Humanitarian Crisis in ZimbabweCurrently, many members of Zimbabwe are experiencing one of the worst humanitarian crises of all time. Due to its devastating economy and food and water shortage, it has been rampant in many poverty areas in Zimbabwe. Especially with the COVID-19 crisis, this moment is critical for an international response in rehabilitating Zimbabwean communities susceptible to poverty.

The Causes of Zimbabwe’s Economy on the Humanitarian Crisis

A large factor in Zimbabwe’s humanitarian crisis is its problems that stem from its economy. As of now, extreme poverty has exceeded 34%, subject to at least 5.7 million people in poverty. As of this year, Zimbabwe’s inflation rate increases up to 500%. However, even with the inflation wages and salaries have remained relatively the same, escalating more financial deficits. As a result of the massive influx of inflation, food insecurity has surged and power-based utilities have drastically declined. Additionally, agriculture and electricity have been a large shortage in vulnerable communities of Zimbabwe.

Even with loans such as the World Bank, IMO and the African Development Bank, Zimbabwe still accumulates more than $8 billion. Additionally, the average middle class is only paid up to $1.80 per day and barely able to sustain themselves. Although with its devastating economy, Zimbabwe has tried several mechanisms in rehabilitating its structure. For example, in 2009 they tried eliminating the US currency entirely in its country to avoid confusion and inflation. Additionally, they tried investing in bonds and electronic money. Unfortunately, these methods have only exacerbated the problem of inflation in its current economy.

The Effects of Zimbabwe’s Economy on the Humanitarian Crisis

As a result of its astronomically high inflation rates, many members of Zimbabwe, especially children, have been subject to extremely inhumane conditions. For example, more than 76% of children in Zimbabwe are currently living below the poverty rate. At least 90% of infants experience malnutrition and stunted growth. Additionally, the World Food Program estimates that the country would need more than $200 million in reparations in order to bring its country out of poverty. To make matters worse, Zimbabwe has also been experiencing extreme food shortages from the several droughts it has endured this past year. As of now, the country only sustains on below 100,000 tons of grain. Zimbabwe consumes about 80,000 tons of maize per month itself. Due to the rampant droughts and the underperforming economy, the poverty rate may increase by more than 5%.

Government Censorship and Suppression of Protests

Along with its conflicts in the economy, the militia imposed by the government has also been suppressing peaceful protestors. This further invigorates the public about the humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe. These protestors are advocating for more government solvency over Zimbabwe’s frequent power outages and food shortages. For example, during August 2019 local militia placed several attacks on innocent protesters, killing at least six people. Then in mid-January 2020, nationwide protests struck a violent response from the security force and militia. They killed at least 17 people, raped 17 women and raided over 1,000 protestors.

In addition, journalists and other political officials are often silenced on violent and unstable matters in the country. An important state official, Viola Gonda, was harassed for filming local police officers attacking street vendors. This was due to the lack of reform with certain legislation, such as the Protection of Privacy Act. There were frequent loopholes of defamation that interfered with the protection of local journalists.

Initiatives to Rehabilitate Zimbabwe

Although Zimbabwe is suffering through a tremendous crisis, its large public exposure gained more efforts to replenish impoverished areas. For example, the International Monetary Fund has sent a task force to advise Zimbabwe on how to deal with its hyperinflation and decreasing revenue in the economy. Additionally, in February 2020, Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai and his financial consultant plan on request a $2 billion loan package in order to provide its citizens with sustaining jobs and resources. As an immediate solution, UNICEF has provided $11 million in order to improve water and sanitation services. Zimbabwe also received over $240 million for its food shortages. UN Secretary Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon claims that the United Nations will show stronger support in aiding Zimbabweans, providing a positive outlook over its current problems. This will happened when Zimbabwe shows promise in the reparations of its political power and economic power.

NGOs that are Helping the Humanitarian Crisis in Zimbabwe

Along with international organizations, smaller projects are providing aid to local Zimbabweans who are suffering through these tough times. For example, Action Against Hunger, a nonprofit organization that provides resources to combat malnutrition, has made numerous strides in aiding local communities in Zimbabwe. They also launched an emergency project in 2018 to help Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, recuperate the damages after its devastating droughts. Following similar goals and accomplishments, the International Rescue Committee has been dedicated to aid and supply resources to impoverished areas in Zimbabwe since 2008. Its main objectives are providing a direct supply for food shortages, donating vouchers for farmers to increase harvests and plantations and drilling wells to make clean water more accessible.

Even with its downfalls, there are numerous relief efforts to help the humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe, especially during a global pandemic. With a large global response, there is a strong likelihood of lessening Zimbabwe’s economic and political adversities and raising people out of poverty.

