Methods of Decreasing Maternal Deaths in IndiaIndia is one country out of many that are dealing with the problem of maternal deaths. More than half of these deaths occur due to an abundant amount of uncontrolled bleeding from mothers giving birth. Maternal deaths may be a huge issue when it comes to global poverty, but today there are methods for decreasing maternal deaths in India and other parts of the world.

Techniques for Decreasing Maternal Deaths

Research has shown that 5 to 10 percent of women giving birth will continue to bleed “more than normal” after their baby is born. There are different methods that impoverished countries, such as India, can apply to help fix this problem. One immediate way that can be performed as a form of help is to massage the womb of the birthing mother. The administration of affordable and accessible drugs, like oxytocin, can also solve the issue of the bleeding.

A recent technique that is being used for decreasing maternal deaths in India is the administration of the medicine tranexamic acid (TXA) that is simple to get and is very affordable. This medicine can help create a clot to prevent the continuation of bleeding through the development of a fibrous protein, fibrin, that joins platelets to form the clot. The intake of TXA can help prevent maternal deaths by 30 percent.

Research shows a single condom that is attached to a syringe, that is found in health facilities, can save the lives of 97 percent of women that are in shock from the bleeding. The way it works is by putting it into the womb where the mother is bleeding, and then water fills the tube. This single-use set can function as a tampon by pressing on the walls of the uterus to prevent the uncontrollable bleeding. Basic training can be completed so that a primary health care provider can even use this technique at a local health center.

If India adapts these techniques then in the next five years maternal deaths caused by bleeding can be minimized.

India’s Fight Against Global Poverty

Now that different researched methods are accessible to help lessen the number of maternal deaths in India, global poverty is the next question to be addressed. Once there are less maternal deaths in India then there will be less motherless children, and that will result in less homeless children on the streets. These methods will save mothers and families while fighting against global poverty. UNICEF India representative, Yasmin Ali Haque, recognizes the decrease of maternal deaths in India: “India has shown impressive progress in reducing maternal deaths, with nearly 1,000 fewer women now dying of pregnancy-related complications each month in India as compared to 2013.” Especially in Uttar Pradesh, part of India that had the highest decrease of maternal deaths, by a 30 percent.

In 2011-2013 there were 167 maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births. Decreasing maternal deaths in India became more successful in the years 2014-2016, where there were 130 maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births. This is positive progress as maternal mortality has decreased by an estimated 44 percent all around the world, from 1990 to 2015. India has the potential to decrease maternal deaths even more and diminish global poverty. The goal is to decrease the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births, following the Sustainable Development Goals between 2016 and 2030.

Maternal deaths make up a huge part of global poverty. Because impoverished countries do not have easy access to healthcare or enough health-care workers, they tend to have a higher amount of maternal deaths. The World Health Organization (WHO) set the goal of making sure countries all around the world reduce their maternal rates by supporting cheaper and better treatments. Therefore, India has made some significant progress in decreasing the number of maternal deaths and has the potential to reduce it even more through different researched methods. By doing so, India is one step closer to ending global poverty.

– Kelly Kipfer

Photo: Flickr

Mindfulness in Education Systems of IndiaIn recent years, India has improved its education system greatly. An increasing number of children have access to education and enrollment rates in primary school are on the rise. Over 98 percent of Indians have access to a primary school within one kilometer of their home. Yet, the nation still faces challenges with poor education and high dropout rates. In an effort to combat these challenges, India has introduced mindfulness in education systems across the country.

Education Challenges in Delhi

India is among the top five countries for children not attending primary school. There are over 1.4 million students between the ages of 6 and 11 not enrolled. Approximately 29 percent of children drop out of school before finishing the five years of primary school, and only 42 percent of students complete high school.

Many schools are not able to handle the needs of all the students. Only 74 percent of schools have drinking water and over 50 percent of schools have working restrooms for girls. Recent reports show that learning levels are not being reached, and standardized tests show that countless children will not progress in the school system. This highlights the need to improve the quality of education in India.

The Lasting Ramifications of Stress

Many students face external problems, such as poverty, that can seriously hinder their education. New Delhi slums have astounding illiteracy rates of 70 percent; however, the entirety of New Delhi has an impressive literacy rate of 86 percent. In the 2011 census, it was reported that 3.9 million residents of New Delhi live in slums. Non-government reports have estimated that the number of impoverished people living in the slums is much higher, sitting around 8 million. Residents of the slums lack access to adequate plumbing, drinkable water and transportation.

