United Kingdom's Foreign Aid
The United Kingdom has boosted its foreign assistance to Ukraine with an additional £5 million (about $6.5 million) in humanitarian aid. Announced during a recent visit to London by Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, the United Kingdom’s foreign aid will help alleviate widespread suffering caused by the conflict in eastern Ukraine and the coronavirus pandemic.  Among other objectives, such assistance will allow for the procurement of food, water and medical supplies in addition to providing much-needed psychosocial support to victims of sexual and gender-based violence.

Furthermore, President Zelenskyy has also received a commitment from U.K. Prime Minister Boris Johnson for preferential trade and for greater cooperation between the two countries on issues relating to politics, security and foreign affairs.  The Political, Free Trade and Strategic Partnership Agreement that both leaders signed during their London meeting outlined these goals.  According to U.K. Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab, the combination of humanitarian assistance and bilateral cooperation “[…] is a clear demonstration of the U.K.’s commitment to Ukraine’s prosperity and security.”

Conflict in Crimea

The United Kingdom’s foreign aid will support efforts to address the humanitarian emergency in eastern Ukraine, which developed as the result of years of armed conflict.  After popular anti-government protests prompted former President Viktor Yanukovych to flee the country in February 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin seized the opportunity to send troops to Ukraine’s Crimean Peninsula.  His formal (and illegal) annexation of Crimea one month later exacerbated ethnic tensions throughout the region, inspiring pro-Russia Ukrainians to hold a referendum and declare their independence.

Since April 2014, violence between Russia-backed separatists and Ukrainian military forces has claimed the lives of more than 13,000 people, but many more have experienced serious injury.  Diplomatic efforts to broker a peaceful resolution have been unsuccessful; skirmishes and shelling continue, and unexploded landmines remain a serious threat.

As of December 2019, reports determined that 730,000 people were internally displaced in territories that the Ukrainian government controlled, while the majority of those who have remained in eastern Ukraine are elderly, ill or disabled. The United Nations has estimated that over 4 million people are dependent upon some form of humanitarian support, but this number could increase as temperatures drop during the coming months.

Economic Turmoil

Six years of bloodshed is not the only trial Ukrainians have faced, however; they must also contend with a struggling economy. Although poverty rates have fallen in recent years and President Zelenskyy has promised to root out corruption among the political elite, Ukraine currently ranks as the poorest country in Europe, with a GDP per capita of only $3,140. And yet, economic conditions could worsen significantly in the wake of COVID-19.

Even if the full extent of the pandemic’s financial impact is still unclear, the latest Economic Activity Report that Ukraine’s Ministry for Development of Economy, Trade and Agriculture released reveals that the country’s GDP decreased by 5.9% between January and May 2020. This has led the Cabinet of Ministers to predict that the Ukrainian economy may shrink by as much as 8% in 2020, with the potential for lower wages and greater unemployment. According to conservative estimates from UNICEF, the economic downturn could cause 6.3 million more people in Ukraine to fall into poverty, 1.4 million of these being children.

In the current context of a global health crisis layered above political and economic instability, an increase in the United Kingdom’s foreign aid to Ukraine will provide essential humanitarian relief. Moreover, the additional £5 million will also support essential projects to rebuild housing and health facilities and to help finance business ventures that encourage the country’s economic recovery. Finally, it is just a fraction of the total foreign aid—£40 million, or $51.8 million—that the British government has allocated to Ukraine during 2020.

Benefits of Foreign Aid

Beyond those benefits mentioned above, there are other significant advantages of the U.K.’s foreign aid and its Political, Free Trade and Strategic Partnership Agreement with Ukraine. These include:

  • Expressing the U.K.’s support for the protection of vulnerable people in eastern Ukraine and for the maintenance of an international community that respects human rights;
  • Creating a channel for the U.K. to pressure Ukrainian officials to enact reforms for future economic growth; and
  • Restoring peace in a democratic country whose stability is, as Foreign Secretary Raab stated, essential for the security of the entire European continent. This is especially true in light of Ukraine’s intention to join the European Union and the NATO alliance.

Combined with similar actions by other governments, including the E.U. and the United States, the steps in London earlier in October 2020 to increase the United Kingdom’s foreign aid and strengthen its ties with Ukraine will hopefully alleviate the immediate struggles of the Ukrainian people while bolstering their country’s efforts toward peace and recovery in the longer term.

