SDG 14 in Germany
Germany is aiming to fulfill Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14: Life Below Water while also strengthening its maritime economy. The country passed an agenda that aims to bolster the industry and simultaneously provide clean energy throughout national and international waters by 2025. While aquaculture remains a small component of Germany’s maritime sector, the country is hoping to incorporate clean, sustainable energy tactics and preserve quality maritime food production. Here are some updates on SDG 14 in Germany.

About the Sustainable Development Goals

The month of June 2021 served as the focal point for the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 13: Climate Action; 14: Life Below Water; and 15: Life on Land. Germany is one of many countries dedicating its resources and research to fulfilling the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda. Adopted by all U.N. Member States in 2015, it includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for each state to reach by 2030.

Germany’s focus is on SDG 3: Good Health and Well-Being; SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production; and SDGs 13, 14 and 15. SDG 14 calls upon countries to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, countries’ efforts to complete SDG 14 did not diminish. According to the U.N., the ocean can be an ally against COVID-19, as marine life – such as bacteria – are useful in detecting the presence of the virus through rapid tests. Organisms in the ocean are also an asset to pharmaceutical companies when developing vaccines and immunizations.

Updates on SDG 14 in Germany in 2021

Surprisingly, only 10% of the German population had knowledge of the SDGs in 2018, according to the European Environmental Agency. The country needed public support from the population to complete the environmental SDGs, including SDG 14. The German federal government created a campaign to draw attention to the goals and outline the importance of sustainable energy in Germany, particularly in the maritime sector.

The government also created the German Sustainable Development Strategy in 2016 to match the U.N.’s 2030 Agenda, which tracks the country’s progress in completing SDG 13, 14 and 15, specifically. The Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development launched plans for marine conservation and sustainable fisheries with an allocation of over €180 million and also created MAREN, a federal research and development program. The “N” stands for Nachhaltigkeit (sustainability).

Currently, Germany’s overall score for all the SDGs is 82.5, compared to the regional average of 77.2. However, the country is below 75% for achieving SDG 12, 13 and 14. The country is facing significant challenges to achieve SDG 14 but is moderately improving as time goes on.

The United Nations reported that in 2020, the mean protected area coverage for marine life sat at 44% globally. As of February 2021, Germany reported a protection rate of 69.4% regarding the country’s areas important to marine life biodiversity. A member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Germany holds an international spillover index of 60.4, almost 10 points behind the 70.1 average for OECD members.

How Germany is Improving in Regard to SDG 14

Among the six indicators for SDG 14, Germany is improving in two areas. The amount of fish that fishermen caught from overexploited or collapsed stocks – 46.6% as of 2014 – remains a significant challenge for the country, despite Germany’s progress towards achieving SDG 14. Fishing by trawling or dredging (21.3 as of 2016) is a slight challenge, but also is improving at an SDG-approved rate.

Germany’s most significant challenge is achieving a clean waters score in the Ocean Health Index. The index measures to what degree chemicals, human pathogens and trash contaminated marine waters. The country’s score is 51.0, with 0 being the worst and 100 being the best.

According to a 2020 report from the Ocean Health Index, the decrease in Germany’s score comes from three areas: Clean Water, Food Provisions and Fisheries (a subgroup of Food Provisions). While Germany is not one of the top 10 countries for fish provisions and aquaculture, these three areas directly correspond to the success of Germany’s maritime industry.

The Situation in Bremen

Bremen is one of Germany’s forefront maritime cities, with a long history of shipbuilding companies and suppliers. It is the second-largest port in Germany and is important to the job industry. In 2019, Bremen was home to 1,300 companies and at least 40,000 employees. Bremen’s ports make up 30% of the region’s economy.

In the same year, Bremen had the highest poverty risk rates in Germany, sitting at 22.7%, compared to Bayern, which had a poverty risk rate of 11.7%, and Berlin, with a rate of 18.2%. In 2020, Bremen’s percentage increased to 24.9%. According to Deutsche Welle, in 2017, one in every four adults and one in every three children in Bremen were poor. Bremen has experienced significant unemployment. In fact, it had a 5.1% unemployment rate in 2019. Improving the maritime industry with SDG 14 efforts could lower the poverty risk in maritime cities such as Bremen, by providing jobs and boosting the economy as a whole.

