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Nigerian Curling
In Lagos, Nigeria in the mid-1800s, British colonial cartography resulted in the drawing of many inappropriate boundaries across the African region. Nigeria serves as a token example as more than 200 self-identified tribes currently exist in the populous Sub-Saharan country. The three tribes with the most influence, the Yorubas, Hausas and Igbos have demonstrated significant friction since the country’s freedom from British rule in 1960. This perpetual conflict is so serious that it even helped spark an attempt of eastern secession in 1967 known as the Biafran War or the Nigerian Civil War. Luckily, Nigerian curling may serve a purpose in unifying the country.

Sport: The Great Unifier

Beacons of hope still shine over the quest for national unity through organizations that promote cooperation and Nigerian pride. Nigerians universally accept one unifier which is sports. Nigeria’s humid climate might seem to render its winter-sports participation impossible. Yet despite these climate restrictions, Nigeria presented both a women’s bobsled team and a skeleton racer at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea. For the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China, Nigeria hopes to yield a curling team in addition to its aforementioned fleet. The Nigerian Curling Federation, approved by the World Curling Federation in 2018, is actively making these dreams a reality.

Curling and other sports, in general, have the potential to increase national pride while decreasing tribal pride, the latter of which is a significant roadblock in Nigerian attempts towards national unity. There is a normalization of stereotypes about the respective tribes, which feeds large cultural prejudices on each side. This adds to an overarching sense of hostility between the different ethnic groups in the country, which has historically manifested itself in violence as serious as the killing of more 40 people in street-fighting riots between the Yorubas and the Hausas in 1999. As Rachel Odusanya writes, “tribes can misunderstand each other because of their different worldviews, and this is one of the biggest social problems in Nigeria nowadays.”

Christopher Neimeth, Social Injustice and Poverty

This dream involves more than just curling through, as it contains the potential to advance a much-needed togetherness for the Nigerian people. To dig deeper, The Borgen Project spoke to Christopher Neimeth, a member of the curling team who lives in America but has Nigerian citizenship. Not so long ago, he traveled to Lagos, Nigeria’s queen city, with his father to help the rising club gain traction by delivering curling clinics. Neimeth, whose father has Nigerian origins, is sharing his affinity for the sport bearing the positive social implications behind it in mind.

When asked how he thought sports, particularly curling, could remedy some of the social injustice so tightly wound in Nigeria’s current social climate, Neimeth responded optimistically. He conceded that his upbringing in America naturally makes it impossible to grasp the true extent of its cultural issues, but he still believes curling offers a lot to the country. Through the amalgamating nature of sports, Neimeth argues that curling presents a unique opportunity to promote a sense of national pride, while simultaneously creating opportunities for the athletes through travel, professional opportunities and sponsorships, etc.

Additionally, the presence of sports can help reduce the high stress that is an inherent byproduct of extreme poverty. In a country like Nigeria, where more than 86 million people currently live in conditions of extreme poverty, programs like this are important to sustain hope and positive environments. The Nigerian Curling Federation’s clinics provide a safe space for youth that may otherwise turn to crime or drug use.

The underdog premise behind a Nigerian curling team appearing in the 2022 Olympics could amplify the country’s excitement, dismantling previously fortressed barriers between the country’s different peoples.

Liam Manion
Photo: Flickr

Canadian athletesOften acknowledged for achievements in their particular area of expertise, athletes are, ordinarily, the most recognized people in the world. Consequently, it is significant when athletes use their status to bring attention to global issues as well as transform lives in their communities. Here are three Canadian athletes who make a difference.

Clara Hughes

This dual-season Olympian is the only athlete in history to win multiple medals at both the summer and winter Olympic Games. As a cyclist, Hughes competed in the 1996 Olympic Games where she earned bronze in both the road race and time trial. She also finished sixth in the time trial in Sydney. In 2002, she returned to her first sport, long track speed skating and won a bronze medal in the 500m in Salt Lake City.

A documentary about Right to Play’s work in Uganda inspired Hughes to donate $10,000 from her personal savings to their programs. By encouraging other Canadians to donate to this international humanitarian organization, Hughes helped raise more than half a million dollars. In Uganda, more than a third of all inhabitants live below the poverty line, including children, the primary victims of this economic situation. Frequently, their families cannot ensure their health or well-being particularly in remote regions of the country.