– Angie Grigsby
Photo: Flickr

technology in Ukraine
Ukraine, despite its successful farming and metal industries, still suffers from elevated unemployment and static poverty levels. Due to foreign aggression and weak infrastructure, Ukraine has not been able to rebound from many of its economic downturns. Additionally, outdated models of production have caused the metallurgy sector to fall behind the global pace, and low productivity alongside restrictive laws limit Ukraine’s agricultural sector. As Ukraine looks to develop further, it has turned its focus to technology, creating a robust field that is rapidly expanding around the world. What was once a developing industry in Ukraine is transforming into a successful business model worldwide. As Ukraine continues to recover from the conflict and corruption plaguing its history, the continued expansion of technology into its economy will be the greatest investment for the country’s development. These five facts about technology in Ukraine are integral to understanding the country’s shifting economic state and transition out of poverty.

5 Facts About Technology in Ukraine

  1. Engineers and technicians were among the first to start businesses in Ukraine, which is a key factor in how the technology in Ukraine has grown to the industry it is today. One of the first companies that found international success was SoftServe, an outsourcing and out-staffing company. Two Ukrainian graduates founded the company in Lyiv and it now operates in the big data, cloud computing, DevOps, e-commerce, security and experience design technology sectors. SoftServe has grown into a company employing over 8,000 people in 35 offices worldwide.
  2. Ukraine’s tech engineers have already founded companies that have overtaken the global stage. Software companies saw unprecedented growth in the early 21st century, driven by increased demand and the introduction of an IT Creative Fund. One Ukrainian technology group founded during this period, Ciklum, provides client services including custom solutions development, quality engineering, data analytics and consulting. Now employing over 3,500 people, Ciklum has achieved recognition as a Fortune 500 company.
  3. Domestic economic developments have improved Ukraine’s ability to participate in the technology boom. The first development in the last decade is the drastically increased productivity of Ukrainian workers. Matching the efforts of surrounding developing economies such as Poland’s, Ukraine has been able to increase output per employee by about 22%. The second development comes in the rapid emergence of an information and communications technology sector, resulting in more than $3.5 billion in exports and accounting for more than a 10th of foreign investment in 2017.
  4. Individuals with Ukrainian heritage have become founders and leaders of some of the most powerful companies on the planet. The founder of the international messaging service WhatsApp, Jan Koum, is Ukrainian. Max Levchin, PayPal co-founder, and Alexander Galitsky, co-inventor of Wi-Fi, are of Ukrainian descent as well. Perhaps the most famous Ukrainian is the co-founder of Apple, Steve Wozniak. Ukrainians have played integral roles in the creation of many global businesses, and they participate in the development of economies worldwide.
  5. Kiev, the capital and most populated city in Ukraine, is home to one of the world’s most rapidly developing start-up hubs. Ukraine also boasts one of the world’s largest outsourcing hubs. Tens of thousands of workers are outsourced to Ukraine from companies like Oracle and Google, resulting in a thriving industry in the heart of Ukraine. Outsourcing technology firms like AMC Bridge, Ciklum, Miratech and Sigma Software are only some of the Ukrainian companies listed on the International Association of Outsourcing Professionals’ annual list of the world’s best outsourcing companies.

Despite these advancements in technology in Ukraine, in its fight against poverty, Ukraine still has a long road ahead. Progress has occurred through the development of technology, but many other industries lag behind due to continued attacks on Ukrainian infrastructure. Though Ukraine does well with regard to foreign investment, there are many avenues to establish greater connectivity with the global market that remain unexplored, especially within the European Union. With continued government support and a strong start-up culture, Ukraine has the potential to become a country that provides prosperity to its population.

Pratik Koppikar
Photo: Flickr

Child Poverty in Ukraine
Ukraine has been severely impacted by COVID-19, and poverty rates will likely increase dramatically. The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine released an official prediction on the absolute poverty implications of the pandemic. The analysis indicates that the impacts on child poverty in Ukraine will be the most severe.

Ukraine is Europe’s second-biggest and second-poorest country, just behind Moldova. The country has more than 46,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 as of 3 July, 2020. Many of the restrictions imposed on the country have been lifted as the country enters its adaptive quarantine stage, though social distancing and mask-wearing requirements remain in place.

Ominous Predictions

According to the World Bank, the negative economic impact of the pandemic will show through several courses. These include a decrease in disposable incomes and consumption, lower remittances caused by decreased economic activity throughout the E.U. and lower commodity prices that impact Ukrainian exports.

UNICEF is particularly concerned that the economic collapse will have the most adverse impacts on vulnerable groups such as single parents, multiple-children households, households with children younger than 3 and single pensioners over the age of 65. UNICEF also predicts that the absolute poverty rate in Ukraine will rise from 27% to 44%, and the child poverty rate will rise from 33% to 51%. Under the less severe prediction, that would mean 6.3 million more people will be living in poverty than before, of whom 1.4 million will be children. The more severe prediction shows 9 million more people will be living in poverty, 1.8 million of them children. To put this in perspective, in 2019 50% of the population was financially unprotected. That will likely increase as poverty levels go up.

