child poverty in ZambiaZambia is a landlocked country that lies between Southern and Central Africa. The majority of Zambia’s 17.5 million population is under the age of 18, and over half of the population earns below the international poverty line of less than $2 per day. According to the World Bank, the estimated median age is 16.7, making evident the country’s severely imbalanced dependency ratio. This means that the dependent population (younger than 15 and older than 65) is much larger than the workforce can adequately support. While in the past few years Zambia has made progress in increasing access to nutrition and education, children in Zambia still lack a variety of necessities. In Zambia, 45.4% of children live in extreme poverty and 800,000 children still do not attend school.

What Is Family Legacy?

Family Legacy is a nonprofit organization based in Irving, Texas that seeks improvement in both of those areas for the most affected children of Lusaka, Zambia. In a variety of ways, the organization aims to reduce child poverty in Zambia by ensuring that these children have the opportunity to attend school. There, they get one hot meal every day and extra food to take home when they have good attendance. “This makes the parents more likely to let the kids go to school, and not be forced to work,” a Family Legacy volunteer said.

What Is Being Done to Fight Child Poverty in Zambia?

Family Legacy has four programs to meet its goal of alleviating child poverty in Zambia. The first, Legacy Academy, focuses on the Academics pillar, one of the organization’s four pillars of care. This main school program ensures that the children it serves receive primary and secondary education with all the necessary materials. The second program, Tree of Life, focuses on the physical and emotional pillars. Tree of Life is a residential community that provides children who have been through physical or emotional trauma with a safe place to live while they attend school. The third program, Excel Beyond, also focuses on the academics pillar. This program is designed to support the high school graduates of Legacy Academy while they build the foundation of a successful career. Finally, Camp Life represents Family Legacy’s spiritual pillar. The week-long experience seeks to bring hope and emotional growth to the Academy students.

Family Legacy’s success can be attributed to its three-tier approach, combining education, nourishment and the inclusion of benefits to the families of these children in need. The organization’s programs saw a ninth grade completion rate that was 18% higher than the national average last year. In addition, it has 156 students currently pursuing higher education. To help with curbing hunger in Zambia, Family Legacy distributes 4 million meals annually.

What Can We Do to Help?

Family Legacy’s progress is achieved via activities in multiple parts of the globe. In Dallas, volunteers pack meals, distribute clothes, gather supplies and find sponsors. Sponsorships are programs in which a family or individual provides the financial means for a child in Lusaka to attend school and receive meals and extra food. In Lusaka, volunteers make up the summer staff of Camp Life, participate in medical internships, assist with the graduation ceremonies of Tree of Life and Legacy Academy and participate in activities with the other Tree of Life children. Beginning to get involved in the fight against global poverty seems like a daunting task, but Family Legacy makes it easier than ever to fight child poverty in Zambia.

– Carolina Larracilla
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

B Corporation

B Corporations are businesses that give back to the community by following a set of guidelines for transparency, accountability and that pledge a certain amount of profits for a greater purpose.