Aishwarya Thiygarajan

Photo: Flickr

Schools in Zimbabwe Can No Longer Expel Pregnant SchoolgirlsZimbabwe is a country in southern Africa. It is now illegal for schools to expel pregnant schoolgirls in Zimbabwe. This may sound unusual to people from western civilizations. However, it is very common for schools to expel pregnant girls in sub-Saharan Africa.

Countries in sub-Saharan Africa Commonly Expel Pregnant Schoolgirls

It was a common practice in Zimbabwe for schools to expel pregnant schoolgirls. It is also common in many African countries such as Equatorial Guinea, Tanzania, and Togo. In fact, there are no re-entry policies or laws that protect pregnant schoolgirls’ rights to education in 24 African countries. Some schools in Africa go as far as conducting mandatory pregnancy tests on schoolgirls. This poses a significant challenge for women on the African continent since the highest adolescent pregnancy rates in the world are found there. Some pregnant schoolgirls resort to procuring unsafe abortions while others drop out upon learning that they’re pregnant.

Part of the problem is that African Union member states centered discussion about this issue around the idea that pregnancy outside of marriage is wrong. These opinions stem from broad interpretations of religious teachings. The view is that if they allow pregnant schoolgirls the opportunity to continue their education, it would normalize pregnancy outside of marriage.

Causes and Consequences of Adolescent Pregnancy

While many use the morality argument to stigmatize pregnant schoolgirls, many factors are outside of these girls’ control. In Africa, the main causes of adolescent pregnancy are sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, poverty and lack of information about reproduction and sexuality. Other main causes are lack of access to birth control and family planning services. Child marriages also play a large role in adolescent pregnancies in Africa. Approximately 38% of girls are married before the age of 18 and 12% are married before age 15 in sub-Saharan Africa.

Since adolescent pregnancy usually stops a girls’ education, poverty is a determinant and a consequence of adolescent pregnancy. Low levels of education can confine girls to low-paying jobs and low socioeconomic status. Additionally, there are socioeconomic consequences and health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy. In Africa, when compared to women aged 20-24, adolescents under the age of 15 are five to seven times more likely to die in pregnancy and childbirth.

The Benefits of Countries Making it Illegal for Schools to Expel Pregnant Schoolgirls

There are many benefits of countries making it illegal for schools to expel pregnant schoolgirls. For starters, education leads to a reduction in poverty. A girl’s future earning potential can increase by up to 25% from only one year of secondary education. On a larger scale, the average gross domestic product of a nation rises by 0.3% when that nation’s female education rate rises by one percentage point.

Educated women tend to have children who are healthier and more educated than children with uneducated mothers. A child is 50% more likely to survive past age five if they are born to a mother that can read. A research found that a child’s life expectancy increases by an average of 0.32 years for every year their mother goes to school. Women who received a quality education were “more than twice as likely to send their children to school.” Therefore, providing women with education has the potential to create a cycle of adolescent education. The education of women can also lead to a reduction in domestic violence. There are connections between fewer years of education and higher risks of intimate partner violence. When women are more aware of their risks and rights, it is easier for women to keep themselves safe.

Now it’s Illegal for Schools to Expel Pregnant Schoolgirls

Due to COVID-19, concerns over the effect of school closures on sexual abuse and unwanted pregnancies have increased. As a result, officials in Zimbabwe have made it illegal for schools to expel pregnant schoolgirls. The goal of the legal amendment is to reinforce a 1999 guideline. A guideline that did not sufficiently protect girls’ right to an education. This amendment is arguably overdue since 12.5% of Zimbabwe approximate 57,500 school dropouts were due to pregnancy or marriage reasons in 2018. Women’s rights campaigners have stated that they believe this measure is vital for tackling gender inequality in the classroom. In addition, it will stop many girls from deciding to drop out of school.

Hopefully, Zimbabwe’s overdue amendment will influence other African countries to protect women’s right to an education and make it illegal for schools to expel pregnant schoolgirls.

Araceli Mercer

Photo: Flickr

innovations in poverty eradication in zimbabweLocated in southern Africa, Zimbabwe is characterized by impressive landscapes and diverse wildlife. Currently, Zimbabwe is suffering from immense poverty. In 2019, extreme poverty was at 34% in Zimbabwe, an increase from 29% in 2018. Furthermore, this represents a change from 4.7 million to 5.7 million people living in poverty. The cause of this swift increase was an economic contraction of around 8%. The World Bank expects a continued increase in extreme poverty in Zimbabwe in 2020. Fortunately, many organizations are working on innovations in poverty eradication in Zimbabwe to combat this problem.

