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Stopping Overfishing: Reducing Poverty and Saving DolphinsOverfishing in developing countries all over the world exacerbates poverty, causes food insecurity and impacts marine life. Overfishing occurs when specific regions are fished continually using special technology. The practice is tied to bycatch, which occurs when unwanted marine life is caught and killed in the nets used to mass fish. Bycatch has depleted marine life, leading to disastrous consequences for the oceans and the people whose livelihoods depend on the oceans.

Overfishing and Poverty

In developing countries, fisheries are essential in providing food and financial security. For example, in Cambodia, the Tonle Sap Lake is essential in providing income and food for the local communities. However, overfishing has hampered the development of that area, driving these communities into poverty.

In addition, overfishing in developing countries is more likely to occur because developed countries take advantage of developing areas by deploying fisheries under subsidies. For example, the West African waters attract European fishers who have the capacity to catch between “two and three times more than the sustainable level,” hence destroying the fish stocks as well as the livelihoods of fishers in Western Africa. In Senegal, in particular, “90% of fisheries are fully fished or facing collapse.”

In interviews collected by Jessica H. Jonsson, a researcher, locals in Senegal have expressed concerns over getting food and fish. In some instances, the huge European ships destroy local fishermen’s fishing nets, creating anger and frustration among the locals.

The lack of income and employment leads to poverty and forced migration. In many circumstances, West Africans end up as “illegal migrants” in European countries due to the lack of employment opportunities in their own countries.

“Poor, desperate migrant workers from these countries take significant risk in hopes of earning good pay to support their families back home, but often are not paid what they are promised, or paid at all,” Andy Shen, Greenpeace USA Senior Oceans Advisor told The Borgen Project. Shen states further that “this contributes to continued poverty at the local and national levels in their countries.”

Overfishing and the Environment

Overfishing has socio-economic ramifications, leading to increased poverty in communities, however, overfishing affects more than just communities. The marine ecosystem depends on a particular balance. For example, as more and more fish stock depletes, dolphins and other large marine animals have a harder time finding the food they need to survive, leading to an ecosystem collapse. Addressing overfishing will not only lead to an increase in the livelihoods of fishing communities but will also save marine life such as dolphins.

The Good News

Although the situation looks bleak, many nonprofit organizations (NGOs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) are working to reduce overfishing in developing countries and address poverty. One of these organizations is Greenpeace. Greenpeace is an environmental organization fighting to address climate change injustice and other environmental issues. The organization’s Ocean Sector advocates to reduce illegal fishing and overfishing in West Africa and Taiwan.

Through press exposures and campaigning, the organization is able to put international pressure on governments to reduce overfishing. For example, in Taiwan, Greenpeace successfully advocated for putting Taiwan on the U.S. Department of Labor List of Goods Produced by Forced Labor for seafood harvested by Taiwan’s distant water fishing fleet, which has spurred reforms in overfishing.

In the case of West Africa, press releases have been gaining international attention and solidarity. In 2017, Greenpeace exposed about 10 ships for illegal fishing and fishing infractions, helping to stop overfishing in those regions. Overfishing requires the cooperation of local governments as well as NGOs like Greenpeace. Shen says that governments need to focus on “prioritizing the fishing rights of coastal, small-scale fisheries over foreign industrial fleets” to help revitalize impoverished communities.

Looking Ahead

Overfishing in developing countries will continue to damage the livelihoods of fishing communities, driving people into poverty and depleting marine life. However, with small steps and community support, ending overfishing can reduce poverty and safeguard marine life as well.

“At the micro-community level, using more selective fishing gear, such as pole and line, and respecting marine protected areas, will ensure fish populations are not overfished and the marine ecosystem remains healthy,” Shen added.

– Lalitha Shanmugasundaram
Photo: Flickr

McCartney's Humanitarian Work
Sir James Paul McCartney, known professionally as Paul McCartney, is a singer, songwriter, poet, bass player and animal rights activist. He is best known for his work with the English rock band The Beatles. During his 63-year-long ongoing career that revolutionized the world of music, McCartney has amassed a fortune of over $1 billion. This drove him to begin making significant charitable donations to organizations. McCartney’s humanitarian work emphasizes spreading awareness about causes for which he advocates.

