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Bolivia is a mountainous landlocked country in the heart of South America. With 36 languages and 51 indigenous groups, it is a mosaic of the diversity in the Andes. Since establishing independence in 1825, the country has experienced serious political turmoil, with the total number of revolutions and coups around 190. With so much chaotic political history, the incredible story of refugees in Bolivia is often forgotten. Here are 10 facts about refugees in Bolivia.

10 Facts About Refugees in Bolivia

  1. As the Holocaust intensified, so did measures across the world to prohibit Jewish refugees from immigrating into safer countries. In the famous case of transatlantic liner St. Louis where nearly 1,000 German Jews aboard were denied entry to Cuba, then the United States and finally Canada showed the shameful policy of turning people back to the countries they were fleeing to face certain death. While most countries were closing their borders, Bolivia opened its immigration policies, welcoming 30,000 Jewish refugees from 1938 to 1941.
  2. Bolivian consulates in capitals across Europe provided visas. The refugees then flew to Chile where they boarded a train to La Paz. Due to the large amount of Jewish refugees on this train route, it became known as El Expres Judio (the Jewish Express).
  3. Tin mining tycoon Mauricio Hochschild has been referred to as the “Bolivian Schindler” because he orchestrated the escape of between 3,000 and 9,000 Jews. He then put the men to work running the mines and created charities such as daycares for the children. This incredible effort was even larger than Oskar Schindler’s plan, which saved around 1,000 Jews.
  4. Uruguayan rock star Jorge Drexler is the grandson of German refugees escaping Nazi persecution, who were welcomed to Bolivia under the open door policy. He recently composed a song called “Bolivia” to commemorate this event.
  5. Bolivian President Evo Morales recently held the World Without Walls Conference on World Refugee Day, where he used very radical language for a head of state, saying that we should work towards “universal citizenship” and that is impossible for a person to be “illegal.”
  6. Bolivia is currently facing a crisis of climate refugees. When Lake Poopo dried up, it was the death of a cultural resource so important that locals referred to it as “mother” and “father.” It has led to nearly a thousand refugees coming down the mountain and forming shanty towns outside of La Paz. It is one of the most catastrophic events for refugees in Bolivia.
  7. Bolivia has also produced political refugees such as former consul general in Washington, D.C., Carlos Hugo Jiminez. He fled to Canada after becoming the target of death threats due to his political affiliation. As of 2016, he had been waiting for four years to receive his asylum status.
  8. The Bolivian government is a vocal advocate for statehood for refugees across the world. It is one of the countries to formally recognize Palestine as independent and is a vocal advocate for a Polisario-based state in the Western Sahara.
  9. Lack of economic opportunity and changing climate conditions are creating large flows of migrants from Bolivia across the Argentine border. The Argentine government has responded by calling for a special border police force and some right-wing lawmakers calling for a wall.
  10. Water access and extreme poverty are driving factors for immigration and refugees in Bolivia today. The glaciers of the Andes are melting at an extreme rate and, by most estimates, all of them will be gone by the end of the century. Thirty percent of the 2.3 million people from El Alto and La Paz depend on these glaciers for water.

Water protests have shut down entire cities in Bolivia, especially in the Cochabamba Water Wars of 2000. The melting of glaciers, drought and changing climate conditions could be a huge source of instability, refugees and immigration in the future. Bolivian President Morales shows commitment to the environment going as far as to legislate granting rights to the land and Earth itself. Regional and international partners will be necessary to tackle the climate challenges that will otherwise be left unaddressed and create more refugees in the future.

Jared Gilbert

Photo: Flickr


Since the election of Evo Morales in 2005, Bolivia has pledged to strive for social and economic reform. Despite aiming for a more inclusive society, poverty is still widespread and certain groups remain marginalized, including Bolivians with disabilities. Many continue to live in extreme poverty with little access to resources.

In the spring of 2016, a group Bolivians with disabilities marched more than 400 kilometers from Cochabamba to La Paz, protesting their lack of basic rights. The government previously stated that benefits would be awarded to those with extreme disabilities. To qualify, individuals need to receive special identification. The ID card can only be awarded following neurological exams that cost approximately 500 bolivianos ($70).

This cost is high for many in Bolivia with disabilities, as they often live in poverty and are unable to work due to their impairments. The purpose of the recent protests was to persuade the government to provide a monthly allowance of 500 bolivianos to those with severe disabilities, which would allow them to pay for physical therapy, healthcare and housing.

