Vietnam has seen a tremendous amount of growth in various sectors over the past three decades. This growth is largely due in part to economic reforms that have undergone implementation in the country. Before the reforms, Vietnam remained one of the poorest countries in the world. However, it has since grown to become a country with a lower-middle income. The GDP of Vietnam grew tremendously between 2002 and 2018 by increasing 2.7 times. Even in the face of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, the economy of Vietnam has been able to remain steadfast and resilient through trying times. Here is some information about how Vietnam improved its economy.
The Doi Moi Reforms
The Doi Moi reforms that the government implemented in 1986 helped Vietnam improved its economy. Under these reforms, Vietnam as a country took three significant steps as a country that would help improve the economy. The first of these steps was embracing free trade.
For many years, Vietnam has entered into various free trade agreements with numerous nations. One includes ASEAN, which Vietnam became a part of back in 1995. Vietnam and the U.S. partnered together by signing a free trade agreement in 2000, and seven years later, Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization. By joining these institutions and forming these alliances, Vietnam has been able to reduce the number of tariffs on imports coming into the country and exports leaving the country.
The second step that the Doi Moi reforms took to better the economy was implementing deregulation and making it cheaper for companies to conduct business within Vietnam. One way this occurred was through the enactment of the Law on Foreign Investment which passed in 1986. This law allowed companies from foreign countries to come into Vietnam to conduct business. Over the years, this law underwent revisions numerous times to better accommodate investors.
This law has improved Vietnam’s competitiveness tremendously over the years. In 2006, Vietnam’s global competitiveness ranked at 77. Only 11 years later in 2017, Vietnam ranked at 55 in world competitiveness. Lastly, the Doi Moi reforms aimed at improving human capital in Vietnam and improving the country’s infrastructure.
To improve the human capital of Vietnam, the government decided to prioritize education within the country. Better education is a must for Vietnam due to its ever-growing population. A larger population means more jobs and citizens must receive quality education to perform them. Infrastructure has been vitally important for the growth of Vietnam’s economy as well. Making sure that all citizens have access to internet services is important for a country due to the technological needs of the modern age.
How It Helps
Vietnam improved its economy due largely to the Doi Moi reforms. Today, the economy of Vietnam continues to flourish. In 2020, during the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, Vietnam’s economy expanded by 2.9%. Compared to other countries at the time, this growth rate was among the highest in the world.
Since 2010, the poverty rate in Vietnam has slowly declined each year. In 2012, the poverty rate was at 40.8%. By 2018, the poverty rate fell almost by 20%, leaving it at 23.1%. As it currently stands, the Vietnamese economy continues to stay strong and grow.
– Jacob E. Lee