Sanitation in Guam
Guam is a U.S. island territory in the Western Pacific with a population of slightly less than 170,000 people. There are multiple U.S. military bases on the island, which many consider critically important bases for U.S. strategic interests in the Pacific. The bases also provide the island with its principal source of income. Aside from being one of the military’s crown jewels, Guam has a rich indigenous (Chamorro) culture and beautiful coral reefs surround it. While not as beautiful but still impressive, Guam has a relatively robust system of sanitation. Here are 10 facts about sanitation in Guam.

10 Facts About Sanitation in Guam

  1. Widespread Access to Safe Drinking Water: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 100% of people in Guam have access to a safe source of drinkable tap water. However, international travelers have only scored Guam’s drinking water as “moderate” in the categories of quality, pollution and accessibility.
  2. The EPA Funding Water Projects: In 2020, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committing more than $10 million to improve Guam’s drinking water. This money is going toward upgrading infrastructure, treatment systems and distribution facilities. Plans are also in place to promote water re-use and to develop methods of recycling the large amounts of stormwater that Guam receives.
  3. Improved Sanitation Facilities: Nine out of 10 people in Guam have access to an improved sanitation facility. This is a good sign for Guam’s population and its efforts to promote a sanitary society.
  4. Trash Collection: Guam Solid Waste Authority (GSWA) provides a trash collection service essentially identical to the service found in the vast majority of continental United States cities. Paying customers (~16,000) receive rollable trash bins which they place outside their homes on a specified day. Trucks collect this garbage and then dump it in a landfill. Non-paying customers can also bring their trash to a local servicing station.
  5. Recycling: Customers of GSWA also receive recycling carts for paper products, aluminum/metal cans and certain plastics. GSWA collects recycling twice a month. Similar to trash collection, non-paying customers can recycle at local “residential transfer stations.” These stations also have facilities for recycling glass and cardboard.
  6. Coastal Cleanup: Guam holds an annual coastal cleanup day every September. Thousands of volunteers partner with NGOs and governmental organizations to keep Guam’s beaches clean. This is one way that local people prioritize their island’s sanitation.
  7. COVID-19 Risk Due to Bases: One might consider that Guam should be able to combat COVID-19 easily because of its remote location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, however, the presence of two major military bases heightens the risk of disease spread on the island. In fact, U.S. military bases are often COVID-19 hotspots. With 35 airmen testing positive for the disease at Anderson Air Force Base, Guam is no exception.
  8. COVID-19 Measures: Guam has declared a state of emergency due to the global pandemic. The government requires that citizens wear a face mask when using public transportation, and they strongly recommend that people wear a mask whenever in public. Stores are taking extra precautions through increased sanitation, and most restaurants have closed for dine-in services, but many are preparing to re-open.
  9. Grocery Delivery: A village mayor in Guam has partnered with a local Pay-Less supermarket to provide a grocery delivery service to all village residents. The service is called Grocery to Go and provides a safe way for citizens to obtain food during the global health emergency.
  10. Mask Donations: GTA Teleguam, the largest telecommunications company in Guam, is donating 10,000 masks to healthcare clinics and nonprofits on the island. This is a massive boon for families struggling financially, as they will not have to worry about purchasing these critical sanitation items.

As these 10 facts about sanitation in Guam show, the island has a solid foundation of water, sanitation and trash systems. The massive coastal cleanup and the community-driven efforts to combat the spread of COVID-19 clearly demonstrate the commitment of the islanders to their home. Although the pandemic is putting Guam’s sanitation and health facilities to the test, individual citizens and organizations are rising to the challenge.

Spencer Jacobs
Photo: Department of Defense

9 Facts About Sanitation in Eritrea
The land that encompasses the modern-day state of Eritrea is vast and old. The country itself, however, is one of the youngest countries on the African continent. After winning its independence from neighboring Ethiopia in a 30-year-long war of liberation, Eritrea emerged on the world stage as an underdeveloped and rural nation. While Eritrea has dealt with more than its fair share of struggles in its first 30 years of independence, sanitation and water usage continue to challenge communities. Many consider sanitation to be a gateway to development and modernization, and subsequently, Eritrea is taking steps to address this rising national issue. Here are nine facts about sanitation in Eritrea.

