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Infant Mortality in Côte d'Ivoire
When examining the whole of Africa, infant mortality is a matter of grave concern. The West African country of Côte d’Ivoire currently struggles in comparison with other countries in the same category. The World Bank recorded an infant mortality rate of 59.40 per 1,000 live births there in 2018. These deaths stem from several causes, with the primary issue being the lack of available infant care in the country. However, in recent years, these numbers have improved dramatically; the rate of infant mortality in Côte d’Ivoire is almost half of the 100.7 deaths recorded per 1,000 live births in 1998, according to the same source.

The Scope of the Problem

Despite the lower mortality rate, fundamental problems persist. A report by the Healthy Newborn Network (HNN) that used sources compiled from the WHO and the MCEE determined that skilled professionals attend only 74% of the country’s live births. Moreover, approximately 12% of children are pre-term (i.e. before 37 weeks of pregnancy). These issues are at the foundations of the nation’s present-day mortality numbers, which remain elevated.

Progress

Yet over the years, a variety of factors have contributed to the dramatic lowering of infant mortality in Côte d’Ivoire. One of the most important of these factors is the increased educational opportunities for medical professionals within the country. Côte d’Ivoire has a strict curriculum set for all aspiring midwives. A comprehensive U.N. report noted that the country’s standardized program requires graduation through the 12th grade and an additional three years of study, as well as other professional experiences in order to graduate.

A Look at the Numbers

Necessity accentuates the importance of these programs as events related to conception and preterm birth complications account for 58% of infant deaths. These include a lack of professional attention or postpartum care, both of which are very important to the large proportion of babies born preterm. The HNN report also points out other issues causing infant mortality, noting that either Tetanus or Sepsis causes an additional 21% of deaths. A notable similarity between these two issues is that many instances of them are avoidable. For example, tetanus issues typically stem from a lack of care regarding sanitation and the severing of the umbilical cord — which more professional, trained practice in various regions of the country would prevent.

Urban vs. Rural Births Pose a Problem

Côte d’Ivoire’s improvements, however, do not have even distribution throughout the country. According to previously mentioned U.N. statistics, while over 82% of urban births had a skilled birth attendant present, less than 50% of births in rural areas had the same professionals available. This problem extends further when considering that 2020 projections estimated that rural areas would account for nearly twice as many pregnancies as urban environments. While the report recorded over 6,000 trained physicians and midwives practicing within the country — few of these professionals practice in rural areas, where communities lack the resources to provide safe child-birthing to their populations.

Improvements Needed for Sustainable Population Growth

Although the country certainly has improved conditions for delivery in recent years, the fight against a rising infant mortality rate must persist. With sources like the World Population Review predicting the country’s population to double by 2050, the progressive improvement of infant care is essential for Côte d’Ivoire to continue its positive trend against high infant mortality.

Joe Clark
Photo: Flickr