Children who are constantly exposed to poverty-related stress can have serious health consequences later in life. Physical reactions from stress, such as increased heart rates, stress hormones and adrenaline take a serious toll on a child’s health. Eventually, these children are at a higher risk of developing diabetes and other life-altering illnesses.

Over time, the structure of a child’s brain is forever altered. Cognitive functions are impaired, which can have disastrous consequences on a child’s emotional responses and attention span. Impoverished children are also at a higher risk of suffering from depression. In fact, one out of four children surveyed between the ages of 13 and 15 face the challenges of depression in India. In contrast, children who do not experience stress or depression experience healthier sleeping habits and are able to easily fight off illnesses due to having stronger immune systems.

Mindfulness in Education

India is combating stress-related illnesses and the inability to focus in class among children with an additional course in “Happiness.” The course objective is to improve the students’ emotional well-being through meditation, story-telling and other activities that focus on mental health. The students will learn mindfulness, empowering them to be less distracted and to improve their ability to focus. Apra, a primary school teacher, believes that mindfulness in education will help many students in Delhi. She adds that the course will specifically benefit children from poorer families as they will have “time to be happy.”

Mindfulness in education has shown encouraging results in urban schools. Created as an alternative to detention, Robert W. Coleman Elementary School in Baltimore has implemented an afterschool program dedicated to meditation and mindfulness. Success can be noted by the drop in suspensions at school. During the 2012-2013 school-year, 4 students were suspended. However, the following year there were no suspensions, something the school attributes to this program. Moreover, a study by Stanford University found that mindfulness in education has also helped lessen symptoms of PTSD.

Mindfulness in education is not the solution to end poverty, but it is a method that can be used to lessen the disastrous effects on impoverished children. Studies on mindfulness in education are still very new, but studies point in the direction that mindful practices will have tremendous results for students. Furthermore, the evidence shows that disadvantaged children will greatly benefit from this practice. For India, this could mean that retention rates in school will rise, and more children will be able to receive a quality education.

– Stefanie Babb

Photo: Flickr

Urbanization in IndiaIndia is a country in the midst of huge changes. As a developing nation with a GDP ranked 7th globally and a population of 1.3 billion people, India has seen a massive amount of improvements in recent years. However, as the nation’s population continues to expand, India suffers from overpopulation in metropolitan areas, a dynamic known as urbanization.

Urbanization in India affects the nation’s economy and quality of life, but most of all, this process harms poor individuals living in slums. Despite the negative aspects of urbanization, there are several non-governmental organizations in India providing relief and hope for those living in these areas of abject poverty.

The Facts

Slums in India commonly share the following characteristics:

  1. Lack of access to running water sanitation, adequate shelter, and medicine
  2. A poor population isolated by socioeconomic status and/or metropolitan developments that force slum residents into densely concentrated living conditions
  3. A high population growth rate, despite negative factors that decrease life expectancy
  4. A high percentage of young people, i.e. New Delhi where 47 percent of slum residents are under 15 years of age
  5. The presence of child labor; in India, 23 million children, ages 5-14, are believed to be active in the workforce illegally

The Reality of Urbanization

In India, urban slums are home to the poorest living in the cities. The abject poverty present in these locations gives little opportunity for individuals and families to improve their quality of life. Rapid growth in metropolitan areas tends to underutilize the amount of space available in a city, and slums are often isolated both financially and geographically from the progress being made across India.

Despite the low quality of life present in slums, the population of Indians living in slums continues to increase annually. This is due to the fact that many Indians are leaving rural villages to seek better paying jobs in larger cities. Every minute, 30 Indians move from a rural area to a city. However, those leaving rural areas often do not have financial freedom or the education that allows them to gain higher wages, leaving them no choice but to live in India’s many slums.

Those living in slums often find themselves facing religious persecution. In India, Muslims often face the brunt of this discrimination. They are denied housing or jobs because of their religious beliefs, offering little chance for them to leave the slums.

NGO’s Alleviating Urban Poverty

There are several non-governmental organizations across India seeking to alleviate the suffering of those living in urban slums.