Five B Corporations You Should Know

  1. Salt Spring Coffee, Canada
    B Impact Score: 118.4/200
    Salt Spring Coffee is a fair-trade organic coffee company that works with the Nicaraguan farmers to sustainably farm, sell and serve the highest grade of coffee beans on the market. Salt Spring hopes to pave the way for the coffee industry in producing eco-friendly packaging and contributing meaningful donations. The company does this by donating to innovative, eco-conscious projects through their 1% for the Planet fund.  These donations have allowed the company to co-found a Canadian waste-reduction initiative, help install solar panels for isolated Nicaraguan farmers and assist a women-run Ugandan farming co-op.
  2. Hora Salud, Chilé
    B Impact Score: 117.8/200
    Hora Salud is a simple user-friendly app for the rural Chilean populace that allows individuals to schedule and cancel appointments and check-ups online without wasting time. The app uses SMS to schedule and cancel doctors appointments. This allows already-sick individuals to avoid the burden of traveling to a Health Center and waiting in line for hours to book an appointment. Hora Salud may also be used in tandem with other markets to spread relevant information including weather, national emergencies and public policies. Their mission is to “Improve the quality of people’s lives, optimize service delivery and decision making with reliable and quality data.” As one of many B Corporations, Hora Salud promotes healthy business practices and opportunities for rural Chilean people.
  3. BioCarbon Partners, Zambia
    B Impact Score: 177.3/200
    BioCarbon Partners (BCP) operates in and outside of Zambia to offset carbon emissions in the atmosphere by sponsoring payment for eco-friendly business operations. BCP is an African leader in the reforestation carbon offset program. With a mission to “Make conservation of wildlife habitat valuable to people,” BCP is cultivating an ecosystem that protects one of Africa’s largest migration sanctuaries. The company prioritizes community engagement and partnership to incentivize forest protection through long-term habitat protection agreements. BCP calculates the amount of carbon that is not released into the atmosphere due to its project and generates sales of these forest carbon offsets through independent external auditors. BCP then reinvests this revenue into conservation and development projects in local communities that rely on wildlife habitat for income. BCP has created 87 jobs for Zambians and continues to create opportunities for wildlife and humanity alike.
  4. Avante, Brazil
    B Impact Score: 136.1/200
    Avante is the largest benefactor of small businesses in Brazil with more than $200 million invested to serve “micro-companies” that are typically pushed out of the financial industry. Avante functions as a non-conventional financial technology service that uniquely combines credit, insurance and payments. It is currently the largest MFI in Brazil. Avante’s mission is to “humanize financial services,” through a combination of empowerment, ethical business practices and acknowledgment that small businesses are the foundation of a strong economy.
  5. Alma Natura, Spain
    B Impact Score: 153.8/200
    Alma Natura established B Corporation status in 2013 to give back to the Sierra de Huelva community of Spain. The first institution of the business began as a nonprofit. It eventually evolved into a limited partnership as Alma Natura continued to invest in rural businesses, guiding them towards a more sustainable and ethical future. With their increased profits, Alma Natura gave back by funding education, technological development and sanitation, ensuring financial equality and sustainable practices in towns with less government funding. Not only has Alma Natura functioned as a business consultant to guide rural communities towards a more equitable economic future, but their commitment to preserving the planet and providing care and education to disadvantaged agricultural centers places their ranking high among businesses that take responsibility for the betterment of humanity.

Natalie Williams
Photo: Pixabay

Healthcare in Zambia
Zambia, a landlocked country in Southern-Central Africa, faces several ongoing health challenges. In 2017, Zambia’s public health expenditure was 4.47% of the GDP, one of the lowest rates in southern Africa. Two ministries that provide information about health and deliver health services, administer public healthcare in Zambia. These are the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child.

Problems in the Healthcare System

As public healthcare in Zambia remains incredibly underfunded, pharmacies in Zambia are not always well-stocked, and many deem emergency services inadequate. Additionally, inequities in public health care service access and utilization exist in the country. While 99% of households in urban areas are within five kilometers of a health facility, this close access occurs in only 50% of rural areas.

As a result of these deficiencies within the system, UNICEF reports that Zambia’s under-5 mortality rate is 57.8 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2009, 980,000 people lived with HIV/AIDS in Zambia, and 45,000 of those people died the same year due to the disease.

Lack of clean water has resulted in water- and food-borne diseases and epidemics that have been devastating Zambia for decades, including dysentery and cholera. These issues mainly affect impoverished areas, as overcrowding leads to sanitation issues. In the Kanyama slum in Lusaka, 15 households share one latrine when the weather is good. During the rainy season, Kanyama’s high water table causes the filling of 10,000 latrines with water. Areas like Kanyama require long-term infrastructure measures, such as sanitation, sewage lines and piped water.

The Path to Development

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established an office in Zambia in 2000 to address HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and other diseases. CDC support in Zambia includes expanding academic and clinical training programs with advanced technology at the University of Zambia and the University Teaching Hospital, and the development of a National Public Health Institute to strengthen public health surveillance. Moreover, CDC instituted a Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) to train a workforce of field epidemiologists to identify and contain disease outbreaks before they become epidemics. Exactly 42 epidemiologists have graduated from the program since December 2018.

In 2018, Zambia presented to the World Health Assembly in Geneva regarding the cholera outbreak by citing its efforts regarding vaccination, water safety and waste management. Additionally, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, worked with Zambia to fund and deliver 667,100 oral cholera vaccine doses to Lusaka slums after an outbreak that affected more than 5,700 people.