Hyperinflation and Drought

In addition to a general economic downturn, several droughts across Zimbabwe have caused the prices for food and other essential goods to rise. These same droughts slumped agricultural production, especially in rural communities, where people were hit the hardest by this downturn.

The African nation has also been struggling with hyperinflation for more than a decade. This problem results from economic mismanagement by the nation’s previous president, Robert Mugabe. The Zimbabwean dollar lost 85% of its value against the American dollar between February and December of 2019. According to Trading Economics, Zimbabwe’s inflation rate was 737.3% in June 2020, growing to 837.5% by July 2020. As such, Zimbabwe faces severe hyperinflation, which does not help with its fight against widespread poverty. Here are two innovations in poverty eradication in Zimbabwe that are aiming to solve this problem.

Children in the Wilderness

One of these innovations in poverty eradication in Zimbabwe is a project by Children in the Wilderness (CITW), which started in February 2020. The project’s goal is to generate income within rural regions by creating businesses for women to operate. In northern Matabeleland, poverty levels are high due to a lack of diverse income-generating fields. Previously, this land relied on farming to produce income; however, unreliable rainfall and poor soil have made this method ineffective. Families now rely on an average monthly income of $9. This makes it a challenge to survive and prohibits many families from sending their children to school, which could help lift them out of poverty.

In response, CITW hosted classes that educated women on business and budgeting. The women who participated learned how to apply their innovative ideas, make money from their crafting skills and sell their work. CITW’s teachings have also promoted sustainability and self-management amongst the community. For example, the project provided a way to recycle unwanted waste by having women use it in basket weaving. To help women sell these goods, CITW pitches the crafts to businesses around Hwange National Park and Victoria Falls. As these businesses grow, poverty in northern Matabeleland will decrease. Importantly, CITW’s project has not only worked to eradicate poverty but has also brought women together and built pride in their local culture.

The Shoe That Grows

In 2020, CITW arrived in Tsholotsho, an area heavily affected by poverty, to act on a donation made by Melissa Cabrera Wilson. Wilson aims to ease the effects of poverty on children by providing them with another of many innovations in poverty eradication in Zimbabwe. The Shoe That Grows brand has provided children in Tsholotsho with something that most of them will never receive: new shoes. Without this donation, children would have to use shoes that have been passed down to them or nothing at all. So far, CITW has donated more than 45 shoes. The shoes can adjust from sizes one to four, allowing them to be used as the children grow. This innovation has given children relief from the harsh terrain they must walk miles on to get to school every day.

Hit by poverty and hyperinflation, Zimbabwe’s citizens are struggling. With these innovations in poverty eradication in Zimbabwe, they are beginning to overcome poverty step by step. The income-generating groups in northern Matabeleland will have a lasting effect on citizens, as a reliable and creative source of income is game-changing. Additionally, the shoes given to children in Zimbabwe and all over the world have also softened the harsh results of poverty on kids. In all, these innovations in poverty eradication in Zimbabwe have made life more tolerable for many of those affected.

Emma Green
Photo: Flickr

Coffee Production
Partnering with the nongovernmental organization (NGO) TechnoServe, Swiss coffee company Nespresso has worked in East Africa since 2015. It works to boost sustainability in coffee production and power small coffee farmers. The company also looks to increase sustainability by working with the Rainforest Alliance, another NGO. In 2018, Nespresso launched its AAA Sustainability Program in Zimbabwe. It focuses on training farmers and providing technical expertise and agronomic advice. Although it has found multiple programs worldwide, Zimbabwe was chosen explicitly after droughts and economic instability destroyed its capabilities to cultivate the cash crop.

The Economy of Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe’s economy saw a 231 million percent inflation in July 2008 after a land reform program passed, causing its economy to crash. According to the World Bank, Zimbabwe’s GDP fell by 8.1% in 2019 and has continued to fall due to COVID-19. In 2019, 6.6 million of Zimbabwe’s residents were extremely poor and food poverty was prevalent.

However, around 17% of Zimbabwe’s GDP is agricultural, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Coffee is a vital crop to the GDP. At peak production in 1989, Zimbabwe produced 15,000 tons of coffee. It sunk to 500 tons in 2017, according to the Telegraph. The loss of this significant part of the economy pushed millions into poverty and took away many jobs.

Understanding the Country’s Environment

Zimbabwe’s environment is ideal for cultivating coffee. It has cold temperatures, lots of rainfall and fertile lands. Coffee production has fallen mostly due to a lack of knowledge about growing the plant and droughts brought on by global warming. Coffee is a delicate tree, taking between two and three years to start flowering and nine months following this to have harvestable cherries. This is why Nespresso’s programs work to educate on sustainability and provide raw funds for farmers to use amongst economic instability.