5 Facts About Paul McCartney’s Humanitarian Work

  1. As of June 2020, Paul McCartney has supported 45 charities. Throughout his life, he has donated millions to several charities and has participated in many benefit concerts, such as Live 8 and Change Begins Within. Change Begins Within was a 2009 benefit concert in Manhattan, New York, hosted by the David Lynch Foundation. It helped raise money and awareness for at-risk youth and encouraged the use of meditation to combat stress and achieve success. Other significant charities and organizations that McCartney has supported include Adopt-A-Minefield, Cruelty Free International, Everyone Matters, Greenpeace, PETA, Red Cross and the St. Francis Food Pantries and Shelters. McCartney is a patron for Adopt-A-Minefield, an organization dedicated to raising awareness about the problems of landmines, raising funds to help survivors of landmine accidents and helping clear landmines. From 2001 to 2005, McCartney performed in five benefit galas for the organization. In total, he helped raise $17 million for the now-inoperative charity.
  2. Paul McCartney is a huge advocate for providing aid for childhood diseases. McCartney has four biological children, Mary, Stella, James and Beatrice, and an adopted daughter, Heather, who is the biological daughter of the late Linda McCartney. McCartney also has eight grandchildren and used them as inspiration for his children’s book “Hey, Grandude!”, which was published in September 2019. His devotion to his own children and grandchildren is evident, but it is also apparent that he cares a great deal for the welfare of children around the world. McCartney’s humanitarian work has included donations to the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, Keep a Child Alive, Children with Leukemia and Teenage Cancer Trust. These are organizations dedicated to focusing on the needs of children affected by significant diseases or disorders. Additionally, in 2012, McCartney performed at the Royal Albert Hall in London for the Teenage Cancer Trust, helping raise over $382 million.
  3. Paul McCartney’s humanitarian work dates back over 40 years. In 1979, McCartney was one of the lead organizers of the Concerts for the People of Kampuchea, a series of concerts that ran from December 26-29, 1979 and took place at the Hammersmith Odeon in London. The concerts raised awareness and donations for the victims of war-torn Cambodia (then known as Kampuchea) at the start of the Cambodian-Vietnamese War. The proceeds went directly toward United Nations agencies’ emergency relief work in Cambodia. In addition, in 1989, McCartney participated in a charity version of the song “Ferry Cross the Mersey.” The proceeds made from the single were used to aid victims of the Hillsborough disaster, a human crush that occurred at a soccer match in the Hillsborough Stadium in South Yorkshire, England, killing nearly 100 people. The song held the number one spot on the U.K. chart for three weeks after its release.
  4. Paul McCartney supports the eradication of poverty. McCartney’s humanitarian work also includes dedicating time and money toward helping those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. His most notable involvement with an organization dedicated to ending poverty was when he performed at a Live 8 concert in 2005. Live 8 was a series of benefit concerts organized in support of the U.K.’s Make Poverty History coalition and the international Global Call to Action Against Poverty campaign. The goal of the concerts was to raise $50 billion in aid toward impoverished African countries by 2010 (the concerts raised about $30 billion). McCartney has also supported the Worldwide Orphans Foundation, Aid Still Required and the Prince’s Trust. These organizations assist people in underdeveloped countries and unfavorable socioeconomic situations.
  5. In April 2020, Paul McCartney performed in the One World: Together at Home benefit concert. The current international COVID-19 outbreak has affected people worldwide. Global Citizen, a worldwide movement dedicated to ending poverty by 2030, hosted a charity special in the form of a virtual benefit concert starring many famed musicians. The concert was titled One World: Together at Home. It raised $127 million for the COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund and for charities providing food, shelter and healthcare to those in need. McCartney sang a solo rendition of the Beatles’ song “Lady Madonna” while playing the piano.

Paul McCartney’s humanitarian work proves his unwavering dedication toward improving the welfare of humans and animals alike. His aid has made him one of the celebrities best known for generous donations. His championship for nearly 50 charities and organizations proves how one can use their wealth to better the state of the world.

Kia Wallace
Photo: Flickr

Deforestation in Indonesia

Indonesia is a large, island country in Southeastern Asia that is home to the second-largest rainforest next to the Amazon in South America. It is also home to some of the world’s largest palm oil plantations and logging operations. Deforestation in Indonesia for the past half of a century is largely to blame for mass species extinction. But animals are not the only ones who are affected. Indonesia’s poorest rural communities are hurt and displaced alongside the wildlife in the area.