Looking Ahead

Most recently, Zambia embarked on the first round of its annual Child Health Week campaign from June 22- 26, 2020 to deliver child survival interventions to protect children and adolescents from deadly diseases. Furthermore, to promote fairness and equality, the campaign aims to improve children’s health by ensuring essential services reach children who do not benefit from routine health services. This campaign accelerates the country’s progress toward attaining the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for reducing child deaths by two-thirds by 2030, improving healthcare in Zambia overall.

The infrastructure for healthcare in Zambia is overall poor due to a lack of funding, poorly maintained facilities and supply shortages of medications and medical equipment. However, one step to a better healthcare system is to ensure equitable access to health services, especially for those who live in rural areas or slums. To reduce inequities, Zambia must strengthen primary facilities that serve the people who live in these regions and dismantle the existing barriers.

Isabella Thorpe
Photo: Flickr

Homelessness in ZambiaZambia is quickly becoming one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most urbanized countries, but homelessness in Zambia is becoming increasingly prevalent. Zambia’s housing stock has a national deficit of 1.3 million units, which is projected to double by 2025. More than 60% of the Zambian population is under the poverty line, living on $2 a day; 40% are considered to be facing extreme poverty, with $1.25 a day. Roughly 70% of people living in urban areas do not have access to proper housing. They live in informal settlements that often have inadequate access to clean water or sanitation.

Urbanization Spurs Zambia’s Housing Crisis

High-income jobs are typically found in urban areas, making the urbanization rate nearly double the population growth rate. Increased urbanization increases the demand for jobs, stagnates wage growth and raises the price of housing. According to a 2010 estimate, when you compare purchasing power, the cost of living in Lusaka is higher than in Washington, D.C. In 1996, Zambia’s National Housing Policy was put into place. This policy recommended that 15% of the country’s budget every year be designated for housing developments. This policy was awarded the 1996 “HABITAT Scroll of Honor” by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, commending the policy’s focus on involving community participation.

Zambia’s Homeless and Poor People’s Federation was founded to raise awareness and offer possible solutions to Zambia’s housing crisis. It opened a house model during Lusaka’s 83rd Agricultural and Commercial Show. The Federation aimed to demonstrate the power and intelligence that the homeless community can leverage in finding solutions to the problems they face. It wanted to raise awareness around the concept of building incrementally and using low-cost building materials.

Child Homelessness & Solutions

Roughly 1.5 million Zambian children live on the streets, either due to being orphaned or due to extreme poverty. There are roughly 1.4 million orphans under the age of 15 in Zambia, and roughly 750,000 of these children were orphaned due to HIV/AIDS. This has led to a crisis in Zambia, as many street children are being exploited for child prostitution.

What’s being done to address child homelessness? First, approximately 75% of all Zambian households care for at least one orphan. The Zambian Ministry of Sport, Youth, and Child Development partnered with the Ministry of Defense to create youth rehabilitation and reintegration programs. Since the start of these programs in 2006, roughly 1,200 children have completed the rehabilitation program, with mixed results.

Other organizations are working to protect the rights of vulnerable children in Zambia. SOS Children’s Villages, established in 1996, helps provide safe housing for disadvantaged youth in Zambia. It also provides accessible education and medical treatment. To date, over 4,700 Zambian children have received education from SOS Children’s Villages, and over 7,000 have been enrolled in the Family Strengthening Program. Additionally, over 688 Zambian children have been provided with alternative care. Meanwhile, UNICEF works with the Zambian government to improve policies surrounding social services and the protection of Zambia’s orphans.

Land Policies Aim to Address Homelessness in Zambia

Several groups are working to improve housing conditions for Zambia’s homeless population. Habitat for Humanity raises awareness around land rights and focuses on empowering Zambian community members to advocate for the issues important to them. In 2018, 1,965 people volunteered with Habitat to help improve the housing available for people living in Zambia. The Internally Displaced Peoples’ Voice (Zambia) likewise promotes housing rights for vulnerable populations.

The Zambia Land Alliance promotes pro-poor land policy, criticizing past Zambian land rights policies for being too narrow and allowing abuse by public officials. For example, the Zambian Land Acts of 1995 state that “conversion of rights from customary tenure to leasehold tenure shall have effect only after the approval of the chief and the local authorities,” which can become problematic when local officials are not acting in the best interest of the affected communities. The Minister of Lands and Natural Resources has revealed that some public officials have been selling land to foreign investors, specifically commercial farmers, who then push out small, local farmers. There are currently land policies being drafted that emphasize the importance of improving land delivery mechanisms in Zambia.