In training, the main points of contention are drilling holes to plant trees, shading the trees properly and pruning branches. They also include eliminating bugs and disease, watching soil deficiencies and crop hygiene, according to National Geographic. The temperamental nature of coffee makes it essential to know exactly how to sustain it in the best way using efficient machinery and methods.

The Benefits of Nespresso

Nespresso plans to invest 1.3 million euros. It pays farmers in U.S. dollars instead of the Bond Notes that many use instead of currency. This allows them to buy better products and services globally. This will not only work to revitalize the economy through spending, but it will increase agricultural exports. The program currently works with over 2,000 farmers, training them on how to grow and paying them above-market rates for the coffee.

Since Nespresso has started working with these farmers, there was a 7% increase in production. Also, quality has risen by 51%. According to the Telegraph, Zimbabwe could soon double its coffee production, reaching 10,000 tons of coffee shortly. Furthermore, AAA programs have specifically targeted female farmers to provide equal opportunities, with 47% of the farmers being female.

In the long term, increased coffee production could help the country in multiple ways. Along with a GDP boost and increased jobs, the stimulation of coffee products helps put more children in school, provide healthcare access, increase efficiency and equipment and preserve biodiversity.

Overall, for those living in poverty in Zimbabwe, the rise of the crop that once drove the economy will provide immense relief. By bringing stability, jobs and globalization, the door to better opportunities starts with coffee. Nespresso’s program has opened that door to many small farmers in Zimbabwe.

– Nitya Marimuthu
Photo: Pixabay

Deaf Children in Zimbabwe
With the current pandemic, it can be easy for countries to focus primarily on themselves. The coronavirus is a pressing issue, but that does not mean that all of the other issues in the world have gone away. In fact, the coronavirus compounds many of these issues as well as takes focus away from their solutions. Deaf children in Zimbabwe are an example of those who still need help despite the focus being on the pandemic. COVID-19 has shut down economies and closed off borders between nations. Necessary aid for these children has not been able to reach them as well as before. They still need to progress in their education with teachers who know how to teach and work with deaf children.

Poverty in Zimbabwe is no friend to the deaf children in Zimbabwe. Families are unable to send their children to special schools because they cannot pay for them. Also, education is such an important component of raising a country out of poverty. This is because educated people are more likely to get higher-paying jobs to support their families and to boost the economy.

Facts about Poverty in Zimbabwe

After seven years, twice as many people lived in extreme poverty as of 2019. The poverty rate in Zimbabwe as of 2019 was 34%. As in many countries, poverty affects the parts of the country outside of cities the most. Of the children that live in these areas, over 70% are impoverished. Malnutrition is also a serious problem; as of 2019, food insecurity affected nearly half of Zimbabwe.

The Nzeve Deaf Center

The Nzeve Deaf Center is a nongovernmental organization that teaches deaf children in Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe how to use sign language. It also teaches them how to survive in the world as a deaf person. It not only teaches the children but is also involved with their families so that the children can have nurturing environments in school and at home. Manicaland is one of the poorest areas of Zimbabwe in regards to the children there.

Nzeve’s Help During COVID-19

Additionally, Nzeve will provide economic relief for families who wish to send deaf children to school. It will teach them ways to make money to pay for their children’s schooling as well as lower the cost of school. Deaf children still need to keep up with their studies while staying in quarantine. Therefore, Nzeve will teach them until they are able to go back to school. Nzeve also reaches out to fellow NGOs, informing them and others about helping disabled children.

In conclusion, the negative effects of COVID-19 have affected Zimbabwe tremendously. The poverty rate has increased because of the external factor of the worldwide shutdown that caused internal factors such as unemployment. Countries do have to focus on their own people in order to protect them and to stop the spread of the virus within their borders. However, there are people in other countries like Zimbabwe who still need help, especially with the current coronavirus crisis. Specifically, the deaf children in Zimbabwe still need access to education, and their families still need help paying for that education. Nzeve has accepted the challenge of helping these children to have a brighter future.

Moriah Thomas
Photo: Flickr

Maternal Healthcare in Zimbabwe
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the structure and function of healthcare systems all across the globe as a great influx of patients to hospitals has led to a strain on medical personnel and funding. Some of the greatest losses that healthcare systems are taking around the world due to this COVID-19 strain are the reduction or the complete elimination of certain specialties or services for a specific population. In Zimbabwe, a country in Southern Africa with a population of around 14.4 million, pregnant women and new mothers have suffered from a lack of quality maternal healthcare.