9 Facts About Sanitation in Eritrea

  1. As of June 2019, Eritreans have received encouragement to ration water, reduce flushing and prepare for more drastic water limitations. This reactionary measure was in response to the nationwide water shortages that mismanagement and intense drought caused. Most Eritreans live in rural or semi-rural areas where seasonal rivers run dry for most of the summer. They rely on wells and government-supplied tankers for their daily water. As these water supplies dwindle, the rural inhabitants often do not have a reliable water source. Some people have even begun to migrate to different areas of the country in search of new water sources.
  2. Community-led endeavors make up most of the efforts currently combating a lack of sanitation in Eritrea. In late 2007, the Eritrean government adopted a new initiative called Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). Through this program, villages appointed hygiene promoters to assess the sanitation needs of approximately 20 homes and advocate for new community measures. One significant breakthrough came when the 2008 pilot village of Adi Habteslus achieved 100% of households having and using a toilet, after the implementation of CLTS in 2007. A conference on community-led sanitation in December 2018 established an initiative to end open defecation by 2022. Thus far, the results have been promising, with a total of 163 villages declared open-defecation-free. This translates to around 135,109 people across Eritrea gaining access to established latrines. This progress is due in part to the widespread initiative of the Ministry of Health to establish CLTS in communities across Eritrea, not just in villages in close proximity to the capital.
  3. Community-implemented fines have had a positive impact on community health. For example, in late 2019 the U.N. volunteers reported that after implementing a penalty of 100 Nfk (equivalent to $7) for open defecation, a village in Anseba is now reporting “a significant decrease in the diarrheal diseases.” Today, Eritrea is still on track to meet the goal of declaring an open-defecation-free state by 2022, thanks in part to the continued success of CLTS.
  4. Community activists are also organizing the construction of latrines at their own cost to promote cleaner sanitation habits. In a program meant to reduce and even eliminate open defecation, many rural Eritreans are constructing communal latrines without any subsidies and using locally available materials. One woman, Amna Abdela Mussa, age 45 from the Emberemi Village, benefited greatly after constructing her own latrine, saying that it was empowering to give back to her community and improve her own sanitation.
  5. Poor sanitation in Eritrea disproportionately impacts women and girls. It is a long-standing cultural expectation that women and girls in rural and urban Eritrea are responsible for overseeing the water collection and usage in each household. As the main users of water, women have also been playing a decisive role in the planning, implementation and operation of sanitation projects. Yirgalem Solomon is one of these women. She is currently spearheading a project to introduce an open dialogue in Eritrean middle schools about menstruation and sanitation to “break the taboo and help the girls address the many challenges they face.”
  6. Waste disposal still proves to be a difficult issue to manage, as many rural areas have no sanitary facilities. Open defecation is not the only cause of this. Additionally, latrines without proper sewage allow human waste to go back into the soil. This, combined with flash flooding that deforestation and mismanaged agricultural practices intensified, increases the chance of water pollution and eutrophication. Unfortunately, there are no large-scale projects yet to oversee the development of sanitation facilities.
  7. Consistent infrastructure, like the Khashm el-Girba Dam, is in jeopardy in response to water shortages. Many rivers in Eritrea are seasonal, however, the Setit River flows all year and forms a small reservoir at the base of the Khashm el-Girba Dam. Through proper irrigation, the dam allowed for steady water supply until recently. Due to the prolonged drought, there are more than 500,000 people seeking shelter in refugee camps neighboring the dam. This influx of improper usage is making it difficult to keep the water clean.
  8. Japan is collaborating with the Eritrean government to lessen the effects of the drought. The small town of Dbarwa proved to be a valuable example of this outreach. The drought heavily impacted this rural community and caused it to lose all assurance of well- and tanker- supplied water. However, the Japan International Cooperation Agency assisted in drilling five boreholes for the town, providing water to almost 30,000 inhabitants.
  9. The most effective way to ensure a path towards equal sanitation is to promote sustainable habits that keep water clean and available. Current projections estimate a temperature increase of 46.4 degrees Fahrenheit (8 degrees Celsius) by 2050 and increasing variability in rainfall, making clean water more difficult to obtain. Eritrea is trying to combat this through the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This program has already led to advancements in irrigation and soil erosion reduction through an emphasis on the adaptive capacity to climate change.

These nine facts about sanitation in Eritrea provide a glimpse into the current modernization techniques that the country is pursuing. While Eritrea still has plenty of work to do, thanks to the participation of rural and urban communities alike, sanitation across the country is increasing both in quality and reach.

