Human Rights in San Marino

Securing human rights in San Marino, one of the world’s oldest republics, has been a progressive and relatively successful venture. The state is a multi-party democracy where authorities maintain effective control over law enforcement.

According to the Department of State, no outrageous human rights abuses have taken place in San Marino in recent years. Although, according to various international organizations, the state still needs to reduce gender inequality and further the protection of women’s rights in particular.

The Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Nils Muižnieks, recently congratulated the state for its success in combating violence against women during his visit in 2015.

The prevention of violence against women has been successful due to legislation passed throughout the last decade, including the “Prevention and elimination of violence against women and gender violence” in 2008. The decree to implement the law was passed in 2012, according the U.N. It also provided an assistance center for victims of violence.

Additionally, during this time, a special study group was established by the San Marino delegation which specializes in meeting the requirements of the Council of Europe Convention for preventing and combating violence against women.

Despite progress against violence, women in San Marino continue to face hurdles in practicing their human rights. According to Muižnieks, action should be taken to address the gender gap in employment and political participation, along with action to combat harmful gender stereotypes.

The commissioner suggested in 2015 that these goals regarding human rights in San Marino, particularly for women, can be achieved through increased efforts by and resources towards the Authority for Equal Opportunities in the state. He also suggested goals of gender equality could be made through the state’s ratification of the Council of Europe Istanbul Convention. San Marino ratified and entered the Istanbul Convention early in 2016, confirming its commitment to ensure human rights and women’s rights in the country.

Melanie Snyder

Hunger in San MarinoSan Marino, a microstate surrounded by Italy, is known as the world’s oldest republic, dating back to the year 301. Its economy runs off of tourism, banking and the manufacturing and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles and wine. This accounts for more than half of San Marino’s GDP. With a population of less than 33,000, hunger in San Marino is not seen as a problem.

The recession of 2009 had a major impact on tourism as an economic stimulus. However, by 2016, the unemployment rate dropped from 9.3 percent to 8.5 percent by the end of the year. In comparison, the United States had a rate of 4.7 percent at the end of 2016.

San Marino, like many European countries, uses the euro as its currency. As of August 2017, the exchange rate is one euro to 1.19 USD. This means that the costs of everyday items are almost equivalent to the prices in the United States. Hunger in San Marino could be affected by the cost of living, but that is not the case.

The average monthly salary after taxes is about 2,445 euros. The cost of living in San Marino is relatively inexpensive, with prices averaging about 600 euros per month for apartment rent, while grocery costs remain low. The cost of living can be compared to that of small cities in the U.S.

In 2010, it was reported that the percentage of overweight females in San Marino was 67.4 percent, while the male percentage was 60.5. This data shows that hunger in San Marino is not a problem; rather, overeating and unhealthy diets are more of a problem for the country.

On Monday, October 16th, the Republic of San Marino is going to celebrate World Food Day, which is organized yearly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). It celebrates the anniversary of its founding and raises awareness on the world hunger problem. Despite not having hunger problems of its own, San Marino makes sure to advocate for other countries which do deal with severe hunger.

Stefanie Podosek

Photo: Flickr

Water Quality in San MarinoSan Marino, a small republic located in southern Europe, is one of several European microstates. The smallest independent state in Europe after Vatican City and Monaco, San Marino covers only 24 square miles and is landlocked by the Republic of Italy.

San Marino is a large political player in the international community, with diplomatic ties to more than 70 countries. Not only a member of the United Nations and World Health Organization, San Marino is also active in the International Court of Justice, UNESCO, the International Monetary Fund, the International Red Cross Organization, the Council of Europe, and many others. Moreover, although it is not a formal member of the European Union, it has official relations with the multinational entity.

Unsurprisingly, water quality in San Marino is not a cause for concern. Not only does the country have a large tourism industry, but it also has one of the most stable economies in the world and is regarded as one of the wealthiest in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. According to the Central Intelligence Agency World Fact Book, San Marino’s GDP per capita was $59,500 in 2016, a growth of 0.5 percent from 2015.

High water quality in San Marino is just one of many factors that contribute to a high quality of life and long lifespan. Statistics from a 2009 World Health Organisation report list the average life expectancy for a newborn male as 81, which has increased since then.

San Marino’s water resources are drawn from one of four rivers, including the San Marino River, the Ausa River, the Fiumicello River and the Marano River. These rivers also play an important role in shaping the geography and political relationships of the country with itsneighborr Italy. The course of the San Marino River, for instance, creates a natural boundary.

The preservation of high water quality in San Marino is rooted in the country’s legal system, which began on October 8, 1600. “Maleficiorum”, the third of six governmental books comprising the country’s constitution, pays special attention to preventing the pollution of water sources.