In February 2017, Morales submitted a proposal to Congress requesting that a monthly allowance of 250 bolivianos be provided to Bolivians with severe and serious disabilities. The Federation of Municipal Associations of Bolivia (FAM) also announced their support of the Morales’s bill. Mayors are responsible for making payments in each municipality. More than half of Bolivians with disabilities live in the large cities of La Paz, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz, and these municipalities state that they have the financial resources necessary to provide qualifying individuals with benefits.

The current proposal only provides half of the monetary amount protesters asked for, and its success remains to be determined. Benefits will not be distributed until 2018. However, Bolivians with disabilities are also gaining rights through accesses to other resources. Handicap International and the Bolivian Ministry of Health are working together to build rehabilitation centers in various municipalities that provide necessary therapies. There currently is a network of 30 centers in Bolivia.

Additionally, these protests and attention have not only led to the provision of monetary benefits, but have also raised awareness of the struggles of Bolivians with disabilities, particularly the high proportion of them that live in extreme poverty. Moving forward, increased awareness and respect will be crucial in ensuring that those with disabilities receive necessary services that will allow them to be more engaged members of the community and avoid living in extreme poverty.

Nicole Toomey

Photo: Flickr


Bolivia is the poorest nation in South America, and has a population of more than 10 million people. Nations that struggle with poverty often struggle to fight disease as well. Some of the top diseases in Bolivia are spread by insects, cannot be prevented by vaccination and are frequently life-threatening.

Vector-borne diseases (diseases spread by insect bite) such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever and Chagas disease are common in Bolivia. Travelers to the country are warned about malaria and dengue fever. Malaria is spread by mosquitoes and can be life-threatening. There isn’t a vaccination against it, making it even more dangerous. Dengue fever is a viral disease that is also spread by mosquito bite. While not as serious as malaria, dengue fever also has no vaccination.

Only found in certain areas, yellow fever is also a huge concern in Bolivia. Every traveler to the country has to show certified proof of vaccination against the disease upon entrance. Yellow fever is another disease spread by mosquito bite, and it usually lasts between three and six days. For 60 percent of those who fall ill with yellow fever, the disease will be fatal. There is no treatment.

Chagas disease, which exists mainly in Latin America, is life-threatening and said to kill even more people than malaria does. Bolivia is home to the fourth largest number of people living with Chagas disease, with an estimated more than 607,000 people infected in 2015. It is the number one country when it comes to the prevalence of the disease, with the most infections per inhabitants.

Because of the prevalence of these diseases in Bolivia, attempts to help prevent HIV/AIDS sometimes come as an afterthought. In 2015 an estimated 18,000 adults in Bolivia were living with HIV/AIDS. Poorer nations such as Bolivia need assistance in order to combat the diseases that affect people’s livelihoods.

Shannon Elder

Photo: Flickr

Popularity of Quinoa

Prior to quinoa’s surge in popularity, few Americans had heard of this South American grain. U.S. imports alone quadrupled between 2006 and 2010 as quinoa’s virtues of versatility and high protein content spread.

Negative Speculations

Unbeknownst to the public, quinoa production had a direct impact on the levels of poverty in Peru. So, soon after quinoa “took off,” a slew of inflammatory articles in 2013 reprimanded quinoa consumers for raising the demand and price of the nutritious food, which restricted access for poor Andean people.

Poverty in Peru and Bolivia affects over 50 percent of people in the Andean region. Many suffer from lack of education, food insecurity, poor health care and a life expectancy 20 years lower than people in Lima.

Due to conditions in this region, “foreign quinoa consumption is keeping locals from a staple grain” is a serious accusation. However, the popularity of this protein-rich food has provided many economic benefits for the area. A NPR study showed how living conditions drastically improved for people in the Andes during the boom in quinoa sales.

In 2013, the Guardian published an inflammatory article called, “Can Vegans Stomach the Unpalatable Truth About Quinoa?” claiming that fame has driven the prices so high that locals can no longer afford it. The argument seemed sound as poverty in Peru is a major issue. It seemed though, that the Guardian brought up a touchy subject–droves of articles then began cropping up both defending and debunking this argument.