Following her win in Vancouver 2010, Hughes donated $10,000 to Take a Hike, an adventure-based education that offers at-risk youth a better chance at life. The program supports hundreds of young people in altering their lives by combining academics with outdoor activities, in addition to therapy and community volunteering.

Currently the national spokesperson for Bell’s Let’s Talk Day, Hughes created Clara’s Big Ride which focuses on raising awareness of mental health issues throughout Canada.

Steve Nash

Canadian professional basketball player Steve Nash plays for the Los Angeles Lakers. As an eight-time NBA All-Star and two-time recipient of the NBA Most Valuable Player Award, Nash led the league in assists five times.

The Steve Nash Foundation, started by Nash and his family in 2001, devoted its time to assisting underserved children on a global level. The heart of their aid organization was a focus on education, enjoyment of life, health and personal development. The Nash Foundation operates as two separate private establishments: a registered Canadian charity in Victoria, British Columbia, and a U.S. charity headquartered in Arizona. Through the foundation’s platform, Nash works to increase access to critical resources and provide a basis for health and strength in communities across Canada, Paraguay, Uganda and the U.S.

The infant mortality rate in Paraguay is four times that of the U.S. While Paraguay’s hospitals treat thousands of children, they still lack access to equipment and training which has a devastating effect on health. The war in Uganda prompted Nash to co-found Football for Good, a nonprofit business that opened a Centre for Sport and Rehabilitation in northern Uganda. Nash hoped that the center would create a sense of optimism for the children caught in the chaos. The center offers sports, arts and drama programs besides counseling for children and adults affected by war.

Hayley Wickenheiser

Hayley Wickenheiser, a five-time Olympic medalist, is an award winner, community leader, history-maker and mentor. Selected at 15 years old for the Canadian Women’s National Team, Wickenheiser is considered one of the best female hockey players in the world. Wickenheiser led the squad to six gold and one silver medal at the 1998 Winter Olympics. Furthermore, she won four Olympic gold medals during the 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympics. As the first female hockey player to score a point in a men’s professional game, Wickenheiser made history.

A passion for sports matched with a desire to make a difference, Wickenheiser works with organizations such as Project North and Right to Play. Project North is a not-for-profit dedicated to improving the lives of children in northern Canada. The vision is to create recreational opportunities for Inuit children living in remote Canadian communities, providing stimulating experiences rooted in play, sport and education.

In 2007, a team of Canadian Olympic athletes, alongside Wickenheiser, traveled to Rwanda for Right to Play and on a related mission to Ghana, returned to Africa in 2011. Right to Play allows children to rise above the challenges of child labor, early marriage, inequality, illiteracy and violence. Their mission is to encourage children to rise above adversity through the power of sport, games, creative and free play. Right to Play believes that staying in school teaches children dignity, respect and empowerment.

Athletes are fortunate to have an opportunity to do what they love for a living. Nevertheless, many children, as well as adults, admire athletes who set an example on how to pay it forward on a global level. These three Canadian athletes are making a difference by their efforts to create a better existence for children around the world.

Colette Sherrington
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

tourism in kenyaDuring the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio, Kenya once again proved its dominance in the realm of track and field. And, the Kenyan Ministry of Tourism hopes that this success will continue to promote one of the fastest growing industries in the world, sports tourism in Kenya.

According to an article published by CNN, tourism in Kenya produces about $6 billion a year, but the recent rise in terrorism has hurt the industry. Government organizations have begun to focus on sports tourism as a solution to this downturn in the country’s economy.

The beauty, history and culture of East African countries, combined with the popularity of their native athletes has allowed sports tourism in Kenya to prosper in the past few years. Fatuma Hirsi Mohamed, the principal secretary at the Ministry of Tourism, stated, “our sportspeople put the country on the global map.”

Kenyan middle-distance runner David Rudisha, commonly known as “the King”, solidified his place as one of the greatest athletes in the world when he won the men’s 800-meter race in Rio, his second gold medal in that event after setting the world record during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. However, Rudisha is not only known for his abilities on the track, but he has also become one of Kenya’s most prominent ambassadors for tourism.

