infrastructure in Montenegro

The Balkan nation of Montenegro has undergone rapid economic development in recent years. While Montenegro has been largely successful in the 10 years since it declared independence from Serbia, infrastructure in Montenegro continues to face problems of inefficiency. Nowhere are these problems more apparent than in the highway system and the building stock. That being said, steps are being taken to address these problems and ensure that these issues do not hinder Montenegrin progress as time goes on.

The first major issue is the fact that Montenegro’s roads and highways are not all up to the task of connecting all the areas of the rapidly developing country. Existing roads are in disrepair and often take long or inefficient routes to connect two points. Additionally, there remain certain areas of the country that are not yet serviced by major road networks.  This wastes fuel and makes travel to other parts of the country virtually impossible for some Montenegrins.

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development aims to fix these issues by providing a total of €25 million to, directly and indirectly, support an overhaul of the country’s roads and highways. These improvements will make travel safer, easier and more accessible to more of the Montenegrin population.

The second challenge that Montenegro will face going forward is its aging building stock. Montenegrin cities are often full of Soviet-era “panelak” or panel-style buildings. These were almost all built prior to 1990 and were only built to last for about 30 years, and many of the buildings were already in varying states of disrepair by the time the regime collapsed.

These buildings are also incredibly inefficient to heat. While replacing them all at once is virtually impossible, alternative ways to retrofit them, prolong their lifespans and make them more energy-efficient are taking hold. Along with traditional improvements, adding green roofs to these buildings is becoming popular.

In addition to being nice amenities, studies have shown that green roofs are able to significantly reduce the amount of heat that radiates from a building via the roof. This helps to keep most of the heat in the residences, where it should be, and reduce overall energy usage. This promises to go a long way towards promoting green infrastructure in Montenegro as well.

Some infrastructure in Montenegro has a long way to go before it catches up with the rest of the country. That being said, improvements are underway. While still less than ideal, Montenegrin infrastructure can be expected to undergo major improvements as the economy continues to develop, making it more environmentally friendly while still improving everyday life and bringing greater convenience to many Montenegrins.

– Michaela Downey

Photo: Flickr

solar steam energy in South Africa
In South Africa’s largest province, the Northern Cape, the arrival of renewable solar steam energy brought jobs and a stable source of power. The first plant opened in 2015 and since then, construction began on two more plants to provide solar steam energy in South Africa, moving the country away from its historical reliance on coal power in a region with high unemployment rates.



South African coal traditionally produces more than 90 percent of the country’s electricity, causing the country to be the 12th highest greenhouse gas emitter in the world. However, these new plants position South Africa to reach its 2015 Paris Agreement promise to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and additionally provide nearly the entire population of the Northern Cape province with renewable energy.


Solar Steam Energy

The value solar steam energy in South Africa has for the economic growth of its people is especially noteworthy. In the Northern Cape province, where a high poverty rate and one of the highest youth unemployment rates in the world burdens the population, the construction of the three plants created around 3,000 temporary jobs and over 150 permanent positions. Further, partial ownership of each power plant is held by the local community through community trusts. These community trusts support a long-term growth of the economy, opportunities for education and creation of jobs in South Africa’s expanding solar field.

Solar steam energy yields environmental benefits similar to other sources of renewable energy, including decreasing harmful carbon dioxide emissions. Using the sun’s energy and reflective mirrors, the solar steam power plants concentrate energy and direct it toward a receiver, where it turns to steam. The steam energy is converted through a turbine and produces electricity by powering a generator; however, there is an advantage to solar steam energy above other forms of renewable energy: these power systems are also capable of storing energy to use during times of no direct sunlight.


Worthwhile Stability

Pofadder, South Africa, the site of two of the plants, saw 325 days of sun in 2017 allowing storage of large amounts of energy. While costlier, the storage capacity enables solar steam to supply stable energy that wind turbines and traditional solar powered energy are unable to provide. A worthwhile ability considering South Africa dealt with power shortages in years prior to these plants, but now has an excess of energy.


U.N. Climate Change Conference

Another victory for solar steam energy in South Africa occurred at the 2017 U.N. Climate Change Conference, COP23, in Bonn, Germany. At the conference, the first operating plant, KaXu Solar One, won a Momentum of Change award. This prestigious award is presented to projects that help both the planet and the people by making strides toward reaching the U.N. Sustainable Development goals.