Conclusion

When thinking about Zambian homelessness, it is important to look at the nation’s history. Many members of the United Nations have emphasized the impact of colonialism in spurring global homelessness, calling for greater support from developed nations. Dennis Chiwele of Zambia suggested that homelessness is often incited by urbanization and a lack of governmental safety nets. Countries like the United States should help nations like Zambia cope with these more complex side effects of urbanization.

Danielle Forrey
Photo: Flickr

Zambia's Mining IndustryThanks to the abundance of mineral deposits in Zambia, investors have continued to flock to the country in spite of the pandemic-fueled economic downturn in many parts of the world. By deeming gold a critical mineral, the government is actively expanding Zambia’s mining industry by mandating that Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines Investment Holdings PLC (ZCCM-IH), a mining consortium, “drive the gold national agenda.”

Productive Mining Partnerships

Zambia’s government is a major investor in ZCCM-IH. Array Metals and ZCCM-IH have formed a partnership through Consolidated Gold Company Zambia (CGCZ). Array Metals determined that the venture will immediately generate local employment for 300 people. Mining is expected to commence sometime in June 2020 and will lead to another increase in employment. The establishment of new and competing mining firms will be beneficial for Zambia by encouraging a rise in gold production, increasing the national GDP and creating new opportunities for local employment.

Potential Profits from Gold Mining

With an approximation of 16,500 pounds of gold (around $400 million in value) within gold ore in Mumbwa, Zambia, continued investments in the Republic of Zambia are indicative of an economically auspicious future for the country. The gold mine is situated in Central Province, Zambia, and had been shut down for years before exploratory studies revealed the previously undiscovered resources within.

Roughly $2.5 million in capital has been devoted to the beginning portion of the project alone, with CGCZ aiming for an initial yield of 3 metric tons of gold (about $150 million in value).

How Zambia is Improving the Local Gold Mining Industry

According to CGCZ’s CEO Faisal Keer, “CGCZ is partnering with various small-scale gold miners in the country by providing mining technical expertise, and providing access to earthmoving machinery and gold processing lines to kick-start and boost their gold production.”

Since the majority of local miners mine through the process of gold panning, one focus of another partnership between ZCCM-IH and Karma Mining Services is to improve Zambia’s local gold mining efficiency. While CGCZ is only operating in the Mumbwa and Rufunsa districts of Zambia, there are more than 60 sites for gold mining. Local miners have also partnered with other foreign investors.

Although there is no official documentation, some have profited off illegally mining and smuggling gold out of Zambia. The government’s newfound focus on Zambia’s local gold mining has the perk of bringing lawfulness to a previously unformalized industry. In that spirit, the “government has given artisanal miners gold panning certificates to legalize their alluvial or riverbed gold mining activities.”

By supplying licensed miners with machinery, equipment, and knowledge about the industry through ZCCM-IH and CGCZ, Zambians are encouraged to participate in Zambia’s local gold mining. The formalizing of the gold mining industry will benefit more than Zambia, for it will enable licensed miners and locals to “reap the benefits of the assets under Zambian soil.”

Carlos Williams
Photo: Flickr

tuberculosis in ZambiaThe South African country of Zambia has a population of around 17 million. Over the last 30 years, it has experienced a rise in tuberculosis cases, an infectious bacterial disease in the lungs. Estimates show the mortality of the disease as approximately 30 deaths due to tuberculosis per 100,000 people. Below are seven important facts about tuberculosis in Zambia.