Positive Effects

The good news is that quinoa prices are still within reach for Peruvians. A recent article from NPR explains two different studies focusing on the super grain: one found that the people in quinoa-growing regions, farmer or otherwise, experienced an economic flourishing that favored farmers and generally overcame any additional quinoa costs; the second study focused on quinoa consumption in the Puno region where 80 percent of Peruvian quinoa is grown.

The author of the second study, a Berkeley graduate student, discovered that people in the Puno region consumed a similar amount of the grain without cutting any valuable nutrients from their diets.

While quinoa is culturally important, it is not a staple crop like rice or maize. On average, only between 0.5 and 4 percent of an average Peruvian family’s budget is spent on quinoa–thus the extra cost is not debilitating. In fact, quite the opposite of debilitation occurred: domestic quinoa consumption tripled in 2013.

While the positive economic effects continue to boost the region, there are reasonable concerns about the sustainability or longevity of quinoa production. Demand has caused farmers to decrease the amount of quinoa varieties grown, as well as reduce llama farming which used to provide fertilizer.

Degradation of soil and biodiversity are also risks of extensive quinoa production. Unfortunately, quinoa’s popularity also attracts competitors, and as other countries began to grow the super grain and supply increases, Peruvian demand falls. Prices are sinking, which is great for frugal, health conscious shoppers but very concerning for Bolivian quinoa farmers.

Sustaining Success

While unclear how long benefits will last, quinoa’s popularity proves extremely beneficial towards alleviating rural poverty in Peru and Bolivia. In order to extend the grain’s benefits, some organizations are trying to encourage the sale of more varieties of quinoa to conserve biodiversity and renew interest in South American grown grains.

On the positive side, quinoa has provided some temporary relief for those facing poverty in Peru.

Jeanette I. Burke

Photo: Pixabay

poverty in bolivia
According to UNICEF, poverty in Bolivia is among the worst in South America. Economic growth and opportunities to make a living are most commonly found in urban areas because the more citizens in a setting, the more consumers there are. This makes it difficult however for indigenous farmers, inhabitants of more remote areas with fewer people, to market their products and provide for their families.

For the vast majority of citizens in Bolivia, this proves to be a major issue: 60% of Bolivians live below the poverty line. In rural areas, the numbers are even more dramatic. Three out of every four people living in these areas suffer from poverty. Because of this, Bolivia the poorest country in South America.

One reason for the extreme poverty lies in the geography of Bolivia. Undeveloped roads and infrastructure make up a vast portion of the country, with a majority of the land inhabited by indigenous citizens. This makes it difficult for farmers living in these areas to market their products and travel to sell them, which in turn impacts their families and the communities they live in.

For the farmers of Bolivia, the recent visit by the World Bank’s President to the country represented a unique opportunity. The fact that Jim Yong Kim recognized the need for economic growth and food security was important to the rural citizens of the poorest South American country. A World Bank agreement with the Government of Bolivia plans to promote the Andean marketable products that the indigenous people have to offer. This will get the people of Bolivia involved in national markets, boosting job growth and the economy.

Bolivians are finally being given opportunities to make a living through improved  economic stability and job growth.

– William Norris

Sources: Rural Poverty Portal, The World Bank
Photo: Bioversity International

bolvia poverty
There’s an estimated 10,500,000 people living in Bolivia. Fifty-three percent of them live in poverty. Bolivia has a lower gross national than its other South American counterparts due to issues with sustainability. Located in Cochabamba, Bolivia, Sustainable Bolivia works with 36 local organizations to improve environmental and economic sustainability.

Its primary goal is to secure human and financial capital for organizations in Bolivia to thrive and give back to the surrounding community.

Sustainable Bolivia also allows students and professionals to volunteer, intern and learn Spanish or Quechua, a commonly spoken indigenous language in the Americas. All proceeds earned from Sustainable Bolivia’s language schools go toward projects benefiting the community.

Sustainable Bolivia’s extensive volunteer and internship program allows people from around the world to travel to Bolivia and participate in community enhancement projects. Its mini-grant program provides funding to volunteers and interns — usually an average of $75 per month — to fund projects or purchase necessities for their chosen organizations.

Another major program started by Sustainable Bolivia is its scholarship program. Qualified Bolivians, who would otherwise not be able to earn an education, may receive the necessary funds to attend university based on financial need and academic achievements.