Elizabeth Price
Photo: Flickr

Sanitation conditions in CyprusCyprus is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean with a rich history. Over the years, the island has sought to develop safe sanitation facilities that would greatly improve the way of life for much of its rural population. More and more measures are being taken to encourage higher hygiene levels by providing the right supplies such as proper sewer systems, latrines, septic tanks and composting toilets. Cyprus has also begun to address clean water measures throughout the country. These rapid developments have promoted economic growth and decreased high rates of poverty. Here are the top six facts about sanitation conditions in Cyprus.

6 Facts About Sanitation Conditions in Cyprus

  1. Due to the depletion of groundwater resources, the Ministry of Agriculture, National Resources and the Environment had to resort to non-conventional water resources such as desalination, using low-quality water and reusing wastewater. They have used these techniques since 1997. In fact, a desalination plant near Larnaca Airport produces about 33 million cubic meters of water per year, helping to improve sanitation conditions in Cyprus.
  2. The government implemented a harmonization program in 2012 to develop strategies that would improve water and environmental outcomes, which would improve sanitation conditions in Cyprus. It installed central sewage systems in four areas across Cyprus, including Nicosia, Larnaca, Limassol and Paphos.
  3. The irrigated agricultural sector makes up about 70 percent of the entire water use in Cyprus. The domestic sector, tourism and amenities make up the rest of it. Each year, Cyprus’ water demand equals to 265,9 million cubic meters. It is projected to rise to 313,7 meters in 2020 due to an increase in tourism and the use of domestic water sources.
  4. Currently, there is a domestic water supply project in progress to improve water and sanitation conditions in Cyprus. It will focus on the city of Nicosia and the surrounding areas in the western province of the city. The Vasilikos to Western Nicosia Conveyer Water Supply Project is financially backed by the European Investment Bank and the Kokkinokremmos Water Supply Project. It will construct necessary infrastructure including pumping stations, a pipeline and water storage facilities. The project cost around $66 million. The government of Cyprus was able to obtain a loan for almost $44 million.
  5. Due to the water shortage, many farmers face high costs today. Most of their income loss comes from competition within the agricultural sector. Insufficient surface water resources, deeper groundwater pumping and droughts can impact water availability, which then compromises water demand.
  6. According to a graph by the World Bank, the number of people using basic sanitation services in Cyprus has remained consistent from 2000 to 2016. In 2000, reports showed 99.7 percent of people had basic sanitation. In 2016, it had only decreased to 99.5 percent.

Sanitation conditions in Cyprus are readily improving with new development that has strengthened water supplies throughout the country’s regions. Water shortages compromise the livelihoods of much of the population on the island, which severely impacts the rate of global poverty as a whole. These six facts about sanitation conditions in Cyprus are therefore important in understanding how poverty in Cyprus is continuously shifting.

Brittany Adames
Photo: Flickr

Facts About Sanitation in Croatia
The Republic of Croatia is a country in Southeast Europe. After declaring independence from Yugoslavia, Croatia went through a period of bitter conflict. Under U.N. supervision, Croatia entered NATO in April 2009 and the E.U. in July 2013. Situated next to the Adriatic Sea, Croatia is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe. Croatia has abundant but unevenly distributed sources of water. Here are 10 facts about sanitation in Croatia.