Today, San Marino’s environmental issues are limited primarily to air pollution and urbanization which has invaded rural farmlands. As environmental policy continues to progress, the focus will largely lie in controlling these areas.

Katherine Wang

Photo: Flickr

5 Facts About Education in San Marino
Founded in 301 AD, San Marino is one of the world’s oldest republics while also being the smallest independent nation in Europe. The estimated population of San Marino is 30,000. Located in Central Italy, San Marino is blessed with an immense amount of beauty ranging from Mount Titano of the Apennine Mountains, to the Adriatic Sea, which is visible from the northeastern side of the country.
Although San Marino is small in size, it has proven to be successful as a sovereign state. San Marino has flourished with a tourism sector responsible for 50 percent of the national income, social development programs that encourage equal employment opportunities for women, and education in San Marino is mandatory for children from the ages of six to 14.

5 Facts About Education in San Marino

  1. Education in San Marino has a similar curriculum to Italy. Children are able to attend nursing schools as early as three months, and attend kindergarten schools at the age of three.  By age six, children must enroll in one of the 14 primary schools San Marino offers. After five years of primary school, secondary schools consist of 32 hours of class each week, from Monday to Saturday. Children who finish secondary schooling have the choice to enter high school, which introduces students to a variety of courses, including humanities, modern language, and economics and management. All schooling from nursery school to high school is free.
  2. According to the World Bank, San Marino primary schools subscribe to smaller classroom sizes, with six students per teacher. This is one of the lowest student to teacher ratios in the world, and half the size of the median for other Southern European countries. San Marino credits its small classroom sizes with the success of its students’ high grades, supported by the 98 percent literacy rate among adults.
  3. The majority of students who graduate from secondary school pursue enrollment at universities in Italy, all of which recognize San Marino diplomas as respectable education accomplishments. The University of the Republic of San Marino is the country’s only higher learning institution, but it also has a number of vocational training institutes. Established in 1980, these vocational training institutes take an non-traditional approach to education, specializing in a prioritized curriculum that focuses on communications, historical studies, biomedical studies and civil engineering.

  4. Citizens in San Marino who aim to become teachers must take various courses, including psychology and general culture. According to a 2012 survey conducted by NationMaster, San Marino has 8.03 primary teachers per 1000 citizens, ranking 22 in the world.

  5. San Marino was one of the many European countries positively impacted by an educational reform called The Bologna Process. Proposed in 1998, it initially consisted of France, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom in pursuing higher education reform. Since then, The Bologna Process has established 49 higher education systems and admitted 48 other European countries, including San Marino. Among the advancements in education provided by the Bologna Process, it also helped improve the economic and social development of San Marino.
Although education in San Marino has proven to be successful with required schooling and an adult literacy rate of 98 percent, there is still room to make improvements. Education in San Marino has maintained a level of excellence that has paved the way for an optimistic future.
– Patrick Greeley
Photo: Flickr

San Marino, a small, independent republic inside Italy has had its fair share of economic struggle. The Great Recession’s effects on San Marino began in earnest during 2009 and has had a major impact on the tourism drive in the Republic of San Marino. Since San Marino heavily relies on tourism as an economic stimulus, the drop in traffic increased the poverty in San Marino.

As a measure to boost the economy, the Italian government began cracking down on people who had been using San Marino’s banks as tax havens. Italian celebrities and other non-residents of San Marino took advantage its low tax rate of 17 percent and the secrecy policies implemented by San Marino banks. This allowed them to hide their money, thus avoiding their home country’s taxes.

Multiple members of San Marino’s most important bank, Cassa di Risparmio della Repubblica di San Marino, were arrested on laundering charges. San Marino has signed several transparency agreements with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and is reported to have displayed dedication to the OECD’s standards.

While the elimination of tax havens is positive for global economic growth, it had a negative immediate impact on poverty in San Marino. The San Marino economy relied heavily on its status as a tax haven.

The Republic has made economic improvements in recent years. The GDP has grown by about one percent primarily due to an increase in the demand for domestic goods. The International Monetary and Financial Committee reports that unemployment rate in San Marino dropped from 9.3 percent in 2013 to 8.5 percent at the end of 2016. To put things into perspective, the U.S. had an unemployment rate of 4.7 percent at the end of 2016.

The Republic plans to implement a freeze on the 2017 budget which is estimated to save 2 million euros as well as the addition of value-added tax in 2019.

Although much more progress has yet to be made in the Republic of San Marino, its cooperation with the OECD and the steady growth it has made in the past few years promise economic strength for the tiny republic. It is hopeful that poverty in San Marino and the unemployment rate will decrease in kind over the years to come.

Emma Tennyson

Photo: Flickr