Some of the local organizations Sustainable Bolivia works with comprise of Alerta Verde, which works to increase environmental conservation, Bolivia Digna, an education-based organization using education to help children and youths in underserved communities and Mano a Mano, which builds schools and health clinics in marginalized communities.

In addition to these projects and partnerships, Sustainable Bolivia also features multiple residency programs, a film project and an organic garden. The aims of the residency programs are to improve the local art scene by celebrating culture in Bolivia and to provide dedicated artists with a studio to work in.

The film project documents the efforts created by Sustainable Bolivia and its partner organizations to promote fundraising and raise awareness for pressing issues in Cochabamba. Lastly, the organic garden serves the purpose of promoting environmental sustainability and cultivating and consuming food in a healthier way.

Sustainable Bolivia has improved the lives of many since its inception. In testimonials from Sustainable Bolivia volunteers and interns and Bolivians directly impacted by the project, Sustainable Bolivia has been described as a “wonderful volunteer community” and a “great resource” for the local Bolivian community of Cochabamba.

Julia Hettiger

Sources: Sustainable Bolivia, Idealist,, Matador Network
Photo: World Vision

rural_bolivia
Six out of every 10 people in rural Bolivia live below the poverty line. In 2011, the World Bank Group launched its Community Investment in Rural Areas (PICAR) initiative in Bolivia, seeking to broaden impoverished rural access “to basic and productive infrastructure.”

Thus far, the project has maintained an effective track record, financing 612 sub-projects as of April 2015, including water and sanitation, irrigation, infrastructure and livestock protection initiatives. These sub-projects have a 75 percent completion rate, impacting 132,219 rural Bolivian inhabitants. The World Bank estimates that the project will surpass all target numbers, impacting more than 35,000 rural households in the country’s poorest communities.

After a successful start, the World Bank Group has extended an additional $60 million credit on top of the original $40 million loan for PICAR’s implementation. The funding increase is anticipated to facilitate the implementation of poverty reduction and rural development initiatives in 750 new communities, also providing 120 communities with a second round of grants.

By increasing funding, the World Bank Group expects PICAR to positively impact an additional 200,000 rural, primarily indigenous Bolivians, bringing PICAR’s number of beneficiaries to an estimated 350,000.

Along with indigenous groups, rural women are most strongly affected by poverty. Impoverished people face greater levels of food insecurity, limited access to basic services and depressed economic opportunities.

PICAR has been designed to take into account the importance of providing economic opportunities and necessary services to rural women, with 40 percent of sub-projects prioritized and implemented under female directive. The World Bank also reports that at the community level, PICAR has helped to develop 660 female leaders.

“We expect that at least 45 percent of PICAR beneficiaries will be women,” World Bank Resident Representative in Bolivia Nicola Pontara said, “with at least 20 percent being female heads of household, the most vulnerable group among the poor.”

Handing over the reins of agency to those most impacted by poverty is a common theme. PICAR functions by providing communities with financial resources to meet the issues the community members identify with solutions they define based on small projects, completed with local labor and materials.

Through direct transfers of resources to the communities in which the funds will be invested, PICAR seeks to give Bolivia’s most impoverished regions the capital and support to not only participate in, but actually manage their own advancement.

Alberto Rodriguez, World Bank Country Director for Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, spoke on this aspect of empowerment: “[Bolivia’s most vulnerable communities] are able to search for collective solutions to their basic and productive needs, lead projects and manage their own resources, enabling them to control their own development.”

Although Bolivia still faces significant challenges — 30 percent of the population lives in poverty — the country has taken strides toward economic growth. With assistance and initiatives like PICAR, substantial poverty reduction promises to continue.

Emma-Claire LaSaine

Sources: World Bank, UNICEF
Photo: World Bank

Bolivian-Healthcare

Although the Bolivian government’s new and improved universal healthcare plan has made a considerable dent in child and maternal mortality numbers, the plan still seems to be more suited for improving statistics than the lives of rural Bolivian women.

With one of highest rates of maternal and child mortality in the Latin America, second only to Haiti, Bolivia remains one of the worst places in the world to give birth, especially in rural areas. Mortality rates have historically totaled to 390 mortalities for every 100,000 live births in central cities (like the capital, La Paz), and reach as high as 887 per 100,00 live births in rural areas, according to UNICEF.