The success of these first plants in the Northern Cape province has a wider effect on solar steam energy in South Africa. Other provinces are being evaluated for future plants, furthering the reach of renewable energy and creation of jobs, and could eventually lead to the development of projects across the African continent.

– Hayley Herzog

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in TongaTonga is an archipelago of more than 170 islands in the South Pacific Ocean. This Polynesian country, formerly known as the Friendly Islands, relies on agriculture, fishing and remittances from Tongans living abroad, many of them in New Zealand. Unemployment is high, while the main source of income is in the developing tourist industry.

The island’s small size and geographical isolation result in limited internal, regional and international transport and communication linkage. With few natural responses and vulnerability to external economic shocks, these areas are crucial to Tonga’s economic development and social well-being. Its roughly 105,000 people face decaying infrastructure in Tonga, which when combined with financial constraints poses a challenge of meeting domestic and international transport safety security requirements.


The Ministry of Infrastructure

The Ministry of Infrastructure was created to assist the government with improving infrastructure in Tonga. It began as the Ministry of Transport, whose goal to improve compliance of the civil aviation and maritime entities with international safety and security standards. It was then merged with the Ministry of Works to form the Ministry of Infrastructure. So far, the Ministry of Infrastructure’s successes have included:

  • The creation of a domestic road contracting industry for Tonga which employed 88 people, including 12 women, working on road maintenance throughout Tonga.
  • A total of 171 km of roads maintained or rehabilitated.
  • Improved safety standards for passenger vessels under an improved regulatory framework with the government of Tonga’s Marine and Ports Division.
  • Improved infrastructure in Tonga, including the fire station at the airport and an extension to the airport transit lounge.
  • The establishment of a Road Maintenance Fund to ensure sustainable financing of future investments.


Urban Development Sector Project

Another source of aid to infrastructure in Tonga is the Integrated Urban Development Sector Project, funded by the Asian Development Bank, who stated that rapid population growth has put pressure on the infrastructure in Tonga’s capital, Nuku’alofa. Along with the Australian government aid agency AusAID, this multi-million dollar project focused on six different components of Nuku’alofa’s urban services, including water supply, solid waste services and development of roads and drains. Its goal is also to raise awareness in the community about issues such as household management of solid waste and public health benefits for safe waste disposal. Since 2016, 30 kilometers of expressways, national highways, fully access-controlled roadways and provincial, district and rural road networks have been built or upgraded.

The improvement of infrastructure in Tonga will aid the country a great deal in its economic development. Infrastructure plays such a vital role in every nation and with the projects working hard to sustain Tonga, there is a chance for employment rates and incomes to rise.

– Kailey Brennan

Photo: Flickr

water quality in NigeriaIn Nigeria, one of the foremost necessities for survival has become a luxury reserved for a fortunate few. Clean water quality in Nigeria is essential, but for many, it is elusive if not outright unobtainable. Seventy million Nigerians lack access to safe drinking water, according to the Pulitzer Center. This means that more than 35 percent of people in the continent’s most populous nation face the daily deprivation of their basic needs.

A confluence of geographic, climatic and institutional factors contribute to their plight. Because much of Nigeria’s drinking water is unpurified groundwater, it usually contains pollutants and chemical contaminants like heavy metals responsible for debilitating diseases like dysentery, typhoid and cholera. Estimates suggest that these diseases – preventable with clean water and basic sanitation – claim the lives of about 60,000 Nigerian children under five each year.

The Nigerian government is tasked with reducing these numbers and providing potable water to their people. So far, they have been largely unsuccessful. Despite annual budgets of around $500 million for water sanitation programs, the country was unable to meet its goals for clean water access by 2015.

This is due to pervasive government corruption and ineffectual mechanisms to hold them accountable. Typically, funds are dispersed from the national government to the 36 states, which have discretion in spending and giving some of the money to localities.

According to a senior official, “There is no clear tracking for budgeted funds or expenditures…Most of the states don’t have water policies; there is no state in the federation that has a regulatory agency for water”.

To mitigate this corruption, the Pan Africa Chemistry Network suggests a national water strategy with clear roles for all institutions involved, as well as instruments to ensure better accountability. With such a framework in place, the government would be better equipped to meet the challenges of water quality in Nigeria.