How Deforestation Affects Indonesia’s Poor

Due to unethical agricultural practices, Indonesia has lost 80 percent of its total original forest coverage and continues to lose 6.2 million acres per year. Deforestation in Indonesia is a direct cause of loss of habitat in tropical areas since the animals have nowhere to go. However, cutting down trees is not the only step in clearing a swath of forest. The next steps that are typically taken are draining the swamps and burning the remaining brush to totally clear the land.

Peatlands are very common in Indonesia. This refers to a type of swampland made up of nutrient-rich soil from thousands of years of decaying plant matter. When these peatlands are drained and burned, they release a thick, noxious haze that carpets the surrounding area, and even travels to neighboring islands and countries on the air currents. The fumes poison the wildlife throughout the remaining forest and find their way into rural villages. More than 100,000 annual deaths in Indonesia can be attributed directly to the inhalation of particulate matter from these landscape fires.

Since deforestation in Indonesia leaves the land in the prime condition for mosquitos, there has also been a recent spike in mosquito-transmitted illnesses like malaria and dengue fever. Many communities affected by deforestation do not have ready, affordable access to vaccines for these diseases, and must deal with the outbreak largely on their own. The best option for these people is to sleep in mosquito nets and try as best they can to keep insects at bay during their most active hours.

Fighting Deforestation

Although the statistics seem gloomy, there is still hope and progress is being made. Indonesia is one of the few tropical countries to make official pledges to lessen or halt deforestation. Incentivized financially by Norway in 2017, Indonesia experienced a 60 percent drop in primary forest loss from 2016. Indonesia’s Peatland Restoration Agency has also been tasked to restore 5.9 million acres of decimated peatland.

The results of these regulations have been disputed, however. Many critics of the programs, such as Greenpeace, state that the programs leave loopholes that companies may exploit to further expand their palm oil plantations. In the moratorium, primary forests that have never been touched by corporations are protected under Indonesian law. But secondary forests (forests that have been previously transformed according to palm oil agriculture) are not protected.

NGOs Fighting Deforestation Now

NGOs like Greenpeace have been raising awareness of deforestation in Indonesia and lobbying the Indonesian government for more transparency in terms of deforestation statistics. Transparency efforts have been largely ineffective as far as the Indonesian government goes, but corporations have begun to be more open with their promises to halt deforestation in their palm oil farming practices.

Public pressure from many consumers has pushed companies to take significant measures to lessen their products’ effects on the environment and the people who live in it. For example, Wilmar International, the world’s largest palm oil producer, promised in December of 2018 to keep up maps that monitor hundreds of its suppliers to ensure no rainforests are being cleared.

 

While the overall situation of deforestation in Indonesia does not seem promising, anti-deforestation efforts have had significant impacts. More people than ever are aware of the detrimental effects of clearing the rainforest. Indonesia is seeing fewer cases of deforestation per year than it has in the past three decades and palm oil production companies are doing more than they ever have before to ensure their products are sustainably sourced.

– Graham Gordon
Photo: Flickr

Socioeconomic implications of air pollutionAir pollution is commonly understood as an environmental issue. In the U.S., pollution is most commonly tested using the Air Quality Index. The AQI measures air pollution based upon ground-level ozone, particle pollution, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide levels. Air pollution causes a number of health risks such as cancer and respiratory infections. In 2016, an estimated 4.2 million people died prematurely due to air pollution. Often, the effects of environmental issues have more consequences for the poor. Thus, concerns stemming from air pollution are not just environmental but also socioeconomic.

Who is affected?

About 90 percent of premature deaths by air pollution occur in low-middle income areas. This issue disproportionately affects lower-income households for many reasons. For one, impoverished homes are often dependent upon energy sources such as coal and wood. The burning of these fossil fuels contaminates the air with carbon dioxide emissions and creates indoor pollution. A lack of finances can also result in the absence of healthcare. Without early treatment, people dealing with infections related to air pollution are more likely to suffer fatal consequences.