10 Facts About Sanitation in Croatia

  1. Currently, 99.6 percent of people in Croatia have access to improved drinking water. The majority of the Croatians have access to public water infrastructure. The Croatian Ministry of Health monitors the country’s water infrastructure.
  2. Some Croatian islands can procure their own water supply. Croatia has over 1,000 islands as part of its territory. Croatian islanders sometimes procure their own water by building private wells, harvesting rainwater and water slimming. Some islands also have their own water infrastructure such as desalination plants or water pumping stations near a water source.
  3. The World Bank aided in improving sanitation in Croatia. In 2018, the World Bank stated that the six-year-long project, which the World Bank funded, improved sanitation in Croatia. After the conclusion of its $87.5 million project, the World Bank stated that the country eradicated the practice of discharging untreated sewage into the ocean.
  4. Coastal water contamination is an issue that needs attention. People know Croatia for its beautiful beaches. This contributes to Croatia’s booming tourism industry, which constituted about 20 percent of the country’s GDP in 2016. This makes it especially important for Croatia to maintain the swimming water quality of its coasts. Recognizing this importance the Croatian government requested project support from the World Bank. The project, which lasted from 2009 to 2015, strengthened water supply and sanitation services across 23 municipalities. The World Bank reports that this project benefited over 230,000 people.
  5. The European Union’s Cohesion Fund is further supporting the modernization of sanitation in Croatia. On March 1, 2020, the E.U. approved the investment of more than 128 million Euros (143,143,808 USD) from the Cohesion Fund to improve sanitation in Croatia. The supported project aims to give access to high-quality drinking water and wastewater treatment to more than 29,000 people.
  6. There are concerns over possible pharmaceutical pollution in the Sava River. Located 15 kilometers upstream from Zagreb, the capital city of Croatia, there are concerns over possible contamination of the city’s water source. Nikolina Udikovic Kolic, a microbiologist who raised this concern, reported that bacteria in the Sava River are possibly developing antimicrobial resistance. This is problematic since this means that there is a chance that a superbug could develop from this river which can resist anti-bacterial chemicals. Kolic suggested that a factory that Pliva owns, which is Croatia’s biggest drugmaker, might be responsible for polluting the waterways.
  7. Around 97 percent of people in Croatia have access to improved sanitation facilities. The percentage of people without basic sanitary facilities decreased since 2012. Compared to 2012, when 1.9 percent of the population lacked access to basic sanitary facilities, the conditions improved to only 1.1 percent of the population in 2018.
  8. While access to flush toilets in rural areas is nearly universal, people have limited access to sewerage services. A 2018 study found that 94 percent of rural areas had access to flush toilets. Nearly 93 percent of flush toilet users had on-site fecal sludge containment facilities. However, among the interviewed households, only 12 percent of them had access to sewerage services.
  9. People in the poorest wealth quintile are the ones who lack access to piped water access and flush toilets. The same 2018 study stated that 25 percent of the rural Croatian population relies on self-supplied water and sanitation facilities. The main reason these houses were not connected to the public system was that these houses’ were physically not able to connect to the network.
  10. Climate change poses multiple threats to sanitation in Croatia. A 2012 study that the E.U. and other organizations conducted studied the impact that climate change could bring to Croatia. Experts suggest that the potential decrease in precipitation can diminish groundwater levels, which will affect the supply of drinking water in Croatia.

These facts about sanitation in Croatia show that it maintains adequate service quality and access to service. The wide availability of sanitation facilities and water facilities is making life better for many Croatians. However, for the residents of rural communities in Croatia, the need for improvement is apparent. The Croatian government and many other international organizations are addressing this need. Organizations such as the World Bank are working with the Croatian government to improve sanitation in Croatia. With all the dangers that climate change poses, the need for sustainable development is also paramount. With all this assistance, better sanitary conditions are coming for the people of Croatia.

– YongJin Yi
Photo: Flickr

Sanitation in Afghanistan
Following decades of civil war and negligence, Afghanistan has been experiencing a crisis regarding clean water and sanitation. The lack of an internal plan and a water infrastructure deficit had elicited urgent consequences such as various waterborne diseases and diarrhoeal diseases. Many organizations such as UNICEF took notice and decided to address this issue at its core. By providing funding and necessary resources, there has been evident progress within Afghanistan towards clean water and better sanitation. Here are 10 facts about sanitation in Afghanistan.

 10 Facts About Sanitation in Afghanistan

  1. Limited Sanitation: According to the State of the World’s Toilets 2007 report, about 92 percent of Afghanistan’s estimated 26.6 million population did not have access to proper sanitation. Meanwhile, the number reduced to 61 percent by 2017. With this being said, poor sanitation exposes people, mainly children and elders, to life-threatening diseases. This issue also affects women and girls, putting them at risk for both physical and psychological damage. It affects menstrual, pregnancy and postnatal periods and creates an unsafe environment when in these periods.

  2. Turmoil: One can see the increasing number of cases surrounding poor sanitation as a direct consequence of the damage inflicted by years of war. Beginning in 1992, constant fighting between different mujahidin groups left cities such as Kabul in ruins, further damaging the water infrastructure. Following in 1996, the Taliban took over but did little to nothing to improve the already damaged water infrastructure, including necessary water pumps. Afghanistan, to this day, is still in turmoil, leaving no priority for local governments to improve sanitation and increase access to clean water.