Despite these setbacks, there are significant opportunities for improvement. Amid government dysfunction, optimism emanates from ingenuity. Technological innovation is enabling the purification of water across the continent.

One such invention to improve water quality in Nigeria is the EPA Compact Water Plant, which uses a process called hydraulic flocculation to clean contaminated water. One model uses a solar panel to provide the energy for the process, which can be performed by an individual. Tested in four African communities, this technology has performed well, and its proliferation across Nigeria could be an enormous improvement to current methods.

Janet Daniels, a resident of the capital city of Abuja, has an acute understanding of the impact such technology could have. Currently, she is forced to collect her water from a local borehole.

“We cannot wait for the government to do anything” she laments. “I have to boil the water [because] it has little particles of stuff in it”.

For people like Janet Daniels, gaining access to potable water is a daily toil. By emphasizing accountability and providing new technologies like the EPA Compact Water Plant, Nigeria can ensure that clean water is no longer mistaken for a luxury.

– Brendan Wade

Photo: Flickr

Infrastructure in the Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands are at risk of sinking, flooding and other natural disasters. The nation must develop better infrastructure to combat the approaching threats and has planned a number of projects for improving infrastructure in the Marshall Islands.

In 2014, a major project was completed on the island of Majuro, which is the nation’s most populated island. The Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC), which focuses on building resilience to climate change in Pacific communities, directed the project.

The project focused on providing water security to the islands’ inhabitants and renovating the island’s biggest reservoir. The capacity of the reservoir was increased by five million gallons. Improvements to the reservoir system were much needed as it had not been significantly updated to match population increases since its creation in the 1970s.

The country’s National Strategic Plan 2015-2017 outlined a number of other projects dealing with the improvement of infrastructure in the Marshall Islands. The infrastructure development sector comprised of five strategic areas:

    1. Energy
    2. Information Communications Technology
    3. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management
    4. Transportation
    5. Water and Sanitation

Transportation is a major concern for the government and citizens of Marshall Islands, as only one airline services the nation. Air and water transportation are also important for its tourist economy.

The plan’s call for a revision of the National Energy Plan promotes sustainable, clean, reliable and affordable energy for the residents of the islands. Having access to green electricity and energy is important for dealing with natural disasters. The National Strategic Plan outlines many more reforms to infrastructure in the Marshall Islands and other areas of governance, many of which are currently being carried out.

Infrastructure in the Marshall Islands is a priority. Disaster preparedness is important for the citizens of the nation, and improving infrastructures like energy production and transportation are crucial. The government has outlined comprehensive plans for reforming outdated systems and hopefully, it will continue to be diligent in the future.

– Liyanga de Silva

Photo: Flickr

Energy Infrastructure in Tanzania Must Meet Growing Needs
Tanzania, located just below the equator in East Africa, is rich in natural resources, has a vibrant, diverse culture, and is making positive leaps in economic development. The global consulting firm PricewaterhouseCooper published reports stating that if infrastructure in Tanzania improves, the nation has the potential to be a leader of development in East Africa.

The energy sector in Tanzania is currently under expansion, and aims to meet the growing power needs of its citizens. According to a World Bank report in 2011, only 15.5 percent of the 55.5 million people that make up Tanzania’s population had access to reliable power sources; since then, the country has made serious progress in developing its energy sector. Listed below are three of the growing sources of energy infrastructure in Tanzania.


1. Natural Gas

As of 2016, 49.8 percent of energy produced in Tanzania comes from natural gas infrastructure. The Tanzanian government continues to expand its natural gas projects in an attempt to ensure reliable power to its citizens. For instance, in 2016, repair of three gas turbine plants and construction of a new gas plant at the Songo Songo gas fields near the country’s largest city, Dar Es Salaam, contributed to a 30 percent growth of natural gas production in country.

Overall, natural gas expansion is increasing electricity access to urban civilian populations within the country.


2. Hydroelectric Power

Approximately 34.2 percent of power generated in Tanzania is created using hydropower. Multiple hydroelectric dam expansion projects were approved in 2017 by Tanzanian president Jon Magufuli to help provide power to Tanzanian communities in serious need.