How the Maritime Industry is Important to the German Economy

Strengthening Germany’s maritime economy is vital to the country’s success. Estimates from the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy have placed an annual turnover at €50 billion and 400,000 jobs. The Ministry is researching effective methods to improve the maritime sector while also adhering to efforts towards sustainable energy, mitigating environmental challenges, creating jobs and protecting the global environment.

In 2017, Germany’s Federal Cabinet approved the Maritime Agenda 2025, dedicated to turning the country into a maritime hub. The agenda placed emphasis on sustainability. The federal government will set aside funding for clean energy fuel sources and ship propulsion systems. The agenda also calls upon the international system to develop environmental standards similar to that of the SDGs. Area of action four of the agenda focuses on shaping maritime transport sustainability. In 2013, the federal government presented options for alternative fuels and new, energy-saving technologies that can support those fuels.

Wind Energy

One of the options includes wind power. As of June 7, 2021, Germany plans to expand offshore wind power in the Baltic and North Seas, particularly along with Dogger Bank, which sits in the middle of the North Sea. Building offshore wind turbines is a significant step in Germany’s progress toward reaching SDG 14 and its Maritime Agenda 2025. Using sea winds as a renewable energy source was the last of the new alternative technologies that emerged as part of the environmental plan for sustainable energy in Germany.

Various environmental groups raised concerns about how the introduction of turbines on the Dogger Bank will affect marine life and fisheries in the area. Germany created co-use options that will both provide sustainable energy for Germany and allow fish to pass through fish traps, baskets and nets. By 2030, one area in both the Baltic and North Seas undergo designation as a priority area for wind energy.

German wind farms in the North Sea have already safely produced more electricity than in years prior. It is clear that progress in creating sustainable energy in Germany is moving in a positive direction, bringing the country closer to achieving its goal of reaching SDG 14 in Germany.

– Rachel Schilke
Photo: Flickr

offshore wind farmSouth Korea’s government announced plans to construct an 8.2 gigawatt “offshore wind facility by 2030.” Once completed, the project will stand as “the world’s largest single offshore development.” The project comes with economic and environmental advantages for South Korea. In order to help the economy recover from the COVID-19 pandemic, the offshore wind farm will increase revenue and energy production. The plan forms part of President Moon Jae-in’s Green New Deal project. The Green New Deal began in 2020 and will help Asia’s fourth-largest economy reduce its dependence on fossil fuels.

Offshore Wind Farm Funding and Benefits

The offshore wind facility project has already garnered significant funding. Several companies have contributed $42.4 billion to the project and the government will cover $802 million of the cost. In addition to generating renewable energy, the offshore wind project will create 5,600 jobs in the area. It will also extend South Korea’s “existing 1.67GW wind power capacity to 16.5GW by 2030.”

South Korean officials state that the wind energy facility “will produce energy equivalent to the output of six nuclear reactors.” The project has garnered significant support around the country due to its many benefits. A signing ceremony recently occurred for the new wind project in Sinan, a coastal town in the southwest region of the country. The offshore wind farm project is predicted to make an impressive impact on the country’s economy due to citizen, government and fiscal support.

Economic Impact of COVID-19 on South Korea

South Korea’s early response to the COVID-19 pandemic was successful as early testing and containment of the virus limited spread. However, the virus caused an economic recession due to halted business operations, closed borders and restricted mobility. For the first time since 2003, South Korea fell into a “technical recession.” In the first quarter of 2020, South Korea’s GDP declined by 1.3% followed by a second quarter decline of 3.3%.

The recession was caused greatly by a lack of demand for South Korean exports. Exports make up about 40% of the country’s GDP, so without the typically high supply and demand for products, South Korea’s economy was hard-hit. The economic decline also led to job losses across multiple sectors such as services, travel, hospitality, retail and manufacturing. As a consequence, South Koreans experienced harsh economic impacts, especially those already in poverty.

How Wind Power Improves Poverty

Despite South Korea’s status as a large world economy with high rankings in terms of education and healthcare, it still has a high poverty rate. The OECD ranked South Korea fifth among 33 countries for relative income poverty, with a rate of 16.7%. Relative income poverty is defined as “the ratio of the number of people whose income falls below half of the national median household income.”

