Less than 100 years ago, millions of innocent Greeks were killed or deported in what is known as the Greek Genocide. In the Asia Minor region of Turkey, the Ottoman Empire felt it was being threatened by the indigenous Greek people. As a result, the Empire enacted a systematic genocide to rid the nation-state of the Greek contaminants. During the nine-year genocidal period, the Turks and the Ottoman government set out to exterminate the Christian Greek population that resided in the Ottoman Empire. These are ten facts about the Greek Genocide that set the pace for the future of the Ottoman Empire.

  1. The Balkan War, from 1912 to 1913, was the true initial marker for the Christian Greeks’ bleak future. Between these two years, four territories in the Balkans (Serbia, Bugaria, Montenegro and Greece) were successfully freed from Ottoman rule. After the war, the Ottoman Empire feared it would lose more power. The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), an ultranationalist group of Young Turks, ultimately took over the Ottoman Empire with the goal of completing total Turkification throughout the Empire, or a full cultural shift to Turkic culture.
  2. The indigenous Greek people were seen as a threat to the Ottoman Empire before and during World War I. The Ottoman Empire feared that the Christian Greek population would attempt to aid the Empire’s enemies during the war, causing its defeat. Additionally, the Empire believed the Christian Greeks were tainting the population and would ruin the integrity of the current Muslim-majority nation-state. Therefore, the Empire opted for a solution to this problem: genocide.
  3. The Ottoman Empire began to target the indigenous Greek population in order to accomplish its goal of full Turkification. The Greek Genocide took place from 1914 to 1923, beginning a year after the Balkan War and aligning with the events of World War I.
  4. Ottoman Greek men of ages 21 to 45 were sent to concentration camps to work for the Turks. Working around the clock with little to no food, hundreds perished in the camps.
  5. Greek children were kidnapped and forced to conform to Turkish society. Villages were pillaged and burned to the ground.
  6. Deportations were issued in the Dardanelles and Gallipolli regions of Asia Minor. The Greek inhabitants of the western coastline of Asia Minor were sent to Muslim villages, where they had to either convert to Islam or be killed. The rest of the Christian Greek population was sent to the interior lands, where they would be exposed to harsh winter weather, starvation and illness.
  7. Approximately 3.5 million Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians died during this nine-year period.
  8. The Ottoman Empire was among the four Central Powers to lose in World War I. After the loss, leaders of the CUP Party were sentenced to death for their role in the organized Greek genocide.
  9. In 1922, the Ottoman Empire collapsed and became the New Republic of Turkey. A year later, the Greek Genocide ended.
  10. There are three remembrance days for the Greek Genocide: April 6 for the Eastern Thrace region, May 19 for the Pontus region and September 14 for Asia Minor.

Nine long years and 3.5 million lost souls later, the Ottoman Empire had officially ended its bloody crusade. Though its efforts to continue the massacres were passed on to the next leadership, the Empire was unable to strongly execute its plans. Many poor decisions led to the collapse of the five-century Ottoman rule, and while the Empire will not be remembered fondly, the lives of those lost in the Greek Genocide will be.

– Brianna Summ

Photo: Flickr

April 24, 2013 marked the 98th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide by the Ottoman government. Each year, hundreds and thousands of supporters march and protest throughout countries such as a Georgia, France, Germany, Iran, and, of course, the United States. They call for not only recognition from the Turkish government of the mass murder of 1.5 million Armenians, but also reparations such as the return of ancestral lands to Armenia as well as redrafting the border lines set in Woodrow Wilson’s 1920 Treaty of Sévres.

While 43 states in the U.S. recognize the genocide, President Obama himself has refused time and time again to refer to the event by its intended name, ‘the Armenian Genocide’. His conflict come from obvious political issues and concerns with America’s relationship and alliance with the Turkish government.

Despite his lack of efforts to recognize a significant historical event, many Congressmen and Senators stand strong with the Armenians. Congressman Adam Schiff from the 28th District in California (including areas of the San Fernando Valley, Glendale, Burbank, and northern Los Angeles suburbs) stood in front of the U.S. House recently and spoke in Armenian, commemorating the genocide. Throughout the years, Schiff has proven to be a voice for the Armenian communities he serves in the capitol.

What is tragic about the situation, not only about the actual killings from 1915-1923, is the way a modern-day republic such as Turkey is able to deny its actions. Many Turks come out to counter-protest Armenians on the remembrance day, not only rejecting their family stories and proofs, but going so far as to claim that things were the other way around, where Armenians in Anatolia killed Turks.

When it comes to the most horrific atrocities committed in the 20th and 21st centuries, including but in no way limited to the genocides in Rwanda, against Native Americans, the Circassian Genocide, that of the Chechens, the Kurds, Tibet, Congo, and countless more, there should be no option for denial. In an age where it even seems silly to argue over petty political procedures and media-made alliances, countries should be held responsible for accurately depicting their histories.

Humanitarian abuses occur around the world on a daily basis. When passionate activists have quite literally exhausted themselves and their resources, the battles are left to the politicians. If they are not given a political or economic motive to make those changes, it is up to the people they service to verify their desires and requests to do so.

– Deena Dulgerian

Photo: Armenian National Team