Government Action

To mitigate these stark numbers, the Ukrianian Government has taken action on the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis. These actions include one-time payments for low-income pensioners and child disability payment beneficiaries.

Unfortunately, these payments are insufficient to combat increasing absolute poverty and child poverty in Ukraine. UNICEF says that children who live in poverty are more likely to be poor as adults, an issue that actually goes deeper than poverty itself, as the most disadvantaged children usually have disabilities, are girls or belong to minorities. For the potential 1.4 to 1.8 million children that will live in poverty due to the pandemic, this poses an immense threat to their economic mobility in adulthood.

Social Policy Programme

A solution to combat the inevitable increase in child poverty in Ukraine due to this crisis is UNICEF’s Social Policy Programme.  Through advocacy and technical support to the Government of Ukraine, this program promotes equity for children and improved social welfare. It expands across four main areas.

  1. Poverty Reduction and Macro Policies for Children: To address the drivers of poverty and social exclusion, there is a focus on improved measuring of the multidimensional aspects of child poverty. To promote child-centered family policies, issues of child poverty will be in a leading position of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy.

  2. Social Protection with a Focus on Integrated Modalities: This will improve cash transfer performance in poverty reduction for vulnerable children and/or displaced children and their families. Social protection programs will expand with a strengthened, locally driven intersectoral approach. This goes beyond cash transfers and includes case management and local social service provision.

  3. Public Finance for Children: For maximum impact of public expenditure on children, UNICEF works with line ministries and the Ministry of Finance. Children’s rights are prioritized.

  4. Local Governance and Accountability with focus on Child-Friendly Cities: UNICEF Ukraine works with local partners to fully realize children’s rights. The Child Friendly Cities initiative is a global movement that strengthens social inclusion, promotes child and youth participation and incentivizes local authorities to invest in the overall well-being of children.

While the full impacts of the COVID-19 crisis are still unknown, and with the devastating impact it has on poverty, continuing to combat child poverty in Ukraine is vital. Social welfare programs like UNICEF’s Social Policy Programme are essential to mitigate the effects of poverty, strengthen child care and enhance access to basic services. Investing in children will have a substantial impact on the future, and it is a necessary measure to combat poverty in Ukraine and around the world.

Rochelle Gluzma
Photo: Flickr

Healthcare in UkraineThe quality of healthcare in Ukraine is under debate as the country remains in the midst of a war with Russia. Citizens are also paying immense expenses out of pocket.

According to Ukrainian law, healthcare is free. However, this is not the reality that many of the country’s citizens experience when seeking medical treatment. Instead, a recent poll suggested that only 10% of patients were able to afford treatment. People all around Ukraine are avoiding going to the hospital for lack of proper funds.

Problems Contributing to Ukraine’s Healthcare System

There is no universal healthcare system in place. After gaining its independence in 1991, Ukraine did not properly create a healthcare system that would guarantee its citizens free access to treatment. Many citizens who may have received care when the nation was part of the Soviet Union are now unable to.

Medical professionals are receiving incredibly low pay. While the average monthly salary in the country is approximately 389.14 USD, the average doctor in Ukraine will receive between 140 and 280 USD per month. Other medical professionals will likely make even less. This has resulted in many Ukrainian doctors seeking employment outside of the country after receiving their degree.

Government leadership for healthcare in Ukraine has been changing so frequently that the citizens lack belief in growth. In their 29 years of independence, Ukraine has seen 21 Ministers of Health. Additionally, the current acting Minister of Health, Uliana Suprun, is Ukrainian by descent. However, she was born in America, which some citizens find concerning.

Corruption is rampant within the system. Doctors have acknowledged a system of nonofficial payments. However, it is understood that without them, healthcare in Ukraine would collapse. Therefore, there are relatively few Ukrainian citizens able to pay under the table, while the others simply hope for recovery.

A Nation at Risk

Without a stable or affordable healthcare system, the health of Ukrainian citizens is severely at risk. This is affecting the nation as a whole. For example, the country’s life expectancy of 71.6 years falls well below that of the average for Europe and Central Asia, which is 78 years. Also, as of 2016, the probability of dying between 15 and 60 years for males was 26.4% but only 9.8% for females.

Physical and Mental Health

A large portion of Ukrainian citizens is also battling tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS compared to other Eastern European countries. A significant barrier to the treatment of tuberculosis in the country is the high percentage of citizens experiencing multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. However, agencies across the United States including USAID are working to contain the spread of the disease.

Another critical concern to consider is the mental health of Ukrainian citizens affected by the Russo-Ukrainian war. The war has been ongoing since 2014. It primarily affects the eastern side of Ukraine with more than 10,000 civilian deaths and 1.5 million displaced citizens. There is currently very little structure in place to treat mental health conditions within Ukraine. Therefore, mental health became another primary focus of the USAID.