Inaccessibility

Pregnant women and new mothers in Zimbabwe face a difficult challenge, not only because the funding of a lot of maternal healthcare units has been depleted, but because of the dangers in commuting to the health centers or hospitals.

The lockdown in Zimbabwe due to the pandemic has been strictly enforced and has inspired an increase in violence on the streets. If a woman cannot find a medication or reach a local pharmacy during its newly limited hours, she may have to travel past checkpoints and on streets that contain a higher amount of police brutality than normal. There are several accounts of women deciding to stay home as it would be a greater risk to travel.

The restricted travel limits medical attention for pregnant women (check-ups and childbirth) and postpartum treatment (both physical and mental). Without the ability to contact people personally or to travel for help, women who have just given birth have a higher risk of postpartum depression and of physical complications as they live their lives in quarantine.

Violence

There has been an uptick in violence in the new pandemic-stricken world, especially for the women of Zimbabwe. Police patrolling the streets are often violent and “have not been sympathetic to pregnant women, insisting the need for a clearance letter from the police sanctioning movement.”

Additionally, pregnant women and new mothers at home are subject to more domestic violence. The restriction of movement makes leaving an abusive situation even more difficult. In combination with the aforementioned inhibition in the disbursement of contraceptives, assault in the home is a cause of an increase in unplanned pregnancies.

Mistreatment

Because of the fear of COVID-19 transmission within hospitals, women in Zimbabwe are asked to come into the hospitals only when they are deep into their labor and nearly giving birth outside of the hospital doors. Pregnant women who have started labor are often not permitted to enter health facilities because they are not close enough to delivery. When they do enter the hospital, mothers are often mistreated — not being permitted to have a companion or to stay long enough after giving birth.

This mistreatment and inaccessibility lead to an increase in complications for mothers and children during birth as they often arrive too late to the hospital for proper delivery or they give birth at home. Due to the mistreatment and lack of accessibility, women may also have unsafe “underground” abortions, which can lead to severe health complications.

Lack of Resources

If mothers can reach a healthcare facility, they often do not receive the treatment they need because of a lack of resources. Health facilities and clinics in Zimbabwe have drained supplies and funding during the pandemic. Physicians can no longer give out contraceptives or educate women on family planning due to a shortage. Family health planning services also had to cut down their educational programs. The lack of education and accessibility has increased the amount of unplanned teenage pregnancies as well as an increase in maternal mortality.

Aid

Though there have been many discouraging events for maternal healthcare in Zimbabwe, there has been a recognition of the events that are unfolding and several organizations are making great progress in fighting for maternal healthcare rights.

The White Ribbon Alliance (WRA) is a nonprofit, international coalition that fights for “reproductive, maternal and newborn health” among other rights relating to women’s freedom. This organization has created powerful campaigns in the wake of COVID-19’s impact on maternal care such as Respectful Maternal Care, which helps to educate others about women’s health and the rights they are entitled to when giving birth. This campaign can help stop the mistreatment of women and keep them safe during treatment and delivery.

Maternal healthcare in Zimbabwe faces many hurdles in becoming is safe and accessible. Childbirth and postpartum care have suffered because of the strict environment in the streets and healthcare facilities that the coronavirus has brought on. With organizations like the WRA, these women can gain access to the quality healthcare they need.

– Jennifer Long
Photo: Flickr

diminish global poverty
Self-driving cars and trips to Mars might be the first things that come to mind when thinking of Elon Musk. His massive-scale innovations will help humanity as a whole, but Musk’s initiatives are also helping to diminish global poverty. Since he was in college, Musk has sought to help humanity through space exploration, global internet and energy efficiency. The mission of Tesla, which Musk founded in 2003, is to accelerate the world of sustainable energy for the good of humanity and the planet. This mission will also have numerous benefits to the poor and overlooked populations of the world.

Tesla Powered Water Plants

In the coastal village of Kiunga, Kenya, water is available but contaminated. With most water sourced from saltwater wells, communities must bathe and cook with saltwater. Washing clothes and bodies with saltwater leads to painful sores that are hard to heal. On the other hand, drinking and cooking with saltwater leads to health problems like chronic diarrhea or kidney failure. These complications inhibit a healthy and productive society.

Tesla and GivePower offered a solution to Kiunga’s lack of potable water: a desalination plant that solar power and a battery reserve power. GivePower is a nonprofit organization aiming to provide resources to developing countries; it was acquired by Tesla Motors in 2016. A solar water farm that Tesla Powerwalls facilitated stores energy from solar panels to fuel the Kiunga facility at night and when there is a lack of sunshine. This plant produces about 70,000 liters of clean water every 24 hours, giving clean water to 35,000 people daily. This project has improved Kenyans’ lives, and GivePower aims to reach Colombia and Haiti next.