Kenya offers attractions for all types of tourists, including world-class athletes, dedicated fans and curious travelers. The famous town of Iten, Kenya located in the Great Rift Valley is one of the country’s most popular destinations. This high altitude attraction is most famous for being the training ground of countless decorated Olympic runners, including Rudisha. Lornah Kiplagat, a world champion runner, founded Iten’s High Altitude Training Center, which is now visited by both training Olympians and casual runners from across the world.

While Iten is an enormous draw for many tourists, Kenya is looking to expand the industry by building on many of their already popular events. The annual Maralal Camel Derby is a world-renowned race that attracts local and international spectators, with all proceeds going toward local communities. The Lewa Marathon, which is known as one of the world’s toughest marathons, also raises money for conservation and community projects.

The country is hopeful that sports tourism in Kenya will be a viable industry heading into the future. The country will continue to host sports events and clinics, while star athletes such as David Rudisha inspire fans to visit and experience the beautiful home of Olympic legends.

Liam Travers

Photo: Flickr


Zambia has sent 166 athletes to the Olympic games since 1960. Of those two have earned medals—a silver in Atlanta for the 400-meter hurdles and a bronze in Los Angeles for boxing. Zambia, along with many other African countries, has never sent a rower to any Olympic games.

Zambian rower Antonia Van Deventer is hoping to change that in Rio 2016.

In July of 2011, Van Deventer and several international level scullers (rowers who use two oars instead of one) embarked on a journey to row 1,000 kilometers down the Zambezi River. The expedition, which took about 20 days, was wrought with obstacles from crocodiles to white water rapids.

“The aim is to promote grassroots sport—in particular, rowing,” said Van Deventer on the eve of the expedition.

Once the expedition closed, the best Van Deventer hoped for was that the boats used for the journey would be left behind for the benefit of the communities among the Zambezi.

In 2015, she can expect to get something better, as FISA (the international governing body for rowing competitions) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) have collaborated to build a state of the art rowing and research center on Zambia’s Kafue River.

As a major tributary of the Zambezi River, the Kafue is responsible for powering much of Zambia’s limited industry through a hydropower system. It is the main source of water, both for drinking and agricultural use for the communities that line its shores.

When the WWF became concerned about the degradation of the Kafue’s fresh-water ecosystem, they turned to FISA in hopes that sport could help promote ecological awareness and health in Zambia.

“The competing claims on the water of the Kafue River are a microcosm of what is happening in many parts of the world. The region is experiencing a conflict in demand from the population’s need for clean water…the lessons we learn from studying this ecosystem and interacting with all stakeholders will be valuable for use in Kafue and all around the world,” said Bart Geenen, a Senior Water Expert at WWF.

FISA is also optimistic about the opportunities that the sport of rowing can bring to Zambian athletes of all levels; from children to Olympic hopefuls like Van Deventer:

“We can use this Centre to help develop our sport in this region,” said Christophe Rolland of the World Rowing Federation. “It will provide a resident facility for the nearby schools and universities as well as rowers from universities around the world who can conduct their water research.”

What does a research and rowing center mean for Zambian citizens? The Kafue River and Rowing Center presents a unique opportunity to fuse the natural and athletic components of rowing with health outcomes in Zambia.

A 2010 Global Burden of Disease study conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation named gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea and non-communicable diseases (such as cardiovascular disease) as significant barriers to global health.

By promoting clean water research at the Kafue River and Rowing Center, scientists may be able to improve water quality and significantly cut down on the instances of intestinal disease. Additionally the aerobic and muscular benefits that come from rowing may help promote more long-term health in Zambian communities.

Emma Betuel

Sources: The Lancet, Rudern, World Rowing 1, World Rowing 2
Photo: worldrowing

Newly Formed "Sports & Rights Alliance" Advocacy Group-TBP
The Sports & Rights Alliance (SRA) is a newly formed coalition of NGO’s focused around preserving human rights in relation to global sporting events. The list of issues the SRA advocates for includes, but is not limited to: ending citizen displacement from sport infrastructure, imprisoning protesters, exploitation of workers, unethical bidding practices and environmental destruction.

The SRA is composed of various international NGO’s such as Amnesty International, FIFPro – World Players’ Union, Football Supporters Europe, Human Rights Watch, the International Trade Union Confederation, Supporters Direct Europe, Greenpeace, Transparency International Germany and Terre des Hommes.