Although the outlook of healthcare in Ukraine appears bleak, some citizens have faith in recent government movements. President Petro Poroshenko stepped into the Ukrainian office in 2014. He proposed healthcare reform centered around increasing medical professional pay and dissolving corruption within the system. This reform along with the Minister of Health spur hope in many who feel they have waited too long for change.

Aradia Webb
Photo: Pixabay

Corruption in Ukraine
Massive corruption in the Ukrainian government has left Ukraine and its people in a state of developmental stagnation for decades. Despite this, in recent years, Ukraine has demonstrated its willingness to reform and change for the better through countless efforts to expose and clean up these corruptions. These 10 facts outline the specifics of corruption in Ukraine.

10 Facts About Corruption in Ukraine

  1. Corruption: According to Transparency International (TI), as of 2018, Ukraine ranked 120 out of 182 countries in TI’s Corruptions Perception Index, making it the second most corrupt country in all of Europe. A survey from Freedom House also indicated that the level of corruption in Ukraine had only slightly alleviated since the fall of the particularly corrupt Yanukovych presidency in 2014.
  2. Tax Reforms: Tax reform continues to be a major barrier in the fight against corruption in Ukraine. Outrageous tax schemes and gross misuse of funds led to a 35 percent VAT compliance gap in the 2012-2013 fiscal year, compared to the 6 percent gap recorded in 2011. In 2014, new authority investigations found that $37 billion of the country’s overall budget disappeared due to fraudulent tax schemes. Experts speculate that during Yanukovych’s presidency, a total of $9 billion went unaccounted for and at least $2 billion of that went into the pockets of Yanukovych’s family coffers.
  3. Banking: Another major contribution to the corruption in Ukraine lies within its banking sector. The severity of corruption within Ukrainian banks became especially apparent during the 2014 banking crisis. Most banks involved themselves in the money-laundering Ponzi schemes. The banking systems were so corrupt that out of 182 of the nation’s banks, 98 of them have been or are in the process of being completely liquidated. Strict anti-money-laundering laws and tighter control over cash-flow have helped alleviate some of this corruption. In addition, banks that survived the crisis are now liable for any losses their clients suffer due to fraudulent banking practices.
  4. Government Accountability: Quintagroup aimed to reach a higher level of government accountability by creating a transparent electronic procurement system for officials to use. The system, ProZorro, allows users to view all procurements, government contracts and funds from electronic platforms, ensuring the transparency of public funding and procurement procedures. The Ministry of Infrastructure, Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Economy are among some of the government entities currently in the system. Since its 2014 launch, the system has saved Ukraine $1.1 billion in costs to the state, annually.
  5. Gas and Natural Resources: Ukraine’s elite took advantage of the discrepancy between subsidized and market gas prices, skimming billions of dollars from state funding. One major gas company, Naftogaz, is largely responsible for creating a domestic reliance on Russian-imported gas by penalizing domestic gas production and discouraging efficient energy methods. To combat this type of corruption in Ukraine, the IMF (International Monetary Fund) stepped in and insisted that the country equalize household and commercial gas tariffs and sought to improve transparency in the gas markets. With the reforms implemented by new officials, Naftogaz became a profitable contributor to the state budget and in 2018 accounted for 19.3 percent of state revenue. That revenue allowed UVG (a gas production subsidiary of Naftogaz) to boost domestic production by 4.2 percent in 2017.
  6. De-Monopolization: During Yanukovych’s presidency, the oligarch’s established formal and informal monopolies, both locally and nationwide. These monopolies formed under informal business agreements that provided corrupt officials total control over a sector of their choosing. In 2015, the State Anti-Monopoly carried out an examination of the condition of Ukraine’s various markets. The results indicated that only 42.7 percent of all markets were still competitive and 9.8 percent of them were still completely monopolized by corrupt government officials.
  7. Justice Systems: Distrust for the justice system in Ukraine is widespread. In fact, Ukraine ranked 101 out of 109 countries in the 2017 Index of Public Integrity. Opinion polls taken in 2016 recorded that only 3 to 5 percent of the population had any trust in the country’s justice system. In the same year, Ukraine took its first steps towards judicial improvement with the establishment of a new Supreme Court. This did little to gain public trust, however, as recruitment of new judicial officials was only half-way transparent. The Public Integrity Council of Ukraine found that 25 out the 113 new judges were unfit.
  8. Higher Education: Surprisingly, another major facet of corruption in Ukraine lies within the country’s institutions of higher education. Bribery demands from professors, deans and department boards have increased in recent years and show no sign of slowing down. According to a student/teacher violation monitoring website, students attending these institutions reported more than 400 violations, 41 percent of them being related to bribery. To combat this widespread corruption, the Ukrainian Parliament passed a law in 2012 that required institutions to post all financial documents online. Despite this effort, only a very small portion of universities actually complied with the new requirement.
  9. Deregulation: Since the Maiden Revolution of 2014, Ukraine has abolished several corrupted agencies and costly, dated regulations through deregulation. Among the various government agencies that Ukraine abolished for high levels of corruption were the Price Inspectorate, Traffic Police Inspectorate and the Real Estate Registration Agency. Between 2014 and 2015, the country also got rid of price regulations while it reassessed and updated others accordingly.
  10. Law Enforcement: Reform in Ukraine’s law enforcement sector is slow-moving and still largely operates under communist influence. But, in 2014 an organization known as the patrol police emerged. The patrol service has developed a positive reputation for recruiting and training officials according to a much higher standard than officers working under the country’s primary police force. In the years since its creation, the patrol service has enlisted 13,000 officers in 33 different cities nationwide. The organization accounts for only a small portion of the country’s law enforcement, but its continuing growth, increased backing from international partners and civil society organizations have proven it to be an entity dedicated to ending corruption in Ukraine.