Beginning in 1994, Bolivian government officials centered in La Paz developed a series of free healthcare plans—or, more aptly, three free service packages—intended to keep mothers and children alive past the ordeal of childbirth. The most recent addition to these packages is the “Universal Maternal and Child Heath Insurance plan (SUMI).”

Upon its creation, SUMI was lauded as the symbol of iconic change of fate for Bolivian mothers. Targeted at pregnant women and children under the age of five, the program boasted that it would cover 500 common ailments. Additionally, SUMI was the first Bolivian public health program that did not come from a presidential decree, meaning that it would have longevity through congress even as presidential power shifted.

“The system was created to fight child mortality, to fight that economic barrier that prevented the mother from having proper attention from the start,” said Dr. Dante Ergueta, who works with SUMI at the Bolivian Health Ministry, in an interview with the U.K. Guardian. “It is an icon for Bolivia and I might even say for Latin America.”

Initially, SUMI managed to cut the alarming child mortality statistics. After its introduction, Bolivia saw reduction in infant mortality between 37.7% in urban areas. Even in rural areas, the program saw a 29.9% drop in infant mortality, which, although still less than the drop in metropolitan areas, represented a significant change.

However, the effects of SUMI have been blunted, if not entirely counteracted, since this initial drop.

The seeds for this decline can be found written into SUMI itself. According to a study done by Focal, SUMI’s plan to attack statistics was limited to quick fixes. Every service that SUMI provided was a double-edged sword, all of which left the deep roots of maternal health barriers in Bolivia untouched.

Where SUMI expanded the number of ailments covered by insurance, it also drastically tightened the program’s membership requirements, restricting it to women who had given birth within the past six months and children under the age of five. Previously, Bolivian health insurance had covered all women of childbearing age as well as the general population for endemic disease. SUMI cut the general public endemic disease coverage entirely, along with several family planning services for non-pregnant women.

Focal reports that “health indicators worsened after its [SUMI’s] implementation, particularly in rural areas. Inequity in health outcomes also grew because the services of high complexity that the SUMI plan made available in urban areas never reached the segment of the population [rural, indigenous communities] that needed them most.”

This “icon for Bolivia” is perhaps one of the most stark examples of one of the most common failures in public health: the rush to address startling statistics, instead of attacking underlying socioeconomic, or even cultural, gender-based problems.

According to UNICEF, Bolivian women exist in a culturally persistent subordinate role to men. Their rates of illiteracy are significantly higher, ranging as high as 37.91%, compared to 14.42% of men. This gap also drastically decreases the number of women who are capable of participating in the workforce, giving women less access to employment-based private healthcare options.

These socioeconomic and cultural forces show that the answer to improving Bolivian maternal health is more complicated than implementing a system of health-services handouts. It is not about the number of services the state can provide; it is about changing the situations of people receiving those services.

Emma Betuel

Sources: Unicef, The Guardian, ITG, WHO, Focal
Photo: Projects Abroad

Bolivian-Coca
Coca leaves have been consumed by natives in Bolivia for centuries. The native Bolivian population used coca to treat many medical conditions such as fatigue and altitude sickness as well as hunger and thirst. In many other countries, however, coca consumption is frowned upon and the substance is considered a narcotic.

When Pope Francis recently visited South America in early July, he drank a brew of chamomile, anise and coca leaves — an ancient South American elixir that wards off altitude sickness. This led to some stir on the internet regarding his consumption of coca.

Bolivia is considered a lower-middle-income country, where the gross national income in 2014 was USD $2,830 per person, according to the World Bank. Coca production in Bolivia contributes greatly to the economy and is a means of livelihood for many farmers. It is the second largest producer of coca leaves behind Peru.

During the 1980s, coca production and trade amounted to USD $1 billion in annual exports, according to an analysis by the United States Library of Congress. That number is much higher today: in 2014, Bolivia’s GDP was $34.18 billion, according to the World Bank.

There is, however, a dark side to coca leaves. It is the main ingredient used to process cocaine. Bolivia supplied over 15 percent of the cocaine that reached the streets of the United States in the 1980s, making it a strong target of international criticism from Congress.

At the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, coca was outlawed and Bolivia’s use of coca was greatly limited and restricted. The treaty commanded Bolivia and other Andean nations to ban the consumption of coca leaves amongst their citizens.