  1. Asha: This organization provides medical training for women living in the slums of Delhi. These trained individuals can provide aid for their community members and watch over infants as well as the sick and elderly. Asha also funds medical facilities in slums, where residents can seek affordable treatment for their ailments. In addition, Asha cooperates with India’s Ministry of Finance in order to allow slum residents the ability to apply for low interest loans that help them improve their lives.
  2. Kriti Social Initiatives: This NGO helps to empower women by providing them with the opportunity to improve their lives and the lives of their family members. Working within five interconnected slums with over 4,000 households, Kriti has helped women find jobs and has provided scholarships to over 300 children in the Film Nagar area.
  3. Sammaan Foundation: The Sammaan Foundation campaigns to improve conditions for individuals working low-income jobs, mainly rickshaw drivers and street vendors in Kishanganj and the Araria districts of Bihar.

As the amount of Indians living in slums continues to rise, the effects of urbanization in India prove to be a challenge and a benefit for this developing nation. If the divide between the wealthy and poor can be diminished both socially and geographically, then the vast improvements taking place will be enjoyed by all Indians.

–  Jason Crosby

Photo: Flickr

India’s fight against PolioPolio, or poliomyelitis, is an infectious disease spread through poliovirus. Since the early twentieth century, polio has been widespread in many countries, causing paralysis in thousands of children every year. With the help of various nonprofit organizations and the Global Polio Eradication initiative, the disease is now narrowed down to a handful of nations.

In 2014, India was certified as a polio-free country, leaving Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan on the list for polio eradication programs. India’s fight against polio is a remarkable achievement because of the various challenges the country faced. Nicole Deutsch, the head of polio operations for UNICEF in India, called it a “monumental milestone.”

Polio: Cause and Prevention

Poliovirus is highly contagious, infecting only humans and residing in the throat and intestine of the infected person. It spreads through feces and can contaminate food and water in unsanitary conditions.

The virus affects the brain and spinal cord of the infected person, causing paralysis which cannot be cured. Immunization through inactivated poliovirus vaccine and oral poliovirus vaccine are the only possible methods to fight against the virus. In the case of India, it was the second option which was administered.

India’s Fight Against Polio: the Challenges Faced

India’s fight against polio faced unique challenges, such as its huge population density and an increased birth rate. The number of people living in impoverished conditions with poor sanitation is huge, making them vulnerable to the polio disease.

Lack of education and prejudice among certain sects of the population also hindered the immunization process. Other challenges faced were the unstable healthcare system, which does not support people from all levels of society, and the geographically-dispersed inaccessible terrain, which made the immunization process difficult.

Overcoming these Challenges

Overcoming the challenges of polio eradication was possible due to the combined help provided by UNICEF, WHO, Rotary Club, the Indian government and millions of frontline workers. They took micro-planning strategies to address the challenges faced by the socially, economically, culturally and linguistically diverse country that is India.

India began its oral polio vaccine program in 1978 but it did not gain momentum until 1994, when the local government of New Delhi successfully conducted a mass immunization program for children in the region. From the year 1995, the government of India began organizing National Immunization Day, and in 1997, the first National Polio Surveillance Project was established.

Other initiatives taken include:

  • Involving almost 7,000 trained community mobilizers who went door-to-door, educating people in highly resistant regions.
  • Engaging 2.3 million vaccine administrators who immunized almost 172 million children.
  • The government running advertisements on print media, television and radio.
  • Enlisting famous Bollywood and sports celebrities to create awareness among common people.
  • Involving religious and community leaders in encouraging parents to vaccinate their children.

Inspiration for Other Countries

In 2009, almost 741 polio cases were reported in India, which dropped down to 42 in 2010, until the last case was reported in 2011 in the eastern state of West Bengal. This unprecedented success is an inspiration for countries like Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria, where the disease is still looming at large.

India’s fight against polio has set an example in the world that the country can be proud of, but the fight is not over yet. Although India has been declared polio-free by the WHO, it is of the utmost importance that the nation continue to assist other nations still facing the polio epidemic.

– Mahua Mitra

Photo: Flickr

Behno StandardConsidering the work that millions of people do in factories around the world, progress is often valued not for the quality of the work but for how quickly the product can reach the market. If money is the primary objective, human beings can be endangered in the process. Without teamwork and employee wellbeing as priorities, products will not make it past production and the economic gains will not materialize. One solution to this culture is Shivam Punjya’s Behno Standard.