These infrastructure projects also have a history of creating joint energy production throughout the East African community. In 2013, the World Bank approved a $340 million dam project in the Lake Victoria region that boosted the electrical power grids of Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania.

While they do reduce greenhouse gas emissions, hydroelectric dams are at times extremely unreliable. During a drought year, major cities in Tanzania endure severe rolling blackouts, as the lack of water prevents the expected amount of electrical generation. For now, hydroelectric dams serve as a relatively effective way to provide Tanzanians’ power, while simultaneously capitalizing off of resources available in the country.


3. Solar Power

According to a Rural Energy Agency of Tanzania report in 2016, 65 percent of rural communities with access to electricity utilize some form of solar generation. One NGO in particular has been seriously successful in improving the solar energy infrastructure in Tanzania — Energy 4 Impact is a Sub-Saharan non-profit, that provides technological and financial solutions to improve solar infrastructure in rural parts of the country.

With the help of NGOs such as Energy 4 Impact, rural communities as well as some urban Tanzanians are becoming more energy independent over a shorter period of time, skipping the formal procedure of connecting to the nationalized power grids. This technological leapfrogging is not only connecting rural Tanzania to communities within the country, but also the rest of the world.


Electricity, Energy and Tanzania

Overall, electricity is vitally important to economic development and global access will continue to open up some of the last untapped markets on Earth. Energy infrastructure and access to reliable energy will benefit Tanzania greatly, as an estimated 28.2 percent of the country is “below basic poverty needs,” by the World Bank’s standard.

Given that status, researchers have determined that increased access to energy and technology will continue to bring economic growth and social hope to the continent. It is clear that Tanzania has infrastructural obstacles to overcome before it can reach its potential as the leader in East African development, but in spite of these obstacles, there are significant and interesting energy sector projects currently underway within the country.

– Danny Levy

Photo: Flickr

Infrastructure in the Solomon Islands
Although the infrastructure in the Solomon Islands has improved with financial support gained from minor tourism and the help of other countries invested in the islands, there is still much more that can be done.

The country lies on the Pacific’s “Ring of Fire.” Frequent volcanic and tectonic activity produce earthquakes and tsunamis plague the islands, and destructive events like these mean that the infrastructure in the Solomon Islands often requires maintenance and rebuilding.


Boat and Road Networks

Since the country is composed of many islands, the main transportation used in the Solomon Islands is by boat, but there is a small road network throughout much of the islands as well. Much of this road system is unpaved and often requires maintenance and rebuilding due to both heavy rainfall and natural disasters. Although the building and maintenance of this road system are controlled by the government, much of its funding comes from foreign support.

As of 2012, the road network on the Solomon Islands is moving towards a more weatherproof system. Funded by the country’s government as well as foreign aid from countries such as Australia and New Zealand, some roads have been paved and bridges made from material that can better withstand the rainy climate and extreme weather conditions. In addition, the rebuilding of road infrastructure also provides the people of the Solomon Islands with many jobs.


Structural Instability

Much of the structures on the Solomon Islands are minimal and basic. Homes and buildings are also threatened by the frequent natural disasters that hit the island.The towns where these homes and structures reside often lack any form of electricity. Only major towns such as the capital, Honiara, have access to power; even then, electricity is minimal and mainly provided by diesel generators.

Lack of electricity also means that the many of the people living in the Solomon Islands do not have access to what other countries would consider necessities i.e. communication via telephone and cellphone, and the ability to use the internet, watch television or even listen to a radio.


Electrical Need

Having one of the lowest access rates to electricity in the world, power has been something the Solomon Islands has been trying to implement in their communities for many years. Often, the only way the Solomon Islands are able to improve access considerably is with the aid of other countries.

Many improvements to the small power grids in the country have been made through foreign investment. A notable instance of this occurred in 2014 when the U.S.-based organization, the World Bank, financed $13 million for electricity improvement in Honiara. This money was given to the Solomon Islands Sustainable Energy Project (SISEP) to help improve the efficiency and reliability of the already existing power grid, as well as expand its reach.


Essential and Impactful Foreign Aid

With the support and investment of other countries, the infrastructure in the Solomon Islands is slowly improving and persevering against harsh natural conditions. Not only does financing infrastructure on the islands help its people by improving their living conditions, but it also provides them with jobs and more stable incomes.