Tesla Powered Micro-grids

In many regions, people take electricity for granted. In Africa, hundreds of millions live without it. According to the International Energy Agency, 55% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa lack basic electricity access. Energy is essential to power schools, homes and healthcare facilities. A lack of modern energy in developing countries hinders the ability to study, work and modernize. For instance, in Zimbabwe, widespread violence and poverty contribute to a declining economy. One beacon of hope is the money trade, which takes place almost completely electronically. An innovative mobile payment system called Ecocash facilitates financial transactions for customers with mobile phones. To be effective, this process relies on consistent power infrastructure.

One incident in July 2019 exposed the vulnerability of Zimbabwe and its markets. A power outage occurred, and Zimbabwe’s Econet generators failed to power up, resulting in a mobile money blackout. This consequently had detrimental effects on the country’s economy, as the majority of financial systems halted. Over 5 million transactions occur daily through mobile money markets, adding up to around $200 million. Interruptions to power cause Zimbabweans to lose millions of dollars.

Microgrids are the answer. Generated by Powerwalls from Tesla, these self-contained systems of solar panels and batteries can provide power across the globe. Above all, no community is too remote to benefit. Tesla’s Powerwalls will alleviate uncertainties that unfavorable weather, unstable prices and fuel shortages cause. Although they require an investment of $6,500, solar-powered batteries replace archaic diesel-powered generators to ensure stability and diminish global poverty.

StarLink: High-Speed Internet Access Across the World

A lack of internet and mobile applications make life harder in developing countries. Without educational, communication and health tools, the cycle of poverty cannot be broken. According to the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, an estimated 750 million people over the age of 15 cannot read or write. Access to educational tools and resources through the global internet can reduce drop-out rates and improve education levels.

Elon Musk’s StarLink internet would deliver high-quality broadband all over the globe, reaching communities that historically lack an internet connection. The internet can bring education, telemedicine, communication and truth to people oppressed in developing countries. It gives isolated and overlooked communities a chance to become more secure. Using Starlink is straightforward: Plug in the device and point it toward the sky. The costs and benefits of Starlink can be shared across multiple families. The Starlink project strives to place a total of 42,000 satellites in space by the end of 2021, enabling internet access and helping to diminish global poverty.

A Sustainable Future for All

Musk’s focus on energy technologies benefits everyone, including the world’s poor. One obstacle to ending global poverty, especially in extreme cases, is that the poorest populations are usually the most remotely located. However, with Musk’s innovations, even remote rural communities can advance with modern technology.

Tara Hudson
Photo: Pixabay

Homelessness in Zimbabwe
Caroline Richards first saw homelessness in Zimbabwe in the nation’s capital, Harare. As a 19-year-old girl from the western United States, she had never witnessed anything like it before. “Some people had large tumors on their legs, or others were blind,” she said. “I was shocked when I first saw a tumor on someone’s leg that was around the size of a cantaloupe. I had never seen [anything] like that.” Richards left her home state of Utah in March 2016 to spend 18 months in Zimbabwe as a missionary for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. While there, she often interacted with the locals, entered their homes and saw how they lived.

Zimbabwe is a nation in sub-Saharan Africa with a population of over 14.8 million people, located south of Zambia and Malawi. More than 72% of the population lives below the poverty line, a rate that has unfortunately worsened over the years. Homelessness in Zimbabwe is an ongoing crisis, with the national housing shortage estimated at more than 1 million and over 1.2 million people on the government’s national housing waiting list. From Richards’ perspective, homelessness in Zimbabwe is often caused by a physical inability, unlike homelessness in the United States. “Most of the homelessness I saw was because of physical ailment or impairment,” she said. “There are some people who just haven’t been able to make it in the economy because every odd is against them.”

Unemployment and Homelessness

It is reported that the unemployment rate in Zimbabwe is as high as 90%. Richards said she thinks this is a major contributor to homelessness in Zimbabwe. “The government doesn’t take as good of care of the Zimbabwean people as they should. The economy is in disarray all of the time which makes it difficult for the people to make ends meet,” she said. For example, in 2005, the government of Zimbabwe started a campaign, “Operation Restore Order,” to destroy slums across the country, leaving 700,000 people homeless. Former President Robert Mugabe and his government officials claimed the operation was a crackdown against illegal housing. The campaign was met with strong condemnation from several groups and organizations, including the United Nations. 

A Dense Population

Richards added that the housing shortage is also due to Zimbabwe being densely populated. “There are a lot of people in small quarters,” she said. “Because of the poor economy, it’s not uncommon for families to rent one room from a house with a communal bathroom shared with 4-6 families because that’s all they can afford.”