Punjya is a man who has sought to revolutionize the conditions in which factory workers operate, especially women. During a 2012 research trip on women’s health in India, he witnessed some extraordinary handmade textile work in rural villages. He was appalled to learn that 90 percent of these beautiful artworks were tailored by women who are paid less than $1 per day.

One year later, a tragedy would ultimately push him into advocacy. On April 13, 2013, the Rana Plaza garment factory in Bangladesh collapsed, killing more than 1,100 workers, the majority of whom were women. This incident brought intense awareness to factory conditions and the need to support workers.

Behno is a word used to describe love, harmony, and balance in its most beautiful connections with creative solutions. It is primarily an artistic expression used by communities full of like-minded individuals who strive for that harmony and balance with love. It is also the name used for the ethical fashion line that Punjya founded in New York.

Its central focus is on providing these factory workers with an environment to pursue their designs without their health being compromised. Through a partnership with a large nonprofit in rural Gujarat, India, called Muni Seva Ashram, Punjya began The Garment Worker Project. This was debuted in July 2016 as the first implementation of the Behno Standard through a collection of social programs.

The Behno Standard is broken into six categories: health, garment worker mobility, family planning, women’s rights, worker satisfaction and benefits and eco-consciousness. Its crucial emphasis is on offering a new meaning to the label ‘Made in India,’ often synonymous with unspeakable worker conditions. With the Behno Standard, Punjya strives to change that outlook and prove that a healthy working atmosphere leads to efficiency and high-quality products.

In Punjya’s own words, “Ethical fashion is such a collaborative space because the supply chain is massive and so convoluted. We encourage other brands to reach out to us, and we reach out all the time, to collaborate and utilize each others’ platforms.” Due to his inspiration for starting in the fashion business, he doesn’t want Behno to be a brand that tries to compete on the basis of profit. Instead, he wants his brand to be the unique type of team that collaborates with other companies.

Business doesn’t necessarily need to be a competition but can delve into a community goal. In that sense, the Behno Standard is transforming the connotations of factory work and joining together to revolutionize how the fashion business operates through human connections.

– Nicole Suárez

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

In 2001, 65 million people in India were living in slums without decent living conditions or any access to water and food on a daily basis. According to Berkeley research, more ore than 80 percent of the urban population in India cannot afford a concrete slab to be used as a roof.

For those who can afford a roof in slums, most of the time they are made of cement or metal sheets, which has a very bad effect on health and leads to poor quality of life. Witnessing such a lack of basic need, Hasit Ganatra, engineer and founder of ReMaterials, conceptualized a new type of roof named ModRoof to improve lives in slums.

According to ReMaterials, ModRoof is a “modular roofing system” that can improve shelters in slums and village homes in developing areas. Eco-friendly, easily removable and simple to install, it is also designed to be strong, waterproof and fire-resistant.

In addition, ModRoof is available for a low cost. Payable through microfinance companies, a very popular system in developing countries, the program solves the main obstacle to better facilities in worldwide slums: the price.

ReMaterials is currently considering embedding solar cells in ModRoof, which would allow houses to have power LED lights and outlets to charge phones. Employing solar power with ModRoof would be a huge step forward, as providing electricity to these shelters could assist in lifting the residents out of poverty.

“Worldwide experts told us to give up; they said we’d never do it,” said Ganatra in an interview with BBC. “But when you see this sort of problem [in the slums] you have to do something about it.”

Thus, the stark blue rooftop from ReMaterials is set to change lives. With continued persistence from Ganatra and his team, ModRoof will allow families living in slums all around the world to sleep in a safer, warmer environment.

– Léa Gorius

Photo: Flickr

Credit Access in IndiaThe evolution of credit has sanctioned simply the idea of money as an invisible but powerful force. In a place where poverty still affects 22 percent of the population, credit access in India is difficult for many of its people. Often, formal credit is as elusive for the people of India as its tangibility.

PMJDY and Financial Inclusion
Though financial inclusion has become a recent focus for policymakers, 40 percent of people still lack access to basic financial services. Financial inclusion is the basis of perpetual economic growth. “Without financial inclusion we cannot think of economic development because a large chunk of the total population remains outside the growth process,” said Dr. Harpreet Kaur and Kawal Nain Singh of Punjabi University and The Rayat Institute of Management.