As the infrastructure of the islands improves, it also allows the country to become more open to tourism. Receiving profit from tourism means that the island can continue to grow and aid both its people and many other investor countries.

– Keegan Struble

Photo: Flickr

Global warming has received a lot of attention of late as we see its detrimental and damaging effects around the world. Unfortunately, countries who often do not aid in the cause of global warming are often the ones hit the hardest by its effects. Tajikistan is no stranger to the problems this crisis is causing. With a population of 8.5 million in this heavily mountainous region, Tajikistan is extremely vulnerable to droughts, landslides, and floods.


Current State of Tajikistan

The year 2015 brought high temperatures that caused massive glacial flooding and mudflows, damaging critical infrastructure in Tajikistan and forced 10,000 people to evacuate. Tajikistan’s development progress is extremely threatened with the risk of more such disasters. The nation has cut their poverty rate in half since 1999, which is an amazing accomplishment; but with major disasters wreaking havoc across this country, the nation is vulnerable once again.

In order to protect the socioeconomic gains and continue the development effects of infrastructure in Tajikistan, the World Bank and USAID have stepped in, partnering with the Tajikistan government on necessary and vital projects.


Bridges and Transportation

Strengthening the project Critical Infrastructure Against Natural Hazards aims to strengthen the country’s capacity to prepare for, mitigate and respond to natural disasters while reconstructing and upgrading critical infrastructure in vulnerable regions of Tajikistan. Bridges in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO) will be improved to offer more resistance against flooding and mudslides.This will also allow more fluid traffic and secure access for emergency transportation.

Reconstruction of selected river embankments to improve river flow in the Khatlon region will increase household safety and prevent erosion. This project also seeks to develop a disaster risk financing strategy in order for Tajikistan to aid with post-disaster response, recovery and reconstruction.

According to the World Bank, this project is especially important “considering that, over the next 20 years, we will collectively build more infrastructure than over the last 2,000 years – locking in either risk or resilience for future generations.”


Irrigation and Clean Water

This considerable water damage has also affected Tajikistan’s clean drinking water. Almost 60 percent of the population lacks fresh water, and polluted irrigation water often substitutes for potable water in village households. In addition, waterborne diseases are increasingly high in many communities.

To help combat these issues, USAID works with the local government to deliver water services and works with farmers to better manage their irrigation water while educating families how to improve sanitation and hygiene behaviors. This effort has helped over 100,000 people in nine communities gain access to safe drinking water as infrastructure in Tajikistan continues to improve in aid.

Through strategic and climate-smart investments, and a more active and safe approach to emergency response and safe infrastructure, Tajikistan can better protect the lives of its citizens and continue to make strides in development as a nation.

– Kailey Brennan

Photo: Flickr

The Benefits of Digital Infrastructure in Georgia
The Republic of Georgia — located between Europe and the Middle East — is home to a population of over nine million citizens. The nation ranks 116th in GDP per capita with a poverty rate of about 30 percent.

Infrastructure in Georgia has slowly improved over the last few years, and according to research done by the World Bank, Georgia has also worked to facilitate trade and increase their value proposition as a transit country.


Electricity and Infrastructure Improvements

Electrical transmission lines cover up to 11,297 kilometers in Georgia already, and plans to expand capacity are underway. Georgia is also adding 1,700 Km of new lines by 2022 while simultaneously upgrading cross-border transmission capacity that could reach up to 5,000 MW by 2022.

Infrastructure in Georgia is becoming the central focus of the government’s plan to improve economic conditions in the country. In fact, the nation contains an abundance of untapped resources that explicitly appeal to the booming digital sector.


Financial Aid and Investments

The 1996 U.S financial backing of the local startup Sanet Network led to the first internet service provider of the modest nation, as well as the rise of four others. Since 2008, however, telecommunication infrastructure investment has plateaued while software piracy has also reached alarming levels that frighten away foreign investment in technology.

Lack of IT investment also holds back other industries like hospitality, energy, manufacturing and real estate. In the digital age, these industries rely on data centers, telecom hubs and energy distributors, who in turn rely heavily on infrastructure that can operate on scalable and flexible distribution models.


