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hunger in NigeriaYahabba Adam, 30, smiled in the Maiduguri city center in Nigeria. Her four children would eat that day. She searched the market, and the $47 (NGN 17,000) provided by the World Food Programme’s (WFP) cash assistance program filled her wallet and heart with hope. Adam is one of 5.1 million Nigerians who are food insecure and in need of assistance. Conflict in the Northeast has heightened food insecurity and hunger in Nigeria, with another 7.7 million people now in need of humanitarian assistance.

The Boko Haram Insurgency and Crisis in the Northeast

In northeastern Nigeria, Boko Haram insurgency attacks and other conflicts have displaced two million people. With assistance from Benin, Chad, Niger and Cameroon, the Nigerian military has expelled the group from several northeastern provinces. Boko Haram still holds control over villages and other small territories. It continues to launch deadly attacks, often against women and children.

These attacks have contributed to a decline in agricultural production through the destruction of productive equipment and the displacement of farmers. In 2017, two senior politicians in Nigeria’s Borno state, which is the epicenter of the insurgency, sent a message to Boko Haram. Kashim Shettima and Olusegun Obasanjo donated 36 metric tons of maize, cowpea and rice seed and hundreds of new tractors to farmers. The officials saw an opportunity for the region to move forward in agriculture despite the conflict.

The northeast region of the country has a history of chronic food insecurity. Unfortunately, it is now in what the Famine Early Warning System Network describes as the crisis or emergency stages of acute food insecurity. Almost three million people in the region are food insecure, according to the WFP.

In November 2019, Cadre Harmonisé, a regional group that aims to diminish hunger in Nigeria, released a monthly report. It estimated that 2.6 million people in the Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states were severely food insecure. Without continued humanitarian support, the report projected the number would rise to 3.6 million by mid-2020.

COVID-19 Impact

There have been 35,454 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria and 772 deaths, according to Johns Hopkins University. The pandemic is affecting every aspect of Nigeria’s economy.

“Countries like Nigeria are large food importers but are now being doubly hit – by COVID-19 and by plunging oil prices, the country’s main source of revenue, decimating the government’s budget and making food and other imports even more expensive,” said Julie Howard, a senior adviser on global food security at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). 

COVID-19 is threatening the already fragile state of hunger in Nigeria. Citizens across the country are going against pandemic regulations to sell small items or beg for food on the streets. In Lagos, Nigeria’s commercial capital, the federal government and humanitarian organizations distribute free food to people whose food supply has been cut off by pandemic safety measures. However, many risk stampedes to get the food and some leave empty-handed. 

“We were scrambling for food when my sister with a young baby on her back was pushed away, and she had to give up,” said Folashade Samuel, a resident of the Lagos slums. “The situation is very, very tough. It is very dangerous to scramble for food because you can fall and get trampled on.”

Additionally, lockdowns and border closures within the nation pose a danger to the agricultural sector, which forms the base of the Nigerian economy. For most Nigerians, agriculture serves as the primary source of livelihood, with the sector employing 36.5% of the entire labor force. More than 30 million naira (about $77,500) had been lost as of May 2020 in the yam markets alone because of the pandemic lockdowns.

In order to combat the pandemic’s adverse effects on agriculture, the Nigerian government created a task force. This task force is creating ID cards to allow agricultural workers to move freely. The agriculture ministry and central bank are working to provide support through locally produced fertilizers and financial expansion for farmers.

What is Being Done?

This June, the Nigerian government launched a seed support initiative in partnership with a group of agricultural research institutes and programs. The initiative worked to deliver improved seeds to farmers in 13 states in order to lessen the harmful impact of the pandemic on hunger in Nigeria.

In Adam’s home city, Maiduguri, the United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) received presidential clearance to continue emergency operations, which include delivering food. The WFP manages the UNHAS. While its operations are limited, this humanitarian aid provides support similar to the $47 Adam carried that day in the market.

Along with managing UNHAS, the WFP distributed food and cash assistance to 1.2 million Nigerians in 2017 and 2018. During the pandemic, the WFP has continued its outreach and efforts to curb hunger in Nigeria, assisting 632,500 people with food and nutritional needs. Because schools often provide a much-needed source of food for children, the WFP is also supporting the government in adjusting the national home-grown school feeding programme to reach nine million children while schools are closed.

Many people in Nigeria face hunger and are in need of help. The Boko Haram Insurgency and the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated the problem of food insecurity in the country. As a result, the government and outside organizations are stepping in to help those in need and work to decrease hunger in Nigeria. 

– Olivia du Bois
Photo: Flickr

COVID-19 global food crisis
On June 9
, United Nations Secretary General António Guterres released a new U.N. policy brief regarding global access to proper nutrition and a potential COVID-19 global food emergency. The brief explained that if countries do not act now, a global food emergency will be inevitable. Millions of people were dealing with hunger and malnutrition before the pandemic, but current statistics show that hunger is more rampant than ever due to the pandemic’s effects.

According to the U.N., there is enough food to feed the global population of 7.8 billion people, but 820 million people remain hungry. Of these people, 144 million children are stunted due to malnutrition – more than one in five children worldwide. A “stunted” child has physical and cognitive growth failure that develops over a long period of time due to limited access to food and health care. Similarly, there are currently 47 million children classified as “wasting.” Wasting children have a dangerously low weight-to-height ratio due to acute food shortages or disease. The growth of 700,000 children will be stunted for every percentage point drop in the global GDP, making the pandemic’s economic impact even greater.

As of May, 368 million schoolchildren were missing out on daily school meals that they depended on for food. While these numbers are already high, they are predicted to continue to rise if countries do not act now to avoid a global food emergency. The U.N. policy brief posed three recommendations to save lives and create sustainable food production.

Essential Food Services

Measures to control COVID-19 outbreaks are affecting global food supply chains. Border restrictions and slowing harvests in some parts of the world are leaving millions of seasonal workers without jobs. Also, these factors constrain the transport of food to markets.

Governments are forcing the closure of many meat and dairy processing plants and food markets due to virus outbreaks among workers. Farmers have been buying perishable produce or dumping milk as a result of supply chain disruption and falling consumer demand. Because many people cannot buy fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat and fish, they are suffering from malnutrition.

To combat these challenges, countries should require that food and nutritional services, and the processing and transport of their goods, are considered essential and remain open during the pandemic. Additionally, governments should provide protections for people working in this sector.

Meal Protections

The policy brief stated that countries should strengthen social protection systems for nutrition, including the millions of children missing out on meals at school. There needs to be a focus on vulnerable groups like children, pregnant or breastfeeding women and the elderly so they can access safe and nutritional foods.

Food Systems

Food systems are a major contributor to climate change. In general, countries need to transform food systems to achieve a more sustainable world. Food systems contribute to 29% of all greenhouse gas emissions, including 44% of all methane emissions. Not only are these realities damaging on their own, but they are exacerbated by additional challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries should be aware of their environmental impact and reconsider how they produce, market, process and consume food and how they dispose of wastePer the U.N. policy brief, countries are strongly urged to consider the recommendations to avoid a COVID-19 global food emergency.

What Is Being Done, and How You Can Help

Across the world, food systems must be protected not only for consumers but also for humanitarian efforts. The United Nations World Food Program (WFP) is dedicated to helping millions of people around the world. Thirty million men, women and children depend on WFP for daily survival as it is their only source of food. WFP is responding by increasing food production, supporting the global response and monitoring data. Data is essential to creating the right solutions at the right time. Donations are always needed and now more than ever to provide millions with the necessary food.

As WFP states “Hunger won’t stop because of a virus, so neither will we.”

 – Anna Brewer
Photo: Flickr