7 Facts About Tuberculosis in Zambia

  1. Co-infection: HIV patients have a high risk of contracting tuberculosis. In Zambia, 59% of tuberculosis patients have also tested positive for HIV. Though there are healthcare systems for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis among patients with HIV, overpopulation, poverty, cultural beliefs and sanitation conditions can make a diagnosis of both HIV and tuberculosis a challenge.
  2. Limited Access to Treatment: There is a greater prevalence of tuberculosis mortality in rural areas of Zambia. The commute to a clinic is often greater than a two-hour walk for a person living in a rural home, which puts a strain on those with the disease and on the family or friends who need to take time off of work to travel with their loved one.
  3. Economic Burden: Tuberculosis is extremely costly for individuals and for Zambia as a nation. Medications and other services like x-rays can be expensive for individual families. Furthermore, the overall loss of a workforce can impact the greater economy. This can be seen in mining communities, where tuberculosis is especially prevalent. Because the mining industry plays an important role in Zambia’s economy, there have been negative economic impacts in losing a percentage of the workforce due to tuberculosis. A 2016 study on tuberculosis in Zambian mines advocates for greater regulatory legislation for mining conditions and better health systems to create a healthier population and a more stable economy.
  4. Improving the Cure Rate: Tuberculosis is a serious disease and can be fatal. The Ministry of Health finds that 62,000 Zambians contract tuberculosis and 16,000 people die each year from the disease. Though there are still many fatalities, there has been great progress in treating the disease. Today, around 88% of people treated are cured, exceeding the WHO recommended cure rate of 85%, and the pooled cure rate of between 55% and 73% for Africa.
  5. Better Management: World Tuberculosis Day, observed each year on March 24, commemorates the discovery of the bacteria that causes tuberculosis in 1882. During the 2019 World Tuberculosis Day, the Ministry of Health Announced the new guidelines for “Management of Latent Tuberculosis Infection.” This was the launch of greater efforts towards the elimination of tuberculosis and emphasizes early detection.
  6. Improved Surveillance: Though tuberculosis is a severe health issue, there have been limited health surveys to find an accurate prevalence of the disease. In 2013, the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) through the Ministry of Health (MoH) and USAID conducted a survey on the tuberculosis rate in Zambian regions. The surveys showed a higher prevalence of tuberculosis than estimated. They also revealed improved techniques for tuberculosis detection. For example, the use of digital systems and the integration of HIV testing in tuberculosis surveys (HIV is common comorbidity) can help estimate the rate of incidence and help improve the efficiency of tuberculosis healthcare.
  7. More Accurate Diagnoses: Founded in 2006, the Center For Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ) has provided many services for combating tuberculosis in Zambia including research on diagnostic techniques. CIDRZ tested some novel techniques of tuberculosis diagnosis such as LED fluorescence microscopes and computer-assisted digital x-ray interpretation technology. CIDRZ helps mobilize these techniques and train community members in the identification of tuberculosis.

These facts show that the health crisis of tuberculosis in Zambia exposes a dire need for increased accessibility of healthcare and better methods of diagnosis and treatment. The recent efforts in management and care of tuberculosis show promise of effective tuberculosis management and an overall healthier population.

– Jennifer Long
Photo: Flickr

child marriage in ZambiaIn Zambia, about two in every five girls are forced into marriage. Currently, the country is renewing its efforts to eradicate child marriage. In 2017, the President of Zambia along with presidents from Uganda and Malawi held an event where they declared they would prioritize ending child marriages by 2030. The President of Zambia stated, “Girls who marry young are often denied their rights. Ending child marriage by 2030 will require a range of actions, including making sure girls have access to quality education, legal reforms and changing traditional harmful practices.”

Already, rates of child marriage in Zambia have drastically decreased. Zambia’s Demographic and Health Surveys in 2002 found that the child marriage rate was 42%. In 2014, however, the child marriage rate had dropped down to 31%. Despite these numbers, Zambia still has a lot of work to do to save these young girls.

Common Reasons for Child Marriage

There are many factors contributing to child marriage. Here are three of the more common reasons for child marriage in Zambia.

  1. Poverty: Some families see child marriage as a way to reduce the financial burden of having young girls. Often, families in poverty will marry off their young daughter(s) to receive a payment of dowry. This dowry gives them great financial relief. In addition, they are saving money because they no longer have to provide for their daughter(s).
  2. Vulnerability: While all children are susceptible to being vulnerable to child marriage, orphans and stepchildren are even more vulnerable, specifically once they hit puberty. Some families feel that their job of taking care of them is done at that time, so they marry them off young. Stepchildren and orphans are also more widely mistreated than biological children. They may feel getting married is an escape from an otherwise unbearable situation.
  3. Protecting a Girl’s Sexuality: Parents may believe that if they marry their girls off young, they can protect them from engaging in “inappropriate behaviors,” like having multiple sexual partners. This way the girl only has sexual intercourse with her husband, and her family’s honor remains preserved. Some also consider child marriage as a protection for the girl against HIV or unwanted pregnancy.