Renewable energy sources such as wind power can help reduce poverty by decreasing a country’s reliance on fossil fuels. Fossil fuel prices can fluctuate drastically, causing instability in the economy. Wind turbines can replace the use of fossil fuels. The renewable energy sector also creates jobs and allows for energy security. With the power to use clean energy and bring economic prosperity to South Korean citizens, offshore wind farms provide a solution to poverty reduction.

The Future of Wind Farms

Overall, South Korean offshore wind farms could help South Korea bounce back economically after the COVID-19 pandemic. Wind energy is a sustainable resource as it is readily available. In comparison to fossil fuels, wind energy is more consistent and less expensive to harness. The boost in wind power could also place South Korea on the leaderboard for renewable energy.

Future prosperity and poverty reduction in South Korea will come from inclusive economic growth. With the use of renewable energy sources, sustainability and economic success are possible. Increasing accessibility to energy will thus help South Korea win the fight against poverty.

– Courtney Roe
Photo: Flickr

William Kamkwamba
Malawi is a relatively peaceful country, but it still suffers from poverty. Eighty percent of the economy is dependent on agriculture, which means prosperity varies dramatically year to year based on factors such as rainfall and the number of pests. As a result of this and other factors, the percentage of mothers that do not survive childbirth is 40 times higher than the U.S., and literacy rates are around 20%-65% higher than 30 years ago, but with a lot of room for growth. During a particularly bad harvest year in 2002 due to a flood, a young boy’s parents could not afford the school fees necessary to keep him there. With only one meal a day available and nothing to do but farm, the life of William Kamkwamba did not look too bright. However, he was not ready to stop learning – he often went to a local library, which received funding from a combination of NGOs and foreign government aid.

The Early Life of William Kamkwamba

He also liked to tinker – he and his friends once started a business where they fixed up radios people had, but there was only so much money they could make in that business. One thing that interested him particularly was “Using Energy,” a physics textbook that had diagrams about wells that could improve harvests and other wind-powered devices that could produce electricity. Since he had nothing to lose, Kamkwamba decided to make a wind turbine using materials around his village.

The villagers were very confused by all of this and thought he was doing drugs. As he spent most of his free time digging through rubbish to find parts for his windmill doing something that the villagers had never seen or heard of in person, this assumption made sense. Nevertheless, the 14-year-old built up a collection of materials – scrap metal, rubber from bicycle tires and wood from local trees – and assembled it within the year. The townspeople’s opinions quickly changed when the device (pictured above) powered a homemade lightbulb.

Kamkwamba’s Rise to Fame

His popularity suddenly skyrocketed. First came the people in his village who wanted to charge their cell phones at his 12V windmill. As a result of energy transfer, phones were more common than what people used to power them. As a result, inventions like Kamkwamba’s benefitted many in his community alone. Then, the local newspaper, the Daily Times, got wind of the story and encouraged some venture capitalists to show him a computer, something he had never seen before. His well-done TED talk primarily brought him fame in the U.S., where he then did the late-night circuit among names like Jon Stewart. A film showcases the life of William Kamkwamba – “The Boy who Harnessed the Wind” – and none of this would be possible if it was not for a well-placed library and Kamkwamba’s determination to make his life better.

At the same time, William Kamkwamba graduated from Dartmouth College and earned a degree in environmental studies, finishing his education that famine once interrupted so many years ago. With the money he made from donations and movie rights, he also installed a solar pump and technology to produce clean water to his home village in Malawi.

Michael Straus
Photo: Flickr

Green Energy in Kenya

Kenya has big plans for its future as a major green technology user. About 70 percent of Kenya’s electricity comes from renewable energy, which is almost three times the global average. The Lake Turkana Wind Farm, which was completed in 2018, and the Meru County Energy Park are two important developments in wind and solar power, each helping Kenya to reach its target of 100 percent renewable electricity by 2020.

Meru County Energy Park

Meru County Energy Park will be Africa’s first large scale hybrid wind, solar photovoltaic and battery storage project. It will provide 80 megawatts (MW) of clean, renewable energy that could power more than 200,000 households. The project is a great step in producing green energy in Kenya and also acts as a model for other countries seeking to advance in low-cost, clean energy. Construction begins during 2021 in Meru County, Kenya.