  3. Lack of Reservoirs, Canals and Infrastructure: One major aspect as to why Afghanistan has a difficult time accessing clean water is the evident lack of water infrastructure. Geographically, Afghanistan is a landlocked nation that automatically creates a difficult landscape to receive clean water; therefore, Afghanistan depends on the natural flow of the snow runoff coming from the mountains. There are reservoirs to collect this water, but it is just not enough. Because of the lack of proper water infrastructure, only 30 percent of the water derived from the runoff stays in Afghanistan. Investment towards improving infrastructure is also scarce as the government does not see it as a prominent issue.

  4. Open Defecation: Open defecation is an issue that many countries face on a daily basis; however, it has been an astonishingly prevalent issue in Afganistan. It places many of the individuals and families leaving near waterways in much danger as human waste spreads disease quickly. To combat this issue, UNICEF alongside the Ministries of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, Public Health and Education have partnered to end open defecation by 2025. They are pushing for the Community-Led Total Sanitation approach which advocates for people to build and use their own latrines.

  5. Increase Water Supply: In addition to implementing a plan against open defecation, UNICEF and the Ministries of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, Public Health, and Education have been working to increase water supply to impoverished communities. They aim to steer the public to get clean water through the reliance of rivers, streams, wells, etc. Also, UNICEF aims to increase the government’s capacity to construct local water supply systems. Because of this new agenda, more than 300,000 new people living in Afghanistan received clean water in 2017.

  6. Water Systems: UNICEF is prioritizing gravity-fed piped drinking water systems or systems with solar pumps instead of regular boreholes with handpumps. These methods should provide more water, easy maintenance and close proximity even though they are slightly more expensive. Right now, most of the water comes from the five major rivers in Afghanistan, but this system brings water in an efficient and sustainable way.

  7. Action Within Schools: An important place to advocate for proper sanitation would be in the school environment, and UNICEF has done just that. Working with the Ministry of Education, UNICEF has aimed to create clean school environments and provide proper hygiene information in Afghanistan. This plan includes providing clean water, separate bathrooms and new handwashing stations in schools. This program is growing and is starting to enter more schools.

  8. Sanitation Efforts Aimed at Women: Some have also taken action towards improving sanitation conditions within schools and workplace settings for women and girls. By installing separate bathrooms for males and females, it provides women the opportunity to manage menstruation in a clean environment. Also, the ongoing introduction of curricula surrounding menstrual hygiene promotes rehabilitation and helps girls all around Afghanistan.

  9. Proper Sanitation in Emergencies: Launched in 2005, UNICEF created the WASH emergency center in Afghanistan. This group of various organizations respond during emergencies and help provide clean water, hygiene education and sanitation facilities to the people. For example, they gave hygiene kits to displaced families in the village of Kamalpoor. The kits included soap, detergent, towels, sanitary pads and a plastic bucket to collect water.

  10. Health Centres: Most importantly, UNICEF has aimed to make sure that hospitals and health centers are in proper condition to treat patients. The WASH program implemented focused on improving infection programs and patient safety. It is important to pay attention to the health of patients and to decrease as many cases of disease and death as possible, especially in the case of women and children.

Although Afghanistan still has some way to go, it has made tremendous improvements to its sanitation systems. With continued aid from organizations like UNICEF, it should only continue its progression towards clean water and sanitation for all.

–  Srihita Adabala
Photo: Flickr

Sanitation in Guyana
Despite Guyana having the image of being a land of many waters, the country underfunds and underregulates its litter, sewer and waste management, thus compromising sanitation in Guyana. The country, however, shows excellent foundations for sanitary progress with controlled landfills, water and sewer improvements.

10 Facts About Sanitation in Guyana

  1. Underfunded Waste Management: Foundations for Guyana’s Solid Waste Management exist within The Municipal and District Councils Act as it designates the maintenance of sanitary services, including the removal and destruction of trash to the Mayor and City Council. Likewise, individuals must appropriately dispose of trash in receptacles. However, services remain underfunded due to inadequate tax collection. For example, in Georgetown (Region Four) and Linden (Region 10), the collection is respectfully at 70 and 20 percent. Thus, waste collection and transportation are constrained, resulting in irregular pickups.

