable and even equal between genders. However, there is a separation between the rural and the urban areas within Zambia.
According to data from 2012, the urban primary schools’ net attendance rate lands at a positive 91 percent, while the rural schools’ attendance was only 76.8 percent of children.

Similar to Mwemba’s situation, many families in rural areas simply cannot afford to send their children to school and would rather have them working and aid the family financially. A large number of women and lowly workers reside in the rural areas of Zambia. There remains a parallel between the data for school attendance by residency and the school attendance by household wealth. Out of the poorest 20 percent of Zambians, only 72 percent attend primary school, and out of the richest 20 percent, 95.6 percent attend school.

It’s not a coincidence that the poor and rural percentages are near equivalency, while the data from the rich and urban are also similar. Aside from education, there is also a disparity in residency through sanitation facilities. In 2010, there was an improvement in Zambia’s water and sanitation. However, 55.8 percent of the development occurred in the urban sectors, while 33.2 percent took place in rural areas.

While the country witnesses improvement in the overall educational attendance and the betterment of sanitation facilities, the discrimination in Zambia is what hinders its people from prospering.

– Brianna White

Photo: Flickr

Zambia's AIDS Response Fast-TrackHIV/AIDS affects millions of people in Africa. Zambia and other countries in Africa are greatly impacted by HIV/AIDS daily. Even though Western countries are working to improve the HIV/AIDS rate in Africa, countries in Africa are working even harder to help their people. Zambia’s AIDS Response Fast-Track Strategy recently launched with important goals for 2017-2021.

Zambia’s AIDS Response Fast-Track Strategy sets out a plan to achieve the global Fast-Track prevention and 90-90-90 targets, where 90 percent of people living with HIV will know their HIV status. The strategy also aims to ensure that 90 percent of people who know they are HIV positive are accessing treatment and 90 percent of people on treatment have decreased their viral loads.

The strategy establishes clear approaches to increase the HIV response for everyone, set yearly targets at the national and state level and estimate costs and resources required. Zambia’s AIDS Response Fast-Track Strategy will provide more facility-based and community-led programs. The strategy will increase HIV testing and help counsel districts that have high HIV rates. The Fast-Track Strategy will also target key populations and partner with other healthcare services regarding HIV testing.

HIV treatment and care services will be guaranteed through the strategy. The most important goal of the strategy is to eliminate all new HIV infections among children. A significant impact has been made in the past few years on new HIV infections. New HIV infections have decreased from 69,000 in 2005 to 59,000 in 2016. The rate of women receiving medicines to prevent mother-to-child transmission has increased to 87 percent.

Fast-Track Cities was launched on World AIDS Day in 2014 in Paris. Over 70 cities with high HIV rates have signed the Paris Declaration on Fast-Track Cities Ending AIDS, including Zambia’s capital Lusaka. The strategy was created by a team led by the National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Council and UNAIDS. The International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (IAPAC), the United Nations Human Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT), UNAIDS and the City of Paris are supporting Fast-Track Cities. By participating in this initiative, Zambia can bolster its own Fast-Track Strategy and bring better care and prevention to its people sooner.

Treasure Shepard

Photo: Flickr

Help People in ZambiaZambia – a Sub-Saharan African nation that has the largest copper industry and is home to one of the Seven Wonders of the World – is one of the poorest nations in the world. Despite its beautiful Victoria Falls attraction and other scenery, 60 percent of Zambia’s population (16 million people) live below the poverty line.

Five million people in Zambia do not have access to safe water, and eight million of their people do not have access to sufficient sanitation. These cause diarrheal diseases and often death for children under five. Aside from physical health deterioration, many kids do not get the proper schooling, which in turn makes it more difficult to get jobs in the future to financially stabilize themselves and their families. This is a major concern for Zambia, with more then half of the nation living below the poverty line. Luckily, there are many easy ways to help people in Zambia.

Donate
One way to help the people in Zambia is to donate. There are multiple organizations that accept donations which go directly to Zambia. An organization called Children’s International uses donations to pay for school uniforms, supplies, scholarships, tutoring and medications that are inaccessible to people in Zambia. Children’s International also works with setting kids up for employment by holding mock interviews, resumé building workshops as well building both workplace and technical skills.

Sponsor
Another way to help those suffering in Zambia is to sponsor a child. An organization called Children International works to create a better environment for kids to grow up in by running a sponsorship. Sponsoring a child in Zambia would allow Children International to continue to provide education and healthcare to children in need.

Hands-On Volunteering
For those looking to get first-hand experience acting on the poverty crisis in Zambia, you can join one of the many organizations that work hands-on in the country. One of the best ways to help people in Zambia is to volunteer your time on the ground. One organization that works in Zambia to create sanitation facilities throughout the country is called Water Aid. In 2016, Water Aid was able to provide 61,000 people with safe water and 62,000 people with better sanitation.