Georgia’s Location as Potential Hub

Although challenges exist, Georgia is geographically well-positioned and could, in theory, become a mega-hub for interconnectivity and a major power provider for its neighboring countries. Potential for growth definitely exists in the energy sector from hydro resources, wind, solar, geothermal and biomass sources. These untapped businesses could lead to ample financial gains for foreign investors who could then accurately implement energy, data center and telecom infrastructures.

Technology companies are now also interested more than ever in being closer to their end-users. Georgia’s multi-bordering capability can cede mass future cloud deployments. Cloud providers would have more flexibility and reliability, and also add the highly sought out redundancies to their cloud.


Mega-Moves in the Digital Infrastructure in Georgia

Deployment of Magti telecom infrastructure gave internet connectivity to 2,000 schools — a move that brought over 700,000 new users to the web. Cross partnerships between providers and government agencies (such as the Ministry of Education in Georgia) has improved academia in urban and rural areas, which also serves as an important advance in alleviating poverty.

BitFurry, a global bit-coin blockchain service provider, recently had success with data centers located in Gori; Georgia anticipated spending over 100 million dollars in infrastructure to deploy its next hub at a new technology park that was funded in part by Georgian Co-Investment fund.

But the new 100 Mega-Watt bitcoin mining data center is expected to develop on 185,000 square miles of land procured by the Georgian National Agency of State Property called the “Special Technology Zone,” aimed at attracting foreign research and development.


Infrastructure Betters the Nation

Poverty decreased for a fourth consecutive year in the country, although one-third of Georgia still lives under the poverty line; favorable business activity has been the driving force of that reduction.

With only 25 percent of its renewable energy resources exploited, Georgia could also see improvements through sales of excess energy. Georgia’s beautiful high-mountains and fast-flowing rivers are low-cost generation sources.

The digital frontier has opened possibilities for many around the world, and helping countries find ways to self-cure poverty is an excellent tool for sustainable poverty reduction.

Investment into infrastructure in Georgia can have significant positive effects for the sprawling country. Mutually beneficial business ideas can open doors for further innovation and propagate an inclusive digital world economy.

– Hector Cruz

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in BeninBenin’s road and bridge network was initially built in the 1990s with vast economic and sociopolitical expansion in mind. The government of Benin wanted to connect all rural and urban areas to enhance overall national development by connecting everything and everyone together with an expansive and intricate network of roads and bridges. Infrastructure in Benin was a key element to accomplishing this goal. It would provide all areas of the country with basic needs, including education, electricity, potable water and better communication.

Unfortunately, this goal of integrating the entire country through a quick and vast spurt in road and bridge networks led to the creation of inadequate structures that often make travel along them inefficient. It is easy to travel across the entire country within a matter of hours, but many of the roads were so poorly built in the first place that they have suffered from rapid deterioration, making travel along them nearly impossible.

Road maintenance is another impediment to safe and passable infrastructure in Benin, being practically nonexistent in most rural areas. Some roads are only passable during certain periods during the year, and even then, only by vehicles obtained at high operating costs. This creates imperative issues during periods of planting and transportation of supplies in rural areas.

Poor maintenance has created increased travel and vehicle costs, heightened accident rates and has promoted the further isolation of rural areas. This last issue is particularly threatening: with increased isolation in rural areas, the possibility of obtaining a decent education and health services decreases.

Approximately 93 percent of goods, including those brought in at ports, are sent along this faulty road and bridge network. Economic growth depends on this system, with raw goods, finished products and information all being transported. Infrastructure in Benin faces massive challenges to its proper and safe expansion. The roads and bridges are a pivotal aspect of maintaining and supporting the country’s continually growing population and economy.

Of the 4,660 miles of road in Benin, only 20 percent are paved, the remaining 80 percent being dirt or mere tracks that are mostly impassable. Creating a uniform road and bridge network within infrastructure in Benin is imperative and the country has allocated funds towards this goal. Of the $452 million spent per year on road rehabilitation and expansion, however, nearly $101 million is lost to inefficient management.

This mismanagement of funds is due to constant changes of chairmen in the local and national branches of government. Every time the chairmanship changes, so do the government’s priorities in infrastructure in Benin. Despite this mismanagement, Benin has rebuilt some roads and bridges, expanding them further into rural areas for greater integration.

– Kayla Rafkin

Photo: Flickr