Many low-income individuals have relied on informal, and sometimes devastating, options to borrow money or gain credit access in India. In response to this, formal options such as Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), a mega financial inclusion plan, was designed. PMJDY aims to ameliorate poverty and fast track financial growth. The program targets those from remote areas and promotes financial literacy, universal access to banking services and insurance. This is all to “commence the next revolution of growth and prosperity,” the plan explains.

Unfortunate Faults
More than a few studies have reported the same findings as Dr. Joy Deshmukh-Ranadive of the Human Development Resource Centre in New Delhi. In the doctor’s report on rural micro-finance in India, she explains that “the track record of these formal sources has not been positive. Micro-finance…circumvents the drawbacks of both formal and the informal systems of credit delivery.” These downsides include exploitative interest rates and fortifying systems of oppression.

Entrepreneurship in Rural India
The micro, small and medium enterprise sector (MSME) account for 37 percent of India’s GDP, and more than 40 percent of the country’s total exports, according to the World Bank. Despite this, MSMEs have been limited by inadequate access to financial services.

Fortunately, the International Finance Corporation devised a program called India Collateral. The program is modeled after a similar program that has had success in China. The project hopes to revise the discrepancy by opening access to banking services for more MSMEs by increasing lenders’ confidence.

While there are programs formulated to improve access to credit in India, there remains a gender bias. Though loan rejection and approval are issued at an equal rate to both men and women, women tend to seek financial services less often. Higher gender bias countries like India see more women deferring from the loan process, according to a report by the European Central Bank.

It is an interesting paradox: those who have money are those who typically qualify to borrow it. The necessary condition for credit access is already established finances. Those who stand to benefit the most from borrowed money are those who do not have it. Steps toward financial inclusion in India are governed by this idea. Many programs continue to amend credit access in India, develop the informal credit market and lower interest rates in the hopes of developing the country’s economy from the bottom up.

– Sloan Bousselaire

Photo: Flickr

Development Projects in IndiaIndia is the second most populous nation, and the eighth largest nation by area in the world, and yet the nation is still lacking many of the necessities of a developed country. Thanks to the World Bank Group, and other investors, India is in the process of becoming a developed country by improving the full range of infrastructural and cultural problems which persist today. Here are five active development projects in India which you should know about.

  1. National Agricultural Higher Education Project. One of the major development projects in India began in August of 2017 and was made possible by $165 million of funding from the World Bank and other organizations. The goal of the project is to improve the current agricultural industry in India through the betterment of the country’s agricultural universities. The idea behind the project is that by improving the quality of agricultural education, farming practices will become more efficient, sustainable and will yield a greater volume of food to feed the nation’s high population.
  2. India Ecosystems Service Improvement Project. The goal of the Ecosystems Service Improvement Project, put broadly, is to try and ensure that interactions between humans and the ecosystem are not overtly harmful to the environment. More specifically, the project will hopefully improve land management and the overall health of the ecosystems of India through increasing and promoting biodiversity and sustainable resource use.
  3. Andhra Pradesh 24x seven Power for All Project. This development project in India focuses on delivering sustainable, reliable and more readily available electricity to citizens living in the Andhra Pradesh region of the country. This region encompasses both urban, and rural communities, with all sharing a common issue of having unreliable access to electricity. The Power for All Project will cost a whopping $570 million, $240 million of which has been pledged as a loan from the World Bank.
  4. Nagaland Health Project. The aim of this development project in India is to increase the availability and quality of healthcare services in the Nagaland region. The project began in 2016 and is expected to conclude in 2023, with a total cost of $60 million.
  5. Shared Infrastructure for Solar Parks Project. This project aims to equip India with the necessary infrastructure to implement solar energy systems across the country. This is being accomplished via the construction of many large scale solar parks throughout the country. These parks will harness solar energy via solar panels and then distribute the collected energy to the larger public power grid. The project will make the nation more efficient in its consumption of power and will make electricity more available to the Indian population.

These are just five of the 121 active development projects in India which are being organized by the World Bank Group. Projects like these are bringing India closer to becoming a fully developed nation and improving the quality of life for all of the Indian people.

– Tyler Troped

Photo: Flickr

Humanitarian Aid to India
With up to 1.3 billion citizens within an area of 3.1 million km, the country of India is soon to become the most populated country in the world. With that many people, proper living conditions in the country have decreased and inequality has increased. More than half of the Indian population lives below the poverty line. Along with this problem are tied many more. The lack of economic stability within the country has affected all branches of society. A lack of proper education, poor access to sanitation and social inequality are all problems that have increased over the past few decades. The U.N., UNICEF, Intermón Oxfam, Humanitarian Aid international and many more nonprofit organizations have taken action by sending humanitarian aid to India.