Despite endemic corruption in Ukraine, its people have clearly not given up on improving their quality of life through reform. Since 2014, Ukraine has taken strides, big and small, to combat corrupt systems and has proven that it is capable of change.

Ashlyn Jensen
Photo: Flickr

Ukraine's IT and software
After the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, many believed Ukraine would climb quickly up the economic ladder. Until recently, government corruption and political instability kept the country in a state of economic stagnation. Over the last two decades, however, the nation’s information technology and software development sectors grew rapidly, helping immensely to boost Ukraine’s economy.

Ukraine Becomes a Major Player

People did not fully recognize the potential of Ukraine’s IT and software industries until 2011 after service exports nationwide exceeded $1 billion. This large revenue also helped the country gain its rank as the 26th most attractive country for outsourced tech services. The following year, the Ukrainian Hi-Tech Initiative conducted a report which ranked Ukraine among the top 10 countries with the most certified IT specialists. Out of the 250,000 Ukrainian IT specialists employed in 2014, over 40,000 of them were certified. Ukraine continues to gain global attention and its rapidly growing IT sector made it one of the most attractive nations for investors and venture capitalists.

The Ukrainian Venture Capital and Private Equity Association recorded that between 2013 and 2018, venture capitalist companies invested $630 million into Ukrainian tech start-ups. Lviv, another major IT city in Ukraine’s Innovation District IT park recently received a $160 million grant. The generous grant provided 14,000 new workplaces in the park. Among the workplaces were tech-labs, hotels and restaurants. This expansion created an array of employment opportunities, which helped to boost Ukraine’s economy even more.

The successful growth of these industries had so much impact that Ukrainian universities had to create specialized degree programs to cater to them exclusively. As of 2018, there were 13,836 students studying at universities with tech programs. Out of the 13,836 students, 5,000 will graduate with the skill-set needed to become IT professionals in Ukraine’s cluster of tech-centered cities. The IT Future Survey from 2018 indicated that 82 percent of all Ukrainian students wanted to pursue a career in IT or software development. To be specific, in 2017, the Lviv IT cluster launched four new tech programs including robotics, cybersecurity, business analysis and life safety. In addition, the cluster also opened four new innovation labs for IT students. The labs should help students master their skill sets in AI tech, machine learning, data science and an array of other cutting-edge technologies.

Outsourcing Services and Real Estate Demand Boosts Ukraine’s Economy

In recent years, the demand for Ukraine’s IT and software services increased exponentially. Consequently, this creates a demand for firms to buy real estate to house their growing businesses. A Cushman & Wakefield property market analysis indicated that in the first half of 2017, IT companies accounted for 50 percent of all office transactions in the city of Kyiv. Tech companies also account for 60 percent of all office rentals in Kyiv’s Gulliver Business Center, a major hub for the city’s tech industry. Other Ukrainian tech-hub cities like Lviv, Odesa and Kharkiv helped boost Ukraine’s economy through these same areas.

Ukrainian tech companies do a majority of their business through outsourcing services. A report conducted by the investment firm AVentures Capital indicated that at least 500 firms provided tech services to the global market. As of 2018, software development became the second largest export service in the world with Ukraine being responsible for 20 percent of those exports globally. With a current market growth of 26 percent, and between 160,000 and 172,000 Ukrainians being software and IT professionals, Ukraine boasts the largest and fastest growth of these industries in all of Europe. Experts speculate that services of this nature are well on their way to becoming the number one export in the country.