The After-Effects

  • Increases Poverty: Child brides tend to drop out of school. As a result, any opportunities they may have had at getting a good job and helping their families out of poverty disappear.
  • Health Risks: Child brides are more likely to suffer from depression or PTSD due to abuse from their spouses or the fast-paced way they are forced to grow up. Also, child marriage in Zambia is often correlated with pregnancy, which can lead to higher death rates for the mother or child because the mother is not developmentally mature enough to carry a baby.
  • Risk of Violence: Child brides are more likely to deal with domestic violence including physical, sexual and emotional abuse.

The Good News

Despite these practices still occurring, the citizens and government of Zambia have begun taking steps to eradicate child marriages by 2030. Plan International is a humanitarian organization that works to advance children’s equality and rights. The organization’s Regional Director for both Eastern and Southern Africa, Roland Angerer, says change begins with education. He states, “It is essential that we promote education and encourage dialogue if we want to change social norms . . . Governments must ensure schools are accessible, inclusive and safe […] to enable more girls to attend and stay on in school.” This education helps not only young girls but also their families.

Senior Headman, Davison Shafuluma, in the Mumbwa district, holds meetings where he teaches parents and other family members that child marriage hurts more than it helps. He shares with them the effects a young girl can suffer through by marrying and carrying a child at too young an age. He also explains that they, as a family, can say ‘no’ to anyone who propositions marriage.

Beyond education, the UNFPA-UNICEF Global Programme on Ending Child Marriage helped establish 550 Safe Spaces in Zambia. In these Safe Spaces, young girls learn that they are equal to their male counterparts. The young girls learn that school, homework and their futures should be their focus and priority.

International Work to Eradicate Child Marriage

Aside from better education, “Zambia also co-sponsored, along with Canada, the first U.N. General Assembly (UNGA) resolution on child, early and forced marriage in 2013.” In 2014, eight Ministers from Zambia also committed to addressing child marriage and continuing the conversation. The country has also legislated a minimum age requirement for marriage beginning at the age of 18.

Although many more improvements are still necessary, Zambia is making much progress to diminish child marriage. The conversations in Zambia and across the world are finally giving these young, vulnerable girls a voice.

Stacey Krzych 
Photo: Flickr

COVID-19 in Zambia

Covid-19 cases in Zambia reached more than 1,000 as of June 3, according to worldometers.info.

With a population of more than 17.35 million, the percentage of total cases is only 0.005%. In addition to this impressively low total case number, a total of 912 individuals have recovered, a 90% recovery rate. Here are three reasons for the high recovery and lack of cases in Zambia.

Testing, Testing, Testing!

On March 18, Zambia reported its first two cases of coronavirus in the nation’s capital, Lusaka. Two residents tested positive after traveling to France. Before those cases, Zambia’s government prepared by increasing testing and screening. A 14-day self-quarantine was put into place to make sure potential positive cases of COVID-19 in Zambia would not spread.

Presidential Response

On March 25, Zambia’s president Edgar Lungu addressed the nation after 12 confirmed cases of the coronavirus. Lungu made headway by addressing those citizens who hadn’t taken the virus seriously. “Let me say this; if your lifestyle has not changed in the past few weeks, then you are doing something wrong and endangering both yourself, your neighbor, and your loved ones,” Lungu said.

Also during the speech, Lungu made commitments to ensure funding from the public sector would go into testing. Lungu has called this his COVID-19 contingency plan, which is “including its budget and directed the ministry of finance to mobilize resources to enable lune ministries, private sector, and other key stakeholders to contain and combat the spread of the coronavirus disease.” Though, Lungu didn’t stop there. He halted non-essential travel and restricted dine-in service for restaurants. Bars, night clubs, cinemas, gyms, and casinos had to close immediately. Lungu described the coronavirus as a war against his people. His analogy created an extra layer of importance for following his guidelines for fighting COVID-19 in Zambia.

Healthcare Funding

One group critical to the backbone of medical care and funding for the coronavirus pandemic has been the Zambian International Health Alliance (ZIHA). ZIHA has focused on funding HIV/AIDS treatment, medical personnel and research of new diseases that could affect the people of Zambia, like the coronavirus. This funding has allowed for an increase in testing.