Richards described the Zimbabwean homes she entered as “made of concrete” and “well-kept.” Since many houses throughout the country don’t have electricity, they leave their windows open to let in natural light. Throughout her time in Zimbabwe, Richards lived in some of the smaller rural areas and shared homes with local Zimbabweans. Though she often witnessed the negative impact of homelessness on these citizens, she also learned from how they lived. “Living in Zimbabwe taught me that it’s possible to live comfortably in the most humble of circumstances,” she reflected. “Zimbabweans have very impressive hygiene, and even if a whole family of 6 was living in one little room, it would be perfectly clean, all their clothes would be ironed, and the children bathed. They made the most out of what they had and are creative in the things they do to make ends meet.”

Help for the Homeless

Though housing shortages and homelessness in Zimbabwe are still very prevalent, some organizations are striving to eliminate them. Homeless International, The Zimbabwe Homeless People’s Federation and the Dialogue on Shelter for the Homeless in Zimbabwe Trust are working together to address issues of homelessness in Zimbabwe, particularly low-income housing. In partnership with the city of Harare, the Zimbabwe Homeless People’s Federation and the Dialogue on Shelter, which acts as the technical partner for the Federation, are working on the Harare Slum Upgrading Project. Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the project began in 2010 as a pilot project to accommodate 16 families and provide infrastructural services for 480 families in a certain Zimbabwean suburb. The project is still ongoing and impacts many community members, seeking to improve their living conditions. Homelessness in Zimbabwe is still a serious problem, but these and other organizations are doing their part to conquer it.

Emma Benson
Photo: Flickr

Improving Access to Clean Water and Sanitation in ZimbabweAccess to adequate clean water and sanitation in Zimbabwe continues to be an issue, especially for those living in rural areas. While many organizations have been working together to improve these issues, inadequate access threatens to worsen the spread of COVID-19. In order to alleviate the impacts of COVID-19, the Swedish Embassy in Zimbabwe has increased funding for “resilience-building” in the country.

Clean Water and Sanitation in Zimbabwe

UNICEF reported that only about 35% of Zimbabwe’s population has access to adequate improved sanitation in Zimbabwe. This mainly impacts rural areas. In addition, CARE reported that 67% of people living in rural Zimbabwe don’t have access to safe drinking water. Inadequate access to sanitation and clean drinking water has a great impact on low and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that about 827,000 people in those countries die every year from a lack of access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene.

In 2015, the U.N. released a report by WaterAid on the impacts of improved water, sanitation and hygiene on poverty. Additionally, the report stated that improving access to clean water and sanitation could help increase incomes for people living in poverty. It could also decrease the strain on healthcare systems and the impacts of malnutrition and disease, which would improve health outcomes for the poorest people.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Program (WASH Program)

Many organizations, including UNICEF, have been working to improve access to water, sanitation and hygiene through the WASH program. The program provides education and builde things like handwashing stations. In addition, the WASH program provides people with access to clean water. Since June 18, 2020, the program has helped 1,859 people in Zimbabwe access adequate sanitation. Also, it helped 3,781 people gain access to clean water. Moreover, a total of 2.1 million people in Zimbabwe has been reached by the program so far.

Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic

In a press release on June 4, 2020, Sweden’s Ambassador to Zimbabwe, Åsa Pehrson said that COVID-19 has increased the need for access to clean water and sanitation in Zimbabwe. This need is not specific to rural areas. Additionally, Human Rights Watch reported that people living in Harare, Zimbabwe’s capital city, and the surrounding metropolitan area are struggling to access adequate sanitation services and clean drinking water. More than 2 million people are in need of access. People who have to wait in long lines to access wells with clean water.

“Resilience Building” in Zimbabwe

In June 2020, The Swedish Embassy in Zimbabwe announced that it is putting 15 million Swedish Kroner ($1.6 million) towards helping those in need of access to clean water and sanitation in Zimbabwe. The embassy is increasing an already existing investment in “resilience-building” for Zimbabweans. In addition, the Swedish Embassy plans to put the money toward strengthening water, sanitation and hygiene activities. These activities are implemented under the Zimbabwe Resilience Building Fund. Furthermore, the program will focus on water sources that already exist and aims to rehabilitate them. One part of the investment focuses on clean water, sanitation and hygiene needs. Another part will be dedicated to agriculture and livestock water sources in order to protect the food supply.