The $150 million investment consists of 20 wind turbines and more than 40,000 solar panels. The Meru County Energy Park is a lead project by the Meru County Investment and Development Corporation (MCIDC) and its partners WindLab and Eurus Energy. WindLab is a wind energy developer that has completed projects across three different continents. During the signing of the agreement between Meru County and Windlab, Governor Peter Munya stated that “The development, construction and operation of a large scale renewable energy project within the County will bring employment, energy security and expertise to the region.”

Lake Turkana Wind Farm

The Lake Turkana Wind Farm, operational since 2018, is another major development in Kenyan green technology. It’s Africa’s largest wind power project, consisting of 365 turbines with a capacity of releasing 310 MW of sustainable low-cost energy. The wind farm is located in the Turkana Wind Corridor that channels wind between the mountains in the north and south of the desert region.

It’s also another stride in achieving Kenya Vision 2030, Kenya’s long-term development plan to create a better nation by 2030. The energy provided by the Lake Turkana Wind Farm is helping to create “a newly-industrializing, middle-income country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens in a clean and secure environment.” The entire energy sector has grown tremendously. Thanks to advancements in green energy in Kenya, electricity access in 2018 stood at 73.4 percent, an increase from 56 percent in 2016.

Since September 2018, the Lake Turkana Wind Farm generated 1.2 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity and saved taxpayers about $77 million from reduced use of diesel-operated power. The project proves that wind power is an efficient and low-cost alternative for rural regions that often rely on more expensive and environmentally harmful methods of electricity, such as diesel.

Future of Green Energy in Kenya

President Uhuru Kenyatta plans to continue reducing Kenya’s carbon footprint by welcoming private investment in green technology. Major investments from corporations such as WindLab and Eurus Energy are simply the beginning to Kenya reaching its goal of achieving 100 percent renewable electricity by 2020. The nation ranks ninth in the world for geothermal power generating capacity, making green energy in Kenya a viable option to help those in poverty who struggle to access electricity. Since 70 percent of Kenya’s current power usage is already from renewable sources, the country is on an upward trajectory to achieving its green technology goal.

– Lucas Schmidt
Photo: Flickr

Sustainable Energy In Jamaica
In 2013, the Prime Minister of Jamaica made an announcement that would change the future of the tropical island nation. He and his government declared that, by the year 2030, the Island nation of Jamaica would produce 30 percent of its power from renewable sources. At the time, this was an important stride for not only the worldwide movement towards greener and cleaner energy but also an important step for the national security of Jamaica. At the time the Prime Minister made this announcement, 90 percent of Jamaica’s energy needs were imported. As of 2018, sustainable energy in Jamaica was on-track to becoming a reality.

The majority of the oil used by the country was imported from Venezuela. Not only does Jamaica‘s carbon footprint put it in danger but its reliance on a foreign energy source also has the potential to give the providing country sway over the domestic affairs of Jamaica, especially when 9 percent of its total GDP is spent on imported petroleum for the energy sector.

Solar Power

The government is determined to set an example for its people to follow. In 2018, the Prime Minister of Jamaica, Andrew Holness unveiled the finished project that the government and the non-profit organization, Solar Head of State, had been working on. It was a conversion of the Prime Minster’s office to solar power. On this same day, Prime Minister Holness also announced that he believed Jamaica could surpass their 30 percent sustainable energy goal and aim for a 50 percent energy goal. Only eight other nation-states in the world are aiming higher than Jamaica for their sustainable energy targets.

This public example of green power positivity can be seen in the Jamaican classroom as well. At Hampton school, an all-girls school, nearly a quarter of the budget goes towards the energy bill. So, the headmistress takes the time to educate her young women about the importance of sustainable energy by replacing the lightbulbs in the school with energy-saving LEDs.

Wind Power

Wind is another source of income and power for sustainable energy in Jamaica. South of the Hampton school, 11 wind turbines can be seen. These are only a small portion of a larger project headed by BMR Jamaica Wind Limited. The United States and Canada are also sending financial aid through respective government institutions. By the end of the project, the turbines are expected to provide power for 15,000 people and reduce carbon emissions to the equivalent of removing 13,000 cars off of the road.

There is money in sustainable energy in Jamaica. The Jamaican government is willing to work with investors and companies in the private sector to help reduce their reliance on non-renewable sources. David Delaire, managing director of the German firm MPC Captial, said that the reason for the fast growth of the sustainable energy market in Jamaica is due in part to its location, stable market and a robust regulatory framework.