Another key player in medical relief is the U.S., specifically the United States Agency for International Development. The Agency granted Zambia $6.77 billion, which has funded healthcare in Zambia. President Lungu made an announcement on April 1, saying that he’s “welcoming the government’s plans to recruit more health workers in the wake of COVID-19.” The Medical Association of Zambia agreed with Lungu’s statement. They think this will not only increase the number of medical professionals in Zambia but will also ease the pain of COVID-19 in terms of outreach. 

Because of the efforts to battle COVID-19 in Zambia, the virus has a relatively small presence compared to the country’s total population. Recently, an excellen maize harvest helped quell food shortage worries. The extra grain will be used as an emergency food supply, protected by Zambia’s Food Reserve Agency (FRA).

COVID-19 has put economically impoverished communities at risk, but it has also helped reveal the willpower of the Zambian people and the power of a community coming together to fight a common enemy – hunger.

Grant Ritchey
Photo: Flickr

10 Facts About The Sanitation In Zambia Zambia is a country with a population of more than 16.5 million. It neighbors Zimbabwe, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Botswana, Mozambique and Malawi in the Southern-Central region of Africa. In 2011, Zambia achieved middle-income country status, reflecting the country’s substantial economic growth of an average of 7.4% per year from 2004-2014. However, as of 2015, more than half of Zambians earn less than the international poverty line and only 26% of the population has access to safely managed sanitation services. Here are 10 facts about sanitation in Zambia.

10 Facts About Sanitation in Zambia 

  1. According to the World Bank, the Water Sector Performance Improvement Project advanced the Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company (LWSC) in the Lusaka, Kafue, Chongwe and Luangwa districts of Zambia. The project reduced interruptions to clean water supplies from 5,000 to 333 from 2007-2013 and increased the water collection ratio from 70% to 90%. The Water Sector Performance Improvement Project was crucial to improving Zambia’s public health resources by developing clean water resources and advancing the area’s sewerage systems.
  2. In 2003, a community-driven water and sanitation project delivered nine boreholes and 40 Ventilated Improved Pit-Latrines (VIPs) to the rural Chibizyi area of Zambia. The Zambia Social Investment Fund (ZAMSIF) aided this and benefited over 4,000 members of the community. Before the project, the people of the Chibizyi region walked vast distances in search of water, usually collecting water from polluted streams.
  3. After receiving better access to clean water, the Chibizyi community of Zambia then formed water, sanitation and health education committees in each village. The committees formed construction sites to build sufficient sanitation facilities to keep the water clean. Additionally, ZAMSIF used the Ventilated Improved Pit-Latrines (VIPs) sites as stations for distributing information on HIV/AIDS and malaria control.
  4. From 2011-2015, the Schools Promoting Learning Advancement through Sanitation & Hygiene (SPLASH) initiative implemented its program in 495 Zambian schools. Before SPLASH, Zambian schools faced limited drinking water and sanitation facilities, causing harsh learning environments for the students. SPLASH installed 662 handwashing facilities and 386 female washrooms in the schools. This allowed 133 schools to achieve a WASH-Friendly status and attract more students.
  5. In 2012, the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program of the Ministry of Local Government and Housing developed national guidelines for Community-Led Total Sanitation in Zambia. These guidelines reached over 2.5 million people across the country by 2015. Officials implemented the guidelines through Zambia’s District Health Information System 2 (DHIS2) digital software, which enabled real-time monitoring and feedback via computers. Communities following these guidelines and switching from open defecation to toilet use received verification as Open Defecation Free (ODF).
  6. The Water and Development Alliance (WADA), along with its partners United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Coca-Cola, are working to improve sanitation globally. Since 2005, they have improved avenues in more than 30 countries, giving more than 580,000 people access to clean water. WADA aids Zambia in improving water and sanitation access by implementing latrines and handwashing stations across the country.
  7. The Partnership for Integrated Social Marketing (PRISM), a marketing program for health services and products, instigated a distribution project in 2014. PRISM administered over 13,000,000 bottles of chlorine at Zambian hospitals. Zambians were then able to use the chlorine to disinfect and clean 9.27 billion liters of drinking water in all 10 provinces of Zambia.
  8. Only 18 percent of women in Zambia are able to obtain modern, feminine hygiene products. In response, Maboshe Memoria Centre in Mongu, Zambia, began producing sanitary napkin kits in 2019, modeled after the Days for Girls sanitary kits. The sanitary napkin kits are washable pads that can last up to three years. Previously, many Zambian girls skipped school during their menstrual cycle due to inadequate supplies. These kits enabled them to attend school during their menses and obtain hygienic and long-lasting products.
  9. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has aided in enabling 44% of Zambia’s population to achieve improved sanitation. UNICEF allowed Zambian villages to receive acceptable latrines and in 2015, around 75% of Zambia’s villages became Open Defecation Free (ODF). By 2020, UNICEF expects every Zambian to have an adequate latrine–ones that have handwashing facilities, offer privacy and dispose of matter effectively.
  10. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is currently aiding Zambia by investing in plans that encourage sustainable outlets for safe drinking water. The Global Water Strategy and USAID Agency Specific Plan aim to provide 1.7 million Zambians with sustainable water and sanitation resources by 2020. They plan to invest in significant infrastructure improvements that will strengthen water supply, sanitation and drainage in Zambia’s capital, Lusaka.