Ukraine’s IT and Software Sectors Create Jobs

This growth helped boost Ukraine’s economy and has also provided Ukrainian people with employment opportunities from clients abroad without the direct involvement of their corrupt government systems. The exports of Ukraine’s IT and software services were worth $3.6 billion. In addition, outsourcing companies provided more than 100,000 software development jobs in the country’s IT sector in 2018.

SoftServe, an American outsourcing company, provided 6,000 employment opportunities for Ukrainian IT specialists. The firm also accepts 800 new recruits annually for a six-month training program. A recorded 70 percent of the program’s participants graduate to gainful employment in IT and software development. Moreover, for every software and IT professional that a company hires in Ukraine, four more jobs in various industries open from that one employment opportunity. The growth of these industries had such a large impact on Ukraine that tech companies can almost guarantee a steady inflow into the country’s economy within a few years.

Although Ukraine has a long road to becoming a fully developed country, its people have made impactful improvements over the last couple of decades. Despite the tireless oppression it faced, Ukraine proved that it has the potential to be a world superpower in innovation, creativity and technology.

Ashlyn Jensen 
Photo: Flickr

Facts About Joseph Stalin
Born on Dec 18, 1878, Joseph Stalin served as the Soviet Union’s Premier and the General Secretary of the Communist Party. Here are 10 horrendous facts about Joseph Stalin.

10 Horrendous Facts About Joseph Stalin

  1. As the Communist Party’s General Secretary, Stalin conducted so-called purges throughout the 1930s during which his administration imprisoned, exiled or executed political enemies and ethnic minorities. The time between 1936 and 1938 was the Great Purge and Stalin had approximately 750,000 people executed and sent millions to forced labor camps. In a forest by Toksovo, a small town near St. Petersburg, human rights workers discovered a mass grave of more than 30,000 victims in 2002.
  2. The First Plan, implemented in 1928, had a motive to modernize the Soviet Union’s industry. Stalin introduced the concept of collectivization by taking control of farmers’ lands. As a result, many farmers had to move towards cities for work. Stalin created state-run farms in the usurped lands and introduced time-specific quotas for the remaining farmers. These farmers could not eat the food they produced unless they reached the quotas they had to send to the cities. Subsequently, between 7 and 8 million people died on these rural lands from starvation and severe working conditions.
  3. Stalin designed and nurtured a famine throughout Ukraine between 1932 and 1933 that resulted in the death of approximately 7 million people. The Communist Party specifically targeted Ukraine for its efforts in gaining independence from Soviet rule. Stalin enforced quotas on Ukrainian farms to agricultural products to the Soviet Union. These quotas continued to increase until there was not enough food to sustain Ukrainian populations. When Ukrainian Communists appealed to the Soviet administration, Stalin used military force to purge the Ukrainian Communist Party and subsequently sealed Ukraine’s borders to prevent the shipment of food into the country. Additionally, Soviet forces confiscated all food sources from private Ukrainian residences.
  4. In 1919, Vladimir Lenin established the first Soviet forced labor camps. However, these camps, called the Gulags, did not reach full notoriety until the early 1930s under Stalin’s rule. Prisoners at the Gulags had to work at least 14 hours of demanding physical labor every day. These tasks included felling trees and digging frozen Soviet lands with rudimentary tools or mining coal and copper by hand. Prisoners received food based on how much work they completed in a day, however, even a full ration was insignificant. This labor force comprised of robbers, rapists, murderers, thieves and political enemies. Yet the majority of the prisoners were those the Soviets arrested for petty theft, lateness or unexcused absences from work.
  5. During Stalin’s early reign, the communist regime promoted the elimination of religion by confiscating church property, belittling religious beliefs and believers as well as promoting the indoctrination of atheism in schools. The Soviets exected the majority of the Russian Orthodox Church clergy and followers or sent them to the Gulags. The communist regime almost completely blocked the practice of Judaism instigated the systematic suppression of Islam until 1941.
  6. One of Stalin’s most heavily used tactics of oppression was censorship. Stalin cultivated a personality cult of artists that the state forced to create work that glorified the dictator. Those who read literature, viewed paintings and listened to music that the Soviet administration did not approve would have to go to the Gulags. Many artists committed suicide or attempted to flee the country in response.
  7. The Communist Party strictly controlled Education in the Soviet Union and based it on indoctrination. The government dictated which subjects schools could teach and test on. Teachers would teach History classes using materials that Stalin appointed, like the book A Short History of the USSR.
  8. Children received encouragement to join youth organizations outside of schools. Three tiers of these organizations existed: for 8 to 10-year-olds, there were the Octobrists; for 10 to 16-year-olds, the Pioneers; and for 19 to 23-year-olds, the Komsomol. Such organizations taught children how to be good communists. Stalin’s motive behind these youth clubs was to indoctrinate Soviet children into unquestioning obedience to the Communist Party. Further, when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, children as young as those in the Pioneers tier received arms to defend the State.
  9. Stalin’s rule of the Soviet Union deported over 1.5 million people. The majority of these people were Muslim. Reasons for deportation included resisting Soviet rule, ethnicity, religion and collusion with Germany’s occupational forces. The Soviets had deportees rounded up in cattle cars and taken to resettlement locations like Siberia or Uzbekistan where almost two-fifths of resettled populations died.
  10. Following World War II, Stalin began a press campaign of attacks on Jewish culture and Zionism. In 1948, the Jewish Antifascist Committee, an organization promoting Soviet policies, Stalin’s forces had it disbanded and its chairman assassinated.