Research shows that this disparity supports social discrimination. A study in 2016 reports: “The risk of dying early from long-term exposure to particle pollution was higher in communities with larger African-American populations, lower home values, and lower median income”. Minority groups often face prejudice in places such as employment. On average, a black woman makes 61 cents per dollar earned by a white male counterpart. In sum, minority groups ordinarily earn lower wages. This prohibits them from buying more expensive renewable resources.

The largest effects of air pollution take place in the World Health Organization’s South-East Asia and Western-Pacific regions. These regions are primarily occupied by developing nations. With a lack of financial resources, these countries resort to cheap and environmentally unsustainable practices. For example, the slash-and-burn technique is a method used by farmers and large corporations. This technique involves clearing land with intentional fires, which raises carbon dioxide levels.

What are the implications?

When considering the socioeconomic implications of air pollution, it is important to note all of the key facts. Here are a few things to consider:

  • The WHO has declared air pollution as the number one health hazard caused by environmental degradation. Air pollution can cause ischaemic heart disease, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer.
  • Worldwide, 1 in 8 people dies due to the effects of air pollution. In 2018, 7 million people passed away because of infections relating to air quality.

Who is helping?

Air pollution should not be overlooked as a serious issue. Fortunately, in recent years there has been a significant movement to combat poor air quality. For example, China has a reputation for being heavily polluted. However, in 2015, the Chinese government was the world’s lead investor in renewable energy. The government invested $26.7 billion in renewable resources, which was twice the amount that the U.S. invested that same year. Furthermore, between the years 2010 and 2015, particle pollution levels in China decreased by 17 percent.

Organizations such as Greenpeace have advocated for better policies surrounding environmental degradation. In 2013, the Chinese government released the Clean Air Action Plan which set forth the initial progress in combating air pollution. Nevertheless, in 2017, Greenpeace recorded that while particle pollution levels continued to decrease, progress had significantly declined. Greenpeace is now urging the government to produce a new plan to further challenge air pollutants.

Air pollution is harmful to the global ecosystem but it also has a profound impact on society. In order to fully understand the consequences of this issue, one must consider the ways in which environmental degradation targets specific groups. The contamination of the environment, or more specifically the air, often affects minorities and the poorest people. Thus, air pollution should be a top priority not only for environmentalists but also for social activists. Luckily, governments are already seeking plans to prevent the outcome of air pollution. By contributing to organizations such as Greenpeace, everyone can advocate for better policies and regulations against the socioeconomic implications of air pollution.

Photo: Flickr

Water Pollution in the Philippines

Water is often equated with life itself. But for an archipelagic region in Southeast Asia sandwiched between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, water pollution in the Philippines has caused this precious resource to be anything but life’s sustenance. According to a report released by the Asian Development Bank, “heavy inorganic pollutants have made water increasingly a threat to life.”

A Threat to Life

The Philippines is a developing country that is also undergoing rapid urbanization and industrialization. Out of more than one hundred million Filipinos, nine million rely on unsafe water supplies. In fact, water pollution in the Philippines and a lack of proper sewage kills 55 people every day.

Katrina Arianne Ebora, part of UNICEF’s Water, Sanitation and Hygiene program in the Philippines, notes that access to adequate sanitation facilities is a problem for more than 30 million Filipinos.

This portion of the population is forced to spend considerable time, effort and energy in procuring water. Families without a sanitary toilet often face the embarrassment of venturing outside to relieve themselves. Some resort to asking their neighbors to utilize their sanitary toilet facilities.

Environmental group Greenpeace has previously warned that Filipinos in key agricultural areas are drinking water contaminated with nitrates. After conducting a study on important farming areas, Greenpeace warned that nitrate levels were alarmingly above the safety limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The group also noted that “drinking water from 30 percent of all groundwater wells sampled in [the Philippines and Thailand] showed nitrates levels above the WHO safety limit of 50 mg l-1 of nitrate.”

 

Water Shortage

Due to water pollution in the Philippines, the country is likely to face a shortage of water for sanitation, drinking, agriculture and industrial purposes in the next ten years.

In an Asia Development Bank report, the Philippines’ regional group – which includes Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam – has made gains in improving water security. However, the region is home to a sixth of the global population and the poorest people in the world. With agriculture consuming a staggering 80 percent of the region’s water, the region is a global hotspot for water insecurity.