Nicholas Anthony DeMarco
Photo: Unsplash

Avant Garde Innovations Creates Wind Energy in India
Based on the most recent data available by the World Bank, wind energy in India only comprises 0.4 percent of the total final energy consumption for the nation. Renewable energy calculates higher at approximately 39 percent, but there is still room for improvement for the entire clean energy sector. Hoping to fill some of the voids, Avant Garde Innovations will soon test the market with a newly developed wind turbine.

Avant Garde Innovations (AGI) was founded in January 2015 by two brothers, Arun and Anoop George. Based out of Thiruvananthapuram on the southern tip of the subcontinent, the mission of the organization is “to eliminate energy poverty, reduce dependence on struggling state power grids, and create energy self-sufficiency.” They also place emphasis on affordable, locally operated products. As such, the first move toward this goal was the construction of a windmill prototype intended to eventually replace nonrenewable energy sources throughout India, particularly in households.

AGI’s turbine is unique in its smaller size, producing slightly less energy but at a dramatically lower cost. Right now, competitors offer windmills to develop wind energy in India for about 200,000 rupees per kilowatt, but AGI’s model is only expected to cost 50,000 rupees per kilowatt – a 75 percent reduction in price! Some media sources are even boasting comparisons that a typical Indian family will now be able to install windmills to power their entire homes for less than the price of an iPhone. In terms of power, AGI expects 20 percent capacity utilization in contrast to the 25 percent capacity utilization of larger mills. However, even at this rate, their turbines can produce five units of power every day, which is plenty for the average-sized household.

For the moment, the first AGI turbine has been constructed outside of the Madre De Deus Church in Vettucaud, India where it will undergo its pilot testing phase this January. Once the trial is complete, AGI intends a full launch in the international market during the first quarter of 2017, and investors are already showing interest. The Indian government also aims to formally introduce the design by 2022.

Their updated windmill is not the only reason to find promise in AGI, however. Arun believes the patent-pending design is transferable, which could form the foundation of future projects such as hydro- and tidal turbines, and potentially even an automobile motor. The basic blueprint is also said to require little maintenance, and will still be able to generate power at lower wind speeds than competitors’ offerings.

As a result of their startup success, the organization has already been honored with numerous accolades. To name a few, AGI has been invited to attend exclusive conferences hosted by the U.N. as well as a major energy forum in Silicon Valley, California. Drawing further attention is their commitment to operating on 100 percent clean energy themselves. For the future of wind energy in India, AGI’s business model is a major step on the path toward sustainability.

Zack Machuga

Photo: Flickr

Wind Turbines: New Direction for Paris Agreement
With the objective of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and fostering sustainable development, the Paris Agreement was developed to reduce carbon emission levels globally. The agreement was opened for signature on 22 April 2016 where 175 countries signed the global action plan at a ceremony in New York.

However, countries must engage in ratification to complete the pledge. Only 19 countries have ratified the Paris Agreement. Ratification involves undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets and enhancing their mitigating efforts to reduce carbon emission.

The agreement moved forward after 55 countries that account for approximately 55 percent of global emissions ratified it. U.S. and China have both agreed to ratify the Paris Agreement this year. Underdeveloped countries and small islands qualify for ratification by developing and preparing strategies for low greenhouse emissions reflecting their circumstances.

With the latest hopes to replace oil with wind turbines to lower greenhouse gasses, John Coequyt, director of the Sierra Club’s federal and international climate campaigns, declared that the Paris agreement included “all the core elements that the environmental community wanted.” Countries that have pledged to the agreement are solely responsible for their emission level as the agreement seeks to limit global warming to 2°C by the year 2020.

The Paris Agreement has also contributed to the boost in wind turbine sales which has proven to be a lucrative venture. “The COP21 agreement will provide the basis for additional public support and financing in growth regions, which should offset this development in the longer term,” said Moody’s Managing Director of Corporate Finance, Matthias Hellstern

The EU and other developing countries have agreed to continue to support environmentally friendly practices and positive impacts on climate change. The Paris Agreement has paved the way for wind turbines to be the main source of energy for developing countries and the solution to curbing high urban pollution levels.

Shanique Wright

Photo: Flickr