As seen by the aforementioned 10 facts about Joseph Stalin, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union created immense suffering and strife under Stalin’s reign. Scholars and historians assert that between 20 and 60 million people died as a result of Joseph Stalin’s dictatorship.

Bhavya Girotra
Photo: Flickr


Medical Reform in Ukraine
Ukraine is one of the most poverty-stricken countries in the world. In fact, people often consider it to be the poorest country of all. Recently, a new medical reform has emerged that promises a brighter future for Ukraine. It will not solve the entire problem of poverty in Ukraine, but it will make health care easier to afford, and therefore, be a step towards better conditions for its citizens.

Medical Reform

The main objectives of the medical reform are to focus on patient-first goals including incorporating new electronic medical services for recordkeeping and prescription services, opening the Affordable Medicines program and implementing government-guaranteed packages of health care services so that the National Health Service of Ukraine acts as a third party focusing on the patient and more. All of these new programs and changes will provide a way for the people of Ukraine to address their medical needs and receive care that is affordable for them.

For example, over 6.6 million Ukrainians have already used the Affordable Medicines program. They received the drugs they needed from the program and the drugs were “based on 28 million prescriptions worth UAH (Ukrainian Hryvnia) 1.3 Billion.” Now, about 7,937 drug stores are part of the program. The Affordable Medicines program has achieved giving the citizens of Ukraine access to medications that are usually difficult to obtain, primarily due to cost factors. The medical reform in Ukraine emerged precisely for these purposes. It strives to give better health care to the citizens of this country on a person by person basis.

High-Quality Medical Services

The most recent medical reform in Ukraine occurred in 2019. It involved giving people access to high-quality medical services, such as ultrasound exams and biopsies. These services are new additions to the medical reform. It also expanded the Affordable Drugs program so that it will provide free medicines for cardiovascular diseases, bronchial asthma and type II diabetes.

The Ministry of Health of Ukraine calculated that more than 24 million Ukrainians were able to start receiving high-quality medical services since they signed declarations with their doctors. Ukraine is working more and more towards making expensive medicines and treatments more accessible for its citizens. With this newest reform, more people are able to get the types of treatment they need that were previously inaccessible or unavailable, thereby getting them closer to curing their ailments. The steps the country is taking are slow to accomplish, but it is building a system for better overall health care in Ukraine.

Electronic Document Management

Another important aspect that is Ukraine’s health care system is implementing is electronic document management. Nowadays, technology is prevalent and sometimes the only way to access information directly. The newly developed electronic document management in Ukraine gives people easy access to necessities such as medicine. The documents that the electronic system handles include medical cards, sick leave certificates, drug orders, appointments with doctors and patient record-keeping by doctors. Incorporating these types of documents into the medical electronic managing system makes a patient’s medical records and history easier to keep track of and easier to treat in an orderly fashion.

While the poverty conditions in Ukraine are still a major problem, the country is taking steps to make it more manageable and move towards improving the quality of life for its citizens. This is especially true with the medical reform in Ukraine. Affordable, timely, and accessible medical care will improve the health and lives of people in need.

– Haley Saffren
Photo: Flickr

Mental Health In Ukraine

Since gaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine has faced many troubles. As of early 2014, Ukraine has been in nearly continual conflict with Russia and Eastern Ukraine’s pro-Russian separatists. Ukraine is also home to almost 45 million people. In July 2018, over 1.5 million people were internally displaced, meaning that they had to leave their homes as a result of the fighting. Mental health in Ukraine is affected by the enduring strife in their country.

Issues Impacting Mental Health in Ukraine

Many of those living in Ukraine deal with problems like anxiety and depression, that negatively influence their mental health. These conditions are exacerbated by turmoil. Citizens of Ukraine have dealt with the consequences and brutalities of war, including casualties of friends and family members. Some have had to leave behind the places they call home.

In addition, physical threats are also often an issue. Those living in war zones or even partial cease-fire zones, such as the line of contact through Donetsk and Luhansk, are in constant danger. Roughly 3,300 civilians were killed from 2014 to 2018.