Christ for India has taken a prominent step forward by working with humanitarian ministers across India. Along with medical ministers, Christ for India has helped build houses for children living in poverty. Medical camps have also been built around villages in the country in order to provide medical care for those in need. By offering sewing, electrical repairs and technological courses, humanitarian aid in India also offers citizens opportunities for a better life.

The Humanitarian Aid Relief Trust is an organization that combines humanitarian aid to India with public support in that same country and many more. The organization helps to address issues generally not tackled by bigger humanitarian aid organizations. The success of the organization has lead to an increase of performed surgeries and the creation of more hospitals in India.

Natural disasters are also a big cause of poverty in India. During this year’s summer, up to 41 million citizens were affected by flooding. The U.N.’s humanitarian agencies rapidly took action in order to provide food, clean water, shelter and medical attention to those affected by the floods.

The success of humanitarian aid to India is undeniable. Many issues have been tackled by many organizations, providing better living conditions for citizens in the country. Not only has India received aid but it has also increased the amount of international aid and assistance it provides to other countries.

India, despite its poverty levels, has the fourth largest economy in the world. This has helped the country in regards to humanitarian aid. Thanks to its economy, India has been able to provide help to Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others, and has been able to stand out in regards to development assistance.

– Paula Gibson
Photo: Flickr

poverty in rural IndiaIndia has an overall population of 1.3 million, with 900 million people living in rural areas of the country. While the poverty rate has been significantly reduced due to governmental support, factors such as natural disasters, heavy dependence on agriculture and high birth rates have contributed to the continued poverty in rural India that affects around 300 million people.

Farming in India relies heavily on monsoons that bring rainfall and irrigate the land. This means that erratic weather, cyclones, water shortages and droughts all have a huge impact on agriculture and can cause damage to crops.

Environmental factors are not the only causes of poverty in rural India; societal factors play a large role as well. Many people living in rural areas lack the physical ability to work. Individuals may also face problems such as drug addiction or alcoholism. Other factors that increase the poverty rate include a poor educational system, limited access to medical care, poor or non-existent sex education and a lack of available birth control methods.

One main social issue related to poverty in rural India is the custom of child marriage. The legal age of marriage in India since 1978 has been 21 for men and 18 for women. Despite this, about one-third of global child marriages occur in India, and more than 230 million Indian girls marry before they reach 18 years of age.

In rural India, one-fifth of Indian girls are married before age 16 and give birth to their first child before age 18. Child marriages greatly affect Indian women’s physical and psychological health and result in fewer educational opportunities for younger women. It also increases the demands on food and energy as a result of a growing population.

Solutions to this problem include stricter law enforcement against child marriage and proper education regarding family planning for those living in poor socioeconomic conditions in rural India.

While the “green revolution” emphasized the ownership of private land and tried to fairly distribute this land to all individuals, much of the land in remote areas of India is still held by a small group of upper-status people. Large portions of cultivated land belong to a minority upper social class, which includes rich farmers and landlords, and results in a severely uneven distribution of land. In other words, the majority of people own very little land and as such may have to maintain a feudal relationship with rich landlords. Those not in feudal relationships struggle with a low annual income and often with debt, since the harvests from their lands seldom bring a profit. Other issues such as crop patterns, neglect of crop rotation and poor quality materials and technology also influence poverty in rural India.

Due to the high poverty rate, many rural areas in India now have to depend on loans with relatively high annual interest rates. While this seems like a good solution to the poverty crisis and reduces the immediate pressure of economic needs, in the long run, it will negatively affect these rural areas. Such loans lead to future debts and increase the need for funds to pay back the loans.

Better solutions should be adopted to help relieve financial stresses in rural India, such as a compulsory education allowance and poverty subsidies from the local government.

To sum up, poverty in rural India is caused by many factors. Possible solutions to reduce the poverty rate include stronger surveillance of land, stricter enforcement of the legal marriage age, widespread awareness of birth control, better access to medical resources and increased support for low-income families. The more solutions for poverty, the better the prospects for rural India.

– Xin Gao

Photo: Flickr