In its natural state, the coca leaf is not scientifically harmful, and consuming it is a benign practice that is central to the cultural practice of millions of indigenous South American people. The treaty, however, declares that the exportation of coca is restricted; most countries outside of South America consider the trade and exportation of coca illegal, even in its natural state.

Bolivian prime minister Evo Morales held up a coca leaf at a U.N. narcotics assembly in 2012, defending the practice of chewing coca and urging the council to reconsider its stance on the leaf. He told the council, “Producers of coca leaf are not drug dealers; consumers of coca leaf are not drug addicts.”

But the outlawing of coca over 50 years ago has led to many continuous problems in Bolivia, including the illegal smuggling of coca paste throughout South America in order to process cocaine. The cocaine trail is a lucrative business that entices poor farmers to sell a portion of their crops to support their families.

Drug cartels hold citizens hostage, run prostitution rings and force violence wherever they are operating. In order to profit through the black market, it is in their best interest to see that nations do not work together to solve problems such as legal coca trade.

In 2011, the Obama administration rejected Bolivia’s proposed amendment to change the treaty and allow citizens to chew coca. A change in policy and cooperation between the United States and Bolivia would not only increase popularity among the nation’s people but would also strengthen drug prevention efforts throughout the region.

The move would allow farmers to legally sell their goods, encouraging them to not trade their crops to drug traffickers. The sales would boost the economy of Bolivia and other South American countries, allowing more resources to be allocated to fighting the real violent criminals.

In turn, the United States would also get more cooperation from the Bolivian government, gain trust and better strategically combat cartels. Not all of the problems with drugs can be solved with a single policy, but together, by working to carefully reform international coca laws, the United States can help reduce poverty and illegal drug operations that are plaguing North and South America.

Adnan Khalid

Sources: About Coca Leaf, CNN, Library of Congress, The Guardian, UNTC, Washington Office on Latin America, World Bank
Photo: Indian Country Today Media Network

Energetica Supplies Energy Systems to Communities in Bolivia
According to a survey conducted by Energetica, a nonprofit organization located in Cochabamba, many citizens in Bolivia believe that the more energy they have, the better. Energetica is working to fight this misconception. Their mission is to provide equal energy to Bolivians and seek proactive ways to encourage a greater and more rational use of energy. To promote this, Energetica diversifies energy supply sources, provides efficient development for energy sources and utilizes renewable energy to contribute to environmental conservation.

Their vision is to improve the quality of life of disadvantaged Bolivians, increase productivity and preserve the environment. Some of their methods consist of training individuals for management and human resources roles, finding solutions through technology and innovation, and increasing access to energy for impoverished citizens.

Energetica was started on February 18, 1993 by now-Executive Director Miguel Fuentes Fernandez. The team is made up of a set of advisers, technicians and project managers who come together to create and implement projects throughout Bolivia.

They divide their work methods into four different programs. The first program focuses on developing access to energy to extend the coverage of energy services in rural and urban areas so that it can be used domestically and for community and productivity uses. They do so by looking at three different things: how energy is used in a household, how it is used in the community and how it can be utilized to create more energy.

They use municipal projects to gauge the average household’s energy consumption and then apply this information to help families obtain the access to the energy that they need to improve the quality of lighting, communication and cooking.

Project managers create projects to strengthen social infrastructure in order to improve health and education in rural areas. Lastly, to increase energy, Energetica promotes dedicating different energy sources—such as natural gases, biomass and solar energy—to productivity, harnessing it to optimize internal management mechanisms.

The second program focuses on sharing knowledge. To complete this project, they educate the residents of Bolivia through seminars, workshops and training sessions to teach them how to efficiently use and conserve energy. This ties into the third program, which involves meeting with citizens to become better informed about their demands. With this knowledge, they are able to help provide more energy and education where it is needed.

The fourth and final program involves strengthening institutions and companies. This program focuses on meeting with companies to train employers on energy-saving tactics, teaching them about the importance of sharing energy and evaluating their energy use. This helps keep companies and big organizations from overusing energy.

Right now, Energetica has projects happening all over Bolivia. In the last 15 years, they have successfully installed over 31,000 renewable energy components throughout the country. In addition, they have trained 70,000 citizens of Bolivia in energy conservation and knowledge sharing. The project will be continued until Bolivia is supplied with optimal energy.

Julia Hettiger

Sources: Energetica, Matador Network, Market Watch
Photo: Energetica