Support the Bill
Another way to help people in Zambia is to be a voice by supporting the AGOA & MCA Modernization Act. If passed, the bill will authorize the Millenium Challenge Corporation to operate concurrent economic compacts in other countries, including Zambia. Contacting members of congress by phone or email to let them know you support the bill is an easy way to help out those in Zambia. The people in Zambia are not able to provide a voice for themselves, but others have the ability to stand up for them.

Donating, sponsoring a child, volunteering and supporting the AGOA & MCA Modernization Act are all fantastic ways to get involved and help the people of Zambia. The more people willing to help, the sooner Zambia can start to see its citizens being lifted out of poverty.

Chloe Turner

Photo: Flickr

Cash Aid in ZambiaIn order to alleviate poverty, Zambia piloted a unique program with incredible results. In a trial run of the effectiveness of cash aid, the Zambian government gave the poor money—with no strings attached—and found that cash aid in Zambia dramatically improved the lives of its recipients.

Cash aid in Zambia is part of a greater change in thought regarding how best to help the poor. Since the early 2000s, some of the poor—beginning first in Latin America—have received conditional and unconditional cash transfers that have supported households throughout the developing world.

Zambia launched its trial cash aid program to determine how effective it would be to give the poor money. The study spanned the course of five years, during which 5,500 Zambian households were given a total of five million dollars.

Zambian officials were interested in determining not only whether recipients of cash aid spent their money responsibly, but also whether the money was used productively. The answers to these questions were a resounding yes.

This trial, as well as other studies, have showed that cash aid can be just as effective, or even more so, at alleviating poverty than more traditional methods, such as job training or food. Those that received cash aid became entrepreneurial and the benefits of this spilled over into the local economy.

Ashu Handa, the researcher and professor behind the Zambian pilot program, found that the recipients of cash aid boosted their spending by over 50 percent of the original amount they received from the government. This in turn helped businesses, who also saw their profits increase by 50 percent.

For a country like Zambia where poverty is widespread, cash aid could dramatically improve the lives of the poor. 64 percent of Zambians live below the poverty line and this percentage becomes even greater in rural areas.

The Zambian government recognized the impact of this program and is eager to extend coverage to the entire nation. However, the nationwide version comes with its own catch—only those that truly cannot work, like the elderly or the sick, will be eligible to receive cash aid.

Opponents of cash aid claim that it encourages laziness; that the poor would only spend money on vices and the money would be devoured in a “bottomless pit.” This assumption, that research has proven wrong, would leave many families—able-bodied, two-parent households—ineligible for the cash aid that could change their lives.

Regardless, cash aid in Zambia has had a tangible impact on the poor and could continue to promote a better quality of life for many in this African country, as well as in other parts of the developing world.

Jennifer Faulkner

Providing Bicycles to Families in Africa
For many children living in rural villages in Africa, the most valuable educational tool is not a pencil or a notebook: it is a bicycle. Several organizations are providing bicycles to families in Africa as a means of bringing education, health services and economic stability to entire communities.

In Zambia, children often have to walk miles to get to school. They might arrive late, miss early classes and face an embarrassing punishment from the teacher. This is a particular problem for girls, who are expected to complete household chores before even starting on their journey.

In 2014, World Bicycle Relief donated 100 bikes to students and faculty at a primary school in Zambia. Now that she rides her bike to school, one girl said she can put all of her energy into concentrating in class, and she has time to study in the evenings.

Providing bicycles to families in Africa also allows them to improve their economic situations. Steel workers and chicken farmers can carry larger and heavier loads to the market. In Zambia, dairy farmers have increased their deliveries by up to 25 percent. Mine workers and door-to-door salesmen use bicycles to shorten their commutes. They save time and energy and are able to afford necessities like food and school supplies.

Women in Sierra Leone and Ghana are responsible for the vast majority of the household chores. As with the men, women use the bicycles to balance heavy materials and travel long distances. For women and girls, however, owning a bike is a form of protection–against sexual assault. Put simply, no man can outrun them anymore.

Despite this, it is far more unlikely for a woman to have access to a bicycle. In places like Sierra Leone, women are discouraged from riding bikes in the belief that it causes them to lose their virginity. Boys and men commandeer the household bicycle, claiming that the women don’t have time to learn how to ride it. However, many organizations are working against this idea: for example, the Village Bicycle Project operates a month-long Learn to Ride program for women and girls in Ghana and Sierra Leone.

Presenting one woman with a bike can improve life for an entire community. In villages in Zambia where HIV is prevalent, taking care of the sick often falls to Community Healthcare Volunteers (CHVs). They care for elderly men and women, orphaned children and those suffering from AIDS. After receiving a bicycle, one female healthcare worker was able to increase the number of patients she visited per day from four to 18.

Providing bicycles to families in Africa not only empowers rural villagers, but it also has positive implications for the environment. The organization Ghana Bamboo Bikes constructs bicycles out of bamboo, an eco-friendly material that, unlike wood, will not result in damage to Ghana’s rainforests.
The bicycles are built to be light, yet stable–good for navigating the roads of rural Ghana. The organization also teaches young men and women with little education how to build the bikes, offering them a job skill that will prove valuable as the demand for bicycles in Africa continues to grow.

Emilia Otte