Ethiopia, a country located in the Horn of Africa, is the continent’s second-most populous country. The government has made impressive strides toward eradicating poverty and improving Ethiopia’s life expectancy. Here are 10 facts about life expectancy in Ethiopia.
10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Ethiopia
- Ethiopia has a high life expectancy rate in comparison to similar countries. The average Ethiopian resident can expect to live 66.34 years while the average resident of the nearby Central African Republic can expect to live to about 53. In the United States, the average life expectancy is 79.
- Life expectancy rates took a hit in the 80s. During Ethiopia’s most recent famine, the average life expectancy began to decrease in 1979 and continued to drop until 1983, reducing 1.69 percent in total from 44.26 years to 43.52 years. The United Nations estimates that this famine was the cause of approximately 1 million deaths.
- The life expectancy in Ethiopia has overall been on an upward trend. Its current average life expectancy has more than doubled since 1950 when it stood at 32.53 years.
- In recent years, the average lifespan for Ethiopians exceeded the projected life expectancy. In 2017, projections determined the life expectancy for women to be 61.3 years but observed to be 70.4, while projections stated that male life expectancy was 58.2 and observed to be 66.7. One could attribute this to the fast-paced growth of Ethiopia’s life expectancy.
- Malnutrition rates are dropping. The number of Ethiopian citizens suffering from severe malnutrition dropped 32 percent from 2000 to 2010, and those dwindling numbers have aided in the improvement of the life expectancy in Ethiopia. UNICEF has had a significant hand in this reduction by providing health posts and training workers to aid in hygiene, sanitation and nutrition.
- Communicable and noncommunicable illnesses are still a big problem in Ethiopia. The leading cause of deaths in Ethiopia is neonatal disorders. More than 60 percent of infant deaths are due to neonatal disorders as well as 40 percent of deaths among children under 5 years old.
- Infant mortality rates are decreasing. While neonatal disorders are the leading cause of death in Ethiopia, those numbers are improving. In 1990, the observed mortality rate for children under 5-years-old was 197.7 per 1,000 live births. As of 2017, that number had dropped to 56.1 deaths per 1,000 live births. This change is no doubt due to the government’s efforts to offer easier access to health clinics to expecting mothers.
- The government is working to improve health care. It has been taking steps to align its health care system with the Millennium Development Goals, and this has aided in improving the overall health of Ethiopian residents. UNICEF has led to a surge in the number of health posts from just a handful in 2004 to 9,000 in 2011.
- Unemployment rates have decreased. Since 1999, unemployment rates in Ethiopia have been on a downward trend, dropping from 26.4 percent in 1999 to 19.1 percent in 2018. The number even hit a record low of 16.8 percent in 2015. The overall improvement of employment rates in Ethiopia, giving the poor the opportunity to provide for themselves, has also helped improve life expectancy.
- The fight against poverty in Ethiopia is making impressive progress. When one compares Ethiopia to other African countries, it has made the most progress against poverty second only to Uganda between 2000 and 2011. While Ethiopia’s poverty rate stood at 44 percent in 2000 and dropped to 30 percent in 2011, Uganda’s poverty rate went from 38.8 percent in 2002 to 19.7 percent in 2012.
There is still much that people need to do in Ethiopia. Roughly a third of the population is without clean water and nearly a quarter of Ethiopians have no access to toilets. It has been a long journey recovering from the drought and consequent famine of the 80s, but the government is taking steps to better the daily lives of Ethiopians and lengthen Ethiopia’s life expectancy. These 10 facts about life expectancy in Ethiopia show that the country has a chance to continue its improvement.
– Amanda Gibson