Zimbabweans continue to struggle to gain access to clean water and adequate sanitation, especially those living in rural areas. The WASH program has helped improve these conditions. However, the COVID-19 pandemic threatens to endanger those who still lack safe drinking water and sanitation. People living in big cities without access may be at risk while waiting in lines for wells with clean water. To help alleviate these problems, the Swedish Embassy in Zimbabwe is increasing an existing investment in the country. They are putting money toward both improving access to clean water and sanitation in Zimbabwe, as well as protecting water sources for livestock and agriculture.

Melody Kazel
Photo: Flickr

Hyperinflation In ZimbabweThe southern African country of Zimbabwe has one of the most horrendous track records regarding hyperinflation. Hyperinflation, which is when the prices of goods and services rise uncontrollably, usually occurs when a government prints more money into the money supply than what can be supported by the country’s economic activity. Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe has had the effect of lowering GDP per capita by 38% and increasing the unemployment rate to more than 70%, which in turn has increased poverty. Zimbabwe has tried many different solutions to stabilize its inflation rate, but it still struggles with high inflation rate volatility. In May 2020, the inflation rate was at 785.55%, well over the defined amount of 50% to be considered hyperinflation. This article explains Zimbabwe’s political and economic situation that led to its hyperinflation, and possible tactics to combat it.

Rampant Corruption and Mugabe’s Regime

Robert Mugabe governed Zimbabwe in 1980 to 2017 after the country had gained independence from Great Britain. Mugabe had been a Socialist revolutionary icon who was elected as president after the revolution but later regressed into an oppressive dictator. Mugabe’s tight grip on power, rampant corruption and monetary policies of his regime are some of the principal causes of Zimbabwe’s economic problems. After almost four decades in power, Mugabe was usurped from power. He was replaced by his longtime vice president, Emmerson Mnangagwa in 2017. Mnangagawa’s presidency has maintained power for the country’s ruling party: the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF). Throughout both administrations, corruption has been embedded throughout all levels of society, including much of Zimbabwe’s political institutions. Bribes and facilitation payments are commonplace among the police, private companies, local councils and public officials. These kinds of payments are responsible for the $1 billion dollars of public money that Zimbabwe loses every year.

The 2009 Hyperinflation Crisis

During the worldwide recession of 2008, Zimbabwe’s own financial crisis made the country’s inflation rate skyrocket astronomically. Mugabe’s policies regarding land redistribution from white commercial farmers to the majority black population had the undesired effect of widespread food shortages and economic sanctions from the U.S. and E.U. Hyperinflation then reached incomprehensible rates of 79.6 billion percent. While these events are claimed by the ZANU-PF to be the initial causes of Zimbabwe’s hyperinflation, every effort Zimbabwe has taken to control hyperinflation is held back by the status-quo of corruption that the ZANU-PF upholds.

The root economic causes of Zimbabwe’s hyperinflation lies within monetary policies that make the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) print too much money. Some ways the government has tried to curb inflation have included demonetizing the Zimbabwean dollar in 2009 and adopting many different currencies, including the US dollar, South African Rand, Euro, Chinese Yuan and more. This allowed for higher transparency, which led to deflation. Over the next decade, the U.S. dollar became more scarce. This led to the reintroduction of the Zimbabwean dollar in 2019, bringing back high levels of hyperinflation. Some experts say that a radical change in the financial system as a whole is needed to properly address this trend. In particular, changing the system from having a dissatisfactory central bank to a currency board or free banking system could allow for better monetary policy.

Non-Governmental Institutions Helping the Situation

Certain NGO’s are working to combat Zimbabwe’s corruption and financial issues. Two are Transparency International Zimbabwe and Zambuko Trust.

Transparency International was established in 1993 and currently works in more than 100 countries. They research and advocate for policies and laws to end systemic corruption. They provide statistical data such as the corruption perceptions index and the global corruption barometer and also provide information on the state of corruption and their activities through their own blog, magazine and academic publications. Transparency International and other civil society groups across the continent have become serious actors in the fight against corruption and the loss of public money from it.

Zambuko Trust is a microfinance institution that has given financial opportunities to many, especially those who work in the informal sector. It was established in 1990 by Christian businessmen who set out to provide financial services for the poor. They provide small business loans, horticulture funding and agricultural jobs, business management training, advisory services and loan insurance. Zambuko Trust provided services to 16,000 people before the hyperinflation crisis of 2009. After the country demonetized the Zimbabwean dollar and introduced multiple currencies, the institution was able to revive itself. These services have allowed businesses to sustain themselves and people to buy a house or afford schooling during such periods of economic strife.

While Zimbabwe’s financial institutions are scrambling to bring this recent wave of hyperinflation under control, NGO’s are able to combat the effects economic turmoil has on small businesses and the poor and advocate for a society free of corruption.

– Tirza Morales
Photo: Flickr