Mental health care is also taboo in Ukraine. During the Soviet era, mental health issues were used as an excuse to imprison in asylums those with differing political beliefs from those in power. The ramifications of this injustice persist today, with many skeptical of psychiatry.

This taboo worsens the effects of anxiety and depression. One survey of 1,000 internally displaced individuals found that 20 percent of those internally displaced suffer from moderately severe to severe anxiety. Also, 25 percent suffered from moderately severe to severe depression. These numbers are significantly higher than the percentage of people suffering from anxiety or depression in the United Kingdom.

The stigma surrounding mental health deters some from voicing their struggles. The matter is further complicated as people who prefer to speak with Church leaders are now unable to do so because many leaders have also fled out of necessity. Those living in separatist territories are denied access to a psychological help hotline. Also, up to 77 percent of the internally displaced are completely deprived of any and all forms of professional help.

Organizations Working to Improve Mental Health in Ukraine

UNICEF has a mobile outreach program that aims to provide psychosocial support to the people of Ukraine. These individual and group activities are designed to focus on relieving anxiety and fear, issues that are abundant in the turbulent areas. UNICEF’s efforts are near the line of contact and provide help for children and their caregivers; 1,792 people were helped by these efforts during January 2019.

Also, UNICEF established the aforementioned hotline for both legal and psychological relief. In 2017, over 43,000 calls were made to the hotline. This outlet for help provides much-needed support to those in need.

The WHO, in cooperation with Ukrainian health authorities, also created a mobile mental health center to provide psychological services, support and education. The program is community-based. Based on the success of the four mobile units across the conflict areas, this system may be implemented on a larger scale as a measure to reform mental health care in Ukraine.

Johns Hopkins University, along with USAID, recently completed a project that started in March 2015 in Ukraine. The design sought to improve the mental health of community members and research the effects that conflict has had on the population.

With the help of these organizations and more, hopefully, the effects of the Ukrainian struggle on mental health can be alleviated. The programs are working to find workable solutions to mental health stigmas and to provide relief for those facing issues with mental health in Ukraine.

– Carolyn Newsome
Photo: Flickr

Mental Health in Ukraine
The embattled eastern European country of Ukraine faces increasing levels of poverty as the majority of the population is unable to afford required expenses, 28 years after the country earned its independence. Compared to countries in the European Union, Ukraine’s poverty indicator is 1.6 times higher. Rising rates of unemployment, disconnections, lack of education and conflict impact the state of mental health in Ukraine. At the start of the war in 2014, Ukraine ranked second on the list of the top 10 most depressed countries in the world.

The Current State of Mental Health in Ukraine

Due to the armed conflict plaguing the nation, 32 percent of Ukrainians suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, 22 percent suffer from depression and 17 percent suffer from anxiety. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), there is an average of 9,024 deaths due to suicide per year, ranking Ukraine at 21 for the countries with the highest rates of suicide. Data from the World Bank suggests that nearly one-third of the Ukrainian population experiences at least one mental health disorder during their life, which is higher than the global average. The 1.6 million Ukrainians that the conflict displaced and those still residing in areas of conflict are amongst the most vulnerable populations for mental health disorders.

Seventy-four percent of the population reported they were unable to receive necessary psychiatric care because of the high costs of care and medicine. Stigma, prejudice and fear of societal rejection further complicate the lack of mental health care in Ukraine.

Moving Toward the Future

The Ukrainian health care system currently models the Soviet’s, and despite 28 years of independence, it has seen little change and lags behind the developed world. There has been a call to integrate mental health care with the ongoing health care reform in Ukraine. Currently, the country devotes only 2.5 percent of the budget within the health care sector to mental health. Eighty-nine percent of the allocation goes to psychiatric hospitals. Decentralization of care would protect patient confidentiality, shrinking the widespread stigma. Inappropriate treatment aggravates the problem of mental health, with the inability to diagnose or the offering of a misdiagnosis. In moving forward, financing needs to increase, referral pathways should strengthen and mental health services must integrate into the existing health care platforms.

USAID in Ukraine

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) assists Ukraine in developing its health system with the overall aim of assuring the Ukrainian population receives modern care from knowledgeable, trained medical professionals. USAID and Ukraine’s partnership is to ensure those the conflict impacted in the eastern part of the country benefit from the appropriate psychosocial support and treatment that demonstrates effectiveness.

With help from the USAID and a focus on mental health moving forward, Ukraine looks to improve its care for those suffering from mental health disorders. Despite high levels of poverty and conflict plaguing the nation, there is a promising future for the care of mental health in Ukraine.

– Gwen Schemm
Photo: Flickr