Zambia has made substantial progress in sanitation since the early 2000s. It has developed plans to decontaminate drinking water and replace poor sanitation facilities. However, as Global Waters has indicated, there is still a considerable need for improved sanitation guidelines across the country to ensure every citizen has access to clean water. These 10 facts about the sanitation in Zambia shed light on these issues.

– Kacie Frederick
Photo: Flickr

Health care system in Zambia
Zambia’s healthcare system is decentralized, therefore it is broken up into three different levels: hospitals, health centers and health posts. Hospitals are separated into primary (district), secondary (provincial) and tertiary (central). It offers universal healthcare for its citizens, yet the health care system in Zambia remains one of the most inadequate in the world.

Universal Health Care

Zambia is working on implementing universal health care coverage for its citizens to diminish the burden of accessing life-saving treatments. At the moment, Zambia’s government-run health facilities offer basic healthcare packages at the primary (district)level free-of-charge. Their services are under the National Health Care Package (NHCP). With this being said, due to “capacity constraints” and limited funding, the services sometimes do not reach those who need it most. Luckily, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Zambia and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have come together in order to help restore the health care system in Zambia. They are investigating ways to effectively set priorities so that processes in health facilities can run faster and smoother.

Private vs Public Healthcare

Even though there are a good number of public and private health facilities, a lot of the public hospitals are chronically underfunded. Another major problem in the public healthcare sector is that there is inequality in the order that doctors meet with patients. As mentioned above, the public sector is divided into three divisions, level one hospitals are in charge of provision of services and level two and three hospitals are referral or specialized hospitals.

District Health Offices (DHOs) are staffed by community health assistants (CHAs). Over the course of their one-year training, they are prepared to improve the management of malaria, child and maternal health and common preventable health conditions. DHOs spend 80 percent of their time on disease prevention and health promotion and another 20 percent “at the health post.”

There are good private hospitals in Zambia’s big cities, for example, Lusaka. They offer their services to everyone with the majority of people that participate in the private sector being foreigners or affluent Zambians. Over 50 percent of formal health services in rural Zambia are private clinics or hospitals. They also account for 30 percent of all health care in the nation. Even though they offer higher quality services at a faster rate, when a serious medical emergency presents itself, the majority of the time people will be evacuated to South Africa since they are able to provide better medical services.

Pharmacies

Pharmacies are not always stocked with the medications or drugs that most people need when they are sick. Even though they are available in most major cities and towns in Zambia, they do not operate on a 24/7 schedule. Their typical work week is Monday to Saturday. When people are in need of a pharmacy, it is recommended to go to one that is attached to a hospital or a clinic for immediate assistance.

Diseases

Zambia’s top five killer diseases are HIV/AIDS, neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis and diarrheal diseases. Zambia also sits in the malaria belt, so it is recommended to have a mosquito net to prevent mosquito bites. Other diseases like cholera and dysentery are common during rainy seasons. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been helping Zambia since 2000 after establishing an office in the nation. The CDC “funds and assists international and local organizations” like the Ministry of Health to “provide health services at the national and community level.” In addition, the CDC has performed more than 173,000 medical male circumcisions and has prevented 98 percent of HIV exposed infants from getting HIV in 2018.

– Isabella Gonzalez
Photo: Flickr