  2. Unregulated Waste Management: National and regional regulations exist for sanitation, like penalties for illegal littering and dumping at G$5,000-$20,000. However, the Ministry of Health, municipalities, the police force and the EPA follow through on monitoring and enforcement duties at a minimal level. For example, due to a lack of sensitization in waste management, police refuse to see littering as a real issue.

  3. Littering Increases Plastic in Waterways: Littering and dumping persist due to minimal monitoring and enforcement. Data from a 2018 study focused on Guyana’s coastal regions, including Corriverton, 63 Beach, Rossignol, Mahaicony and Georgetown. It indicated that the highest concentration of litter including plastic bags, bottles and fragments was at 48.2 percent. Combined with an underfunded and unregulated waste management system and the forecasted Guyanese waste generation of 0.77 kilograms per person a day by 2024, non-biodegradables in waterways will continue to increase, resulting in blocked drains and exacerbating flooding.

  4. Sewage Access and Wastewater Management: Only 13 percent of the Guyanese population, mostly within the main Georgetown area, have access to modern sewage of flushable toilets, septic tanks, latrines or compostable toilets. As a result, untreated waste contaminates already flooding waters as both the Georgetown and Tucville sewage systems release untreated waste into the Demerara River and Laing Canal, compromising sanitation in Guyana.

  5. Disease from Disposal and Flooding: Due to litter and untreated sewage, flies, rodents and mosquitoes spread deadly diseases including typhoid, cholera, dysentery, leptospirosis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria and filariasis. On the other hand, contaminated water spreads diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, gastroenteritis and dysentery. For example, from 1996 to 1998, gastroenteritis deaths increased from 2,200 to 8,604. However, the country shows excellent improvement given that although such diarrheal diseases ranked number two for causes of death in Guyana at 8.9 percent in 1990, and that by 2010 it was number 12 at 2.9 percent of total deaths.

  6. Contaminated Water: Drinking water contamination is mostly due to improperly disposed of waste, including household, animal, agricultural, industrial, chemical and untreated sewage. Despite water contamination, safe drinking water is more accessible than previously. In 1994, only 88 percent of the population had such access as opposed to 98.3 percent in 2015. Such success is in part due to initiatives like the 2008 Turn Around Plan with Guyana Water Inc (GWI), that completed the rehabilitation of 100 kilometers of networked pipes and 24 Tucville sewer pumping stations. To further TAPs’ success, the 2012-2016 Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan increased Hinterland water coverage to about 80 percent, treated water coverage to 50 percent and invested $1.5 billion in new meters, pumps, motors and panels.

  7. Legal Disposal in EPA Landfills: While illegal methods of disposal threaten sanitation in Guyana, legal methods exist as a remedy. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency approved controlled dumping sites in at least six out of 10 regions because it intends to protect the environment from contaminants in the disposed waste.

  8. Improved Sewage in Georgetown: Local systems in Stevedore Postal Housing Scheme, Wortmanville, Werk-en-Rust and Albouystown to Queenstown received maintenance thanks to aid from GWI in 2016. For instance, the organization invested a part of its G$80 million capital to reduce blockages that illegal dumping caused.

  9. Upgraded Sanitary Facilities Outside of Georgetown: In 2016, loans from the Caribbean Investment Facility of EUR$10.6 million and the Inter American Development Bank of $16.8 million aided in The Water Supply And Sanitation Infrastructure Improvements Project of upgrading sanitary facilities. About 1,000 families across Georgetown and outer areas of Cornelia Ida, DeKendren, West Coast Demerara, Diamond, Herstelling, East Bank, Demerara, No. 19 Village Corentyne, Sheet Anchor, Good Bananen Land, East Canje and Berbice benefitted from Sanitary upgrades, signifying an important step as only 13 percent of the population had access to sanitary services before.

  10. GWI Sustainable Development Goal: GWI seeks sustainable water and sanitation management by 2030. Thanks to the loans this article discussed above, the free installation of 335 septic tanks in September 2019 should ensure that progress. The initiative favored those of low economic standing, including single mothers, teen girls, elderly and disabled, thus providing these demographics with an important human right.

These 10 facts about sanitation in Guyana show that it is on a progressive path. Developments such as legal disposal, improved sewage and sanitary facilities, eradicate water contamination and instead allow for Guyana to work on being the land of abundant clean water.

– Elizabeth Yusuff
Photo: Flickr