This past February, the SRA penned a letter to the President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) stressing an adherence to the principles regarding the 2020 and 2024 games. The approved standards mandated by the International Labor Organization was a point of emphasis in addition to increased oversight and inspections for human rights conditions. For the bidding process, the letter requested robust efforts to maintain and enforce ethical business and anti-corruption in choosing a host city.

The IOC met this past February in Brazil to discuss “Agenda 2020,” the strategic outline for the future of the Olympics, which was passed by the committee in December of 2014. The closing of bid registration for the 2024 Olympic games is set for September of 2015 so the timing is most appropriate.

Many recent international games have come under intense scrutiny for similar violations. Free speech issues and poor treatment of their LGBT community has cast many questions and doubts regarding Russia’s selection as 2018 World Cup host. The 2008 Beijing Olympics and the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics were tarnished due exploitation of workers, suppression of free speech and corruption. The SRA cites these as examples of a divergence from what international sport and competition should stand for and symbolize.

Additionally, the inaugural European Games are currently being held in Baku, Azerbaijan causing concern and objection throughout the continent. The country has a questionable human rights record and in recent months, government protesters, human rights advocates and international journalists have been detained and imprisoned on inflated charges. This causes great concern for the international community and for Europe in particular.

Another letter written to the President of the European Olympic Committee stressed the immediate and unconditional release of all current activists and journalists who are imprisoned. Furthermore, the letter called for an end to ongoing intimidations, detainments and persecutions of the aforementioned individuals.

FIFA’s selection of Qatar as the 2022 World Cup host has also been met with serious concern and criticism. In lieu of a pre-existing Football infrastructure, the country has relied upon migrant laborers to build multiple stadiums to host the Cup. This arrangement of labor is common throughout the Arabic Peninsula and known as the “kafala” system and is likened to modern day slavery.

FIFA has been inconsistent in their actions to condemn working conditions. The organization has stated their concern for the workers welfare, but also deny responsibility for their treatment. Referring to the government contractors, FIFA President Sepp Blatter, is quoted as saying “they are responsible for their workers.”

Before the FIFA Presidency election, the SRA wrote to President Sepp Blatter and his three opponents citing their grave concern for the condition of the workers. The letter included a questionnaire about their views on the current state of human rights in their sport. It also called for the victor in the election to take action to rectify any violations in the first 100 days of their presidency.

The SRA has proven to quickly become a powerful voice in international sports relations and gathered a following through their advocate efforts. Regarding the allegiance to human rights principles, the SRA have consistently ended their letters by saying, “All these standards should not be based on goodwill, but must be non-negotiable and absolutely binding for all stakeholders.”

Frasier Petersen

Sources: The Globe And Mail, Human Rights Watch 1, Human Rights Watch 2, The Guardian
Photo: The Guardian

Olympics-TBP

The purported benefits of hosting mega-events such as the Olympics have been increasingly criticized by economists and journalists, and questions are being raised. Are the host nations for the Olympics or similar events making a good investment? Could the money be better leveraged to help the poor via other means? What makes hosting mega-events beneficial or not?

The costs of hosting the Olympics used to be small, in the millions of dollars. In the past few decades, this has not been the case. Billions of dollars are poured into infrastructure projects and other related costs in order to create the environment for hosting the Olympic Games.

The huge investment and sunk costs put into hosting the Olympics are not always returning the same value. The stadiums built for the events are often left unused and in a state of decay within only a few years of the events. With little demand for such a large amount of new sports infrastructure, the huge construction costs rarely pay for themselves in the long run.

On the other hand, there is such a thing as the “Olympic Effect”—trade openness and overall transactions tend to increase for the host country following the Olympics. Prestige and attention is also granted to the host country, as the Olympics are a chance to showcase the host’s best qualities and cultural attractions. This is important—but is it worth the cost? Many would say it probably is not.

The Sochi Winter Games cost Russia $50 billion, the highest costs of all time for an Olympics Game. The national economy benefited negligibly from the Games but the regional effect may have indeed had some positive impact. Because of the expected increase in tourism and guests in the region, infrastructure of all kinds had to be upgraded to be able to accommodate the flash flood of spectators and athletes. This could mean a long-lasting positive impact on certain regions of the country, even if the new infrastructure is underused afterwards.