Water conservation efforts in the Philippines by many local and international companies have protected the water supplies for future use. Coca-Cola has pledged nearly $1.4 million for a five-year project with the World Wildlife Fund to protect the capital’s drinking water source, the Ipo Watershed. The Cement Manufacturers’ Association of the Philippines, an industry that heavily uses water, has started initiatives to capture and utilize rainwater for many production needs.

Investing in Clean Water

In 2014, Water.org began providing philanthropic and technical support to offset water pollution in the Philippines by expanding its WaterCredit program. Water.org’s statistics show that 75 percent of Filipinos are willing to invest in water and sanitation loans. Between 2015 to 2017, the organization and its partners worked with eight different microfinance institutions to conduct research and training in fulfilling the high demand for clean water and sanitation access.

Experts have a consensus on the water improvement efforts in the country: the Philippines government, environmental action groups, industries and locals need to work together on more initiatives to avert the impending water crisis that may beset the region in the not-so-distant future.

– Mohammed Khalid

Photo: Flickr

Water Pollution in China is the Country's Largest Environmental Issue
Half of China’s population cannot access water that is safe for human consumption and two-thirds of China’s rural population relies on tainted water. Water pollution in China is such a problem that there could be “catastrophic consequences for future generations,” according to the World Bank.

China’s water supply has been contaminated by the dumping of toxic human and industrial waste. Pollution-induced algae blooms cause the surface of China’s lakes to turn a bright green, but greater problems may lurk beneath the surface; groundwater in 90 percent of China’s cities is contaminated.

China’s coastal manufacturing belt faces the most pollution. Despite the closure of thousands of pollutant sources, a third of the waterway remains well below the government’s modest standards for water quality. Most of China’s rural areas lack a system to treat wastewater.

Water pollution in China has doubled from what the government originally predicted because the impact of agricultural waste was ignored. Farm fertilizer has largely contributed to water contamination. China’s water sources contain toxic of levels of arsenic, fluorine and sulfates, and pollution has been linked to China’s high rates of liver, stomach and esophageal cancer.

Dabo Guan, a professor at the University of East Anglia in Britain, has been studying scarcity and water pollution in China for years. He believes water pollution to be the biggest environmental issue in China, but the public may be unaware of its impact. Air pollution creates pressure from the public on the government because it is visible every day, but underground water pollution is not visible in the cities, causing it to virtually be forgotten.

Water pollution in China stems from the demand for cheap goods; multinational companies ignore their suppliers’ environmental practices. Although China’s development has lifted many out of poverty, it has also sent many others into disease.

Factories are able to freely discharge their wastewater into lakes and rivers due to poor environmental regulations, weak enforcement and local corruption. Rural villages located near factory complexes rely on the contaminated water for drinking, washing and cooking. These villages have become known as “cancer villages” because of their high rates of cancer and death.

In 2011, Greenpeace launched the Detox campaign to publicize the relationship between multinational companies, their suppliers and water pollution in China. The Detox campaign challenges multinational companies to work with their suppliers to eliminate all instances of hazardous chemicals into water sources. Although combating water pollution in China will require much more work, continued efforts from organizations like the Detox campaign provide a beacon of hope for the future of China’s people and environment.

– Carolyn Gibson

Photo: Flickr

hip nonprofits
With all the nonprofit organizations out there that work to alleviate poverty and combat climate change, it can be hard to choose which one to donate your time or money to. Here are seven hip nonprofits that you can consider donating to:

1. Earthjustice

Founded in 1971 as the Sierra Club Legal Fund, Earthjustice is a nonprofit law firm that works to protect our global earth. It has provided legal representation to more than 1,000 clients and all of its services are provided at no charge. Its three main priorities are promoting clean energy to combat global warming, protecting the health of communities and preserving wildlife and special areas.

2. Girl Effect

The Girl Effect was created by the Nike Foundation in partnership with the NoVo Foundation, the United Nations Foundation and Coalition for Adolescent Girls. Girls play a crucial role in global development. When girls are included in economic development, health and education, there is a better chance to alleviate poverty and prevent HIV/AIDS, teen pregnancy and child marriage. This campaign is about empowering girls and providing them with resources. Its website is pretty cool, too: Girl Effect’s home page uses a video to state their message, mission  statement and what the viewers can do to support it.