The more recent Olympic Games have been held in emerging economies such as Russia and China, with Brazil upcoming. This trend away from more developed nations such as the United States and European countries is important to recognize. Government spending is particularly important for these developing nations. Investing wisely is the name of the game for economic development, and the Olympics net return on investment is questionable at best. This is not a good sign for these countries. For example, Brazil built massive stadiums in small cities for the World Cup that had no use for them past the mega-events for which they would be used. The government even cleared out favelas (slums) in order to build new infrastructure and gentrify city outskirts. It begs the question, is it possible that Brazil should be using the billions of dollars to help those in the favelas and others like them, rather than build massive stadiums? These are the questions that emerging economies must consider carefully when they make the investment that most economists consider an economic net loss.

Norway recently withdrew its bid for the 2022 Winter Games due to concerns that the cost would be too large and a lack of public support. The lack of evidence that the Olympics produce the economic benefits advertised is a message that must be heeded. The hidden costs of hosting mega-events such as the Olympics and the World Cup are especially prominent to a developing economy like Brazil. First, they might end up losing money and, secondly, that money could have been leveraged to a much greater degree. Just imagine if instead of hosting the Sochi Games, Russia had the same enthusiasm for spending $50 billion—but on social and job-training programs designed to reduce poverty within their own borders. These are the hidden costs of hosting mega-events.

– Martin Yim

Sources: NBER, The Economist, International Business Times, Reuters
Photo: NPR

2016_Olympics_Rio_de_Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro is working to reinvent itself into a city of modernity in preparation for the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics. Improvements will go beyond the Olympics, with high hopes of achieving sustainable development through this transformation.

The largest city in Brazil and first-ever Olympic hosting site in South America, Rio de Janeiro is in store for drastic changes to its infrastructure and economy. The games and preparation will benefit 55 different sectors, with construction seeing the biggest increase of 10.5 percent; increases in real estate, services, oil and gas, transportation and communication are also at the top of the list.

These sectors will see increases in employment leading up to the Olympics and improvements made will provide an economic boost during the games. Goldman Sachs economist Jose Ursua predicts: “A country with a better physical infrastructure [and] organizing security capabilities will likely be in a better position to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits associated with the games.”

The immense infrastructure changes to the capital city are being paid for mostly by the private sector. Half of Olympic Park (including press and broadcast centers,) the athletes’ villages, the golf course, a new waste water treatment plant and a 4 billion dollar port redevelopment are all privately funded. The waste water treatment plant will have better flood control and will provide benefits for the city well past the 2016 Games. There will also be 36,400 new hotel rooms added for the city. This project will ensure there are no room shortages for Brazil’s tourism industry in the future, as seen in the past.

Education will also see improvements in the years leading up to the Olympic games. Over 2,000 teachers will be trained, and students in grades 1-9 will be taught English. The committee is also emphasizing sports and academics in grades 6-9. With a special construction plan, the handball arena will be able to be changed into four public schools after the games.

Some financial and structural challenges remain, including an infrastructural debt. Although the government is responsible to cover any gaps in funding, organizers are trying to attract more private investments so the burden does not rest on taxpayers. The 31st Olympic games and city improvements brought with it will not only bring short-term prosperity to Brazil, but also improvements for long-term growth and investment opportunities for the city to thrive.

Maris Brummel

Sources: CFR
Photo: Huffington Post

Plan_International_U.S.A_Education
Since their creation, the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup have been two of the most celebrated traditions in history. Some flock to the world’s most beautiful cities to watch live; others crowd around television sets, anything to be a part of this phenomenon that unites the globe under the common love of sport. Avid sports fan or not, it’s safe to say that everyone relishes in seeing the best athletes in the world bring pride and honor to their home countries.

For many nations, the opportunity to host one of these popular mega-events is a chance of a lifetime. Not only do the cities have the prestige of having the whole world’s eyes on them, but becoming a host city is also a chance to revamp the national economy and improve infrastructure. Not to mention the immense prospects for tourism as fans come from around the world to watch these events.

Despite the seemingly happy exterior faces of these mega-sporting events, they unfortunately can take a toll on the host countries’ and host cities’ ways of life, including their economic development policy. Earlier this summer, millions of Brazilians flooded the streets of Brazil to protest the costs of the upcoming 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic games.

Protestors have cited the hosting of these events as an example of the government’s misplaced priorities. It is estimated that the World Cup will cost about $13.3 billion—a price tag for which no one but taxpayers will be responsible, even if it would make for good PR and instantly anoint Brazil as a global superpower.

However, protestors in Brazil do not find that kind of PR worth it at this moment in time. Even though the government promises that hosting the games and the World Cup will help to boost development in the country–by accelerating investments in infrastructure and improving services, governance, and local enterprise to international standards–critics say the money should be spent on grassroots development projects on health and education.

The mega events have already proved to be a problem in Brazil’s development policy. According to the Ford Foundation, many people in Rio de Janeiro have become worse off due to the numerous evictions in poorer communities in order to build infrastructure for the games. Also, less attention is being paid to improving the poorer communities and instead the focus is being put on increasing real-estate prices in upper-class areas where most of the infrastructure is being improved.

According to Leticia Osorio of the Ford Foundation, local communities need to be consulted with during these projects.  “They need to get civil society involved in discussions. That’s true for the government, but FIFA and the IOC (International Olympic Community) also have to change the way they assess bids to include human rights and better values.”

Even more recently, Qatar has come under fire for being awarded the 2022 World Cup bid. The desert nation, the richest country per capita in the world, has been accused of numerous human rights abuses concerning their treatment of migrant workers, an issue that the Internal Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) defined as “modern slavery.”

More than one million migrant workers in Qatar are victims of the “Kafala system” where employees are tied to a specific employer who controls the employee, even on the grounds of when and if they can leave the country. Migrant workers, who mostly hail from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, are denied their wages and are forced to work in unsafe and unsanitary conditions. Yet they will be the ones building the construction projects for the World Cup.

In response to these growing criticisms, the government enacted the Migrant Workers Welfare Charter last October, which promises that all contractors and sub-contractors would guarantee strict standards of health and safety for migrant workers. The Qatar Foundation at the end of April also announced that mandatory minimum standards of welfare for the migrant workers would be enforced. Overall, the government hopes that the hosting of the World Cup will help to improve current conditions in Qatar.

“We have always acknowledged that the current state of workers welfare needs to be improved. From the beginning we have pointed to the power of football as tremendous catalyst for tangibly improving labour conditions in Qatar and the region at large,” the Qatar 2022 Supreme Committee said in a statement addressed to CNN.

– Elisha-Kim Desmangles 

Sources: Huffington PostThe Globe and MailCNNThe Guardian

FIFA
In the last several years Brazil has made major efforts to eradicate extreme poverty. The number of people living on less than $1.25 a day dropped from 16.4% in 1995 to 4.7% in 2009. Nonetheless, there are still 10 million Brazilians who live in extreme poverty. Protests have thus broken out over the heavy spending on new soccer stadiums in preparation for the FIFA World Cup.

Over a million people took to the streets to protest inequality within the country. The protesters’ main concern is government is major expenditures, in the billions, directed for new and refurbished stadiums for upcoming World Cup and Olympics. The protestors are demanding that the money instead be spent on schools, hospitals, and better public transportation.

When more than 50,000 people came together on Thursday the 27th, 90 people were injured in a barrage of rubber bullets and teargas. Their goal was to reach the stadium in Fortaleza where Spain was playing Italy in the Confederation Cup, but their efforts were unsuccessful. Brazil has a history of violent oppression and the police attacks during the recent upheaval have certainly touched a nerve.

The President of FIFA, Sepp Blatter, responded to the protests saying, “I can understand that people are not happy, but they should not use football to make their demands heard. Brazil asked to host the World Cup. We didn’t force it on them.” FIFA is expecting to make record profits from advertising and broadcasting. Money that will not benefit the Brazilian people.

Marcos Nobre, a political philosophy professor at the University of Campinas and author of a new e-book on the revolt, was interviewed by Reuters about the recent protests. He said, “The streets are saying to the politicians: you have heard our voices, now let’s see what you will do with this.”

Nobre also claims that the demonstrations are far from over. The people will have to keep fighting if they want any real change to take place. Even with numerous economic successes, Brazil is still a country plagued by poverty. The residents only ask they receive the attention and assistance of the government before they start spending large quantities of money on mega-events.

– Chelsea Evans
Source: Inequality Watch, Reuters
Photo: Reuters