3. Sesame Workshop

Sesame Workshop is the nonprofit organization responsible for Sesame Street and so many more education television shows. Its projects provide valuable lessons in respect, understanding, health and literacy to children in more than 150 countries. Sesame Workshop’s mission is to use the educational power of media to help children everywhere reach their highest potential. Its recipe for success is combining a curriculum that addresses children’s critical developmental needs with the sophisticated use of media and a large dose of fun.

4. Charity: Water

Founded in 2006, Charity: Water is a nonprofit organization that brings safe and clean drinking water to developing countries. Charity: Water’s goal is to eliminate diseases from unclean drinking water, and it has helped fund almost 7,000 projects in more than 20 countries. The organization has partnered with ONA products to produce a camera strap in which a percentage of the profit goes to Charity: Water.

5. Greenpeace

Greenpeace is the largest direct-action environmental organization in the world. Its goals are to promote peace and defend our earth by protecting our oceans and ancient forests and working to stop global warming. Climate change causes natural disasters that negatively affect food production, hindering efforts to reduce poverty and advance economic development. Greenpeace believes that alleviating poverty can be done without hurting the Earth. The environmental organization is determined that providing clean energy is essential in the fight to improve health and education and to reduce poverty. Greenpeace exposes and confronts the environmental abuse that is detrimental to lives around the world, while supporting environmentally-friendly solutions.

6. ONE

ONE is an international advocacy organization that works to alleviate poverty and preventable disease. ONE raises awareness and works with political leaders to demand greater transparency, increase investments in nutrition and agriculture and fight AIDS and other preventable diseases. ONE works with activists and policymakers to oversee the use of foreign aid, combat corruption, improve economic development and encourage poverty-reducing efforts. Their teams in Johannesburg, Paris, Berlin, Brussels, London, New York and Washington, D.C. lobby and educate governments to help shape policy decisions that will improve and save millions of lives.

7. Shining Hope for Communities

Shining Hope for Communities is a nonprofit organization that works to promote gender equality and alleviate poverty in the Kibera Slum, one of Africa’s largest slums in Nairobi, Kenya. SHOFCO provides free education for girls as well as poverty alleviation and empowerment programs. The organization provides health care, meals, access to clean water and toilets, school supplies, uniform and counseling to girls that attend The Kibera School for Girls. SHOFCO also provides services to the Kibera community through their community center in order to provide healthier lives for girls and their families and to inspire the community to commit to change.

– Colleen Moore

Sources: Alternative Press, Girl Effect, Sesame Workshop, Peta Pixel, CBC News, ONE.org, Global Giving
Photo: Animation Magazine

Mickey Mouse Has Saved the Rain ForestsFor years, Greenpeace has worked to protect the environment and wildlife, and just recently, it seems that they have made a major breakthrough: with the help of Disney and others, the historic Mickey Mouse has saved the rain forest.

As a strategy for creating consumer awareness about the perils of big-business and their detrimental impact on the environment, Greenpeace will show how big brands are supporting destructive practices through their affiliates and suppliers. For a long time, they were trying to stop Asia Pulp and Paper Company (APP) from destroying the habitats of the orangutans and Sumatran tigers but were getting nowhere. In a change of plan, they hired actors to dress up as Minnie and Mickey Mouse and lock themselves to Walt Disney’s headquarters, flying a banner that read “Disney is destroying Indonesia’s rain forests.”

After immense pressure from its customer base, the combined forces of Mattel and McDonald’s, and eighteen months of negotiations, Disney issued new standards requiring that all paper they, its suppliers, and its licensees use, would now be sustainably sourced. Dozens of major paper-consuming companies followed and APP found itself unable to do business with much of the European and U.S. markets. So, APP then announced in February that it would also “go green.” They promised to no longer use any wood coming from natural forests.

After their announcement, nine of the top 10 US publishers, including Harper Collins, have adopted similar standards. “I think this will stand as one of the biggest market-based campaign successes that we’ve seen in a long time,” says Laurel Sutherlin of the Rainforest Action Network. “We’re still a little bit stunned.”

Mary Purcell

Source: Christian Science Monitor
Photo: Max Papeschi