Girls' Education in TuvaluOn the remote Pacific Island country of Tuvalu, the expectations for men and women are distinct. Women are expected to adopt a subordinate role, are usually less involved in politics and are not provided the same legal protections as men especially in regards to child custody or inheritance. If they work in the formal economy, they are generally expected to be teachers and nurses. Yet, Tuvalu has one of the highest gender development ratios in the Pacific Island region. At least in part, this favorable ranking is the result of the state of girls’ education in Tuvalu.

Education in Tuvalu

According to the Education for All 2000 Assessment, Tuvalu has had a longstanding commitment to universal access to basic education. The government has explicitly cited that a child cannot be denied an education based on their sex. However, proximity to the school and academic achievement continue to be the biggest barriers in secondary education.

Though pre-primary and primary schools are numerous, secondary schools are much more difficult to access. There are 18 Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centers and 10 primary schools. Each of the 9 main islands has its own government primary school and there is an additional faith-based private school located in the capital, Funafuti.

In contrast, there are only two secondary schools. Therefore, in order to attend secondary school, the student must relocate to the island on which the school resides. There is a public boarding school located on the island of Vaitupu, and a faith-based private school located in Funafuti.

These schools do not discriminate between sex, but the student’s admittance into these schools is dependent upon the student’s performance on the National Year Eight Examination (NYEE). If the student is successful, then the student proceeds to an additional four years of schooling, two of which would be compulsory. If the student is not successful, then they have several options: (1) repeat year eight, (2) enroll in vocational training or (3) illegally drop-out of school.  

Girls’ Education in Tuvalu

While girls’ education in Tuvalu is provided throughout pre-primary, primary and secondary schools, girls are not allowed access to vocational training.  Vocational training in Tuvalu consists of The Tuvalu Maritime Training Institute (TMTI) as well as Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) courses. These programs provide training for vocations that are reserved for men in Tuvaluan society such as farming, fishing, carpentry and welding.

Perhaps because women are unable to pursue the vocational training alternatives, girls are actually more likely to progress to secondary school than their male counterparts. Prior to secondary school, in pre-primary and primary schooling, females account for a little under half of the student population.

This is reflective of the nations demographic of which females make up a little under half of the nation’s population. However, according to the 2015 National Educational Review report, females consistently make up nearly two-thirds of the student population enrolled in secondary school.  

Girls generally outperform their male counterparts throughout their educational careers. In 2013, 64.2 percent of girls who sat for the NYEE passed the exam. Only 58.6 percent of boys passed the exam that same year. As a result, 12 boys dropped out of school that year. Only one female dropped out.

Of the roughly 35 percent of females that did not pass the exam that year, 33 percent re-enrolled in year eight. Of the 41 percent of males that failed, only 29 percent re-enrolled. This is likely due to the fact that boys have vocational alternatives that do not require passage of the NYEE.

Following secondary school, both genders have access to tertiary education. Both The University of South Pacific and Fiji National University have campuses in Tuvalu, and more programs can be explored in Australia and New Zealand.

A Positive Future For Women in Tuvalu

Tuvalu’s current strategy to address gender inequality in the country is outlined in a document called Te Kakeega III. The country intends to amend gender-biased laws by the year 2020. Furthermore, the country is actively promoting women’s political involvement. As a result, more women now hold positions in the health and education sectors as well as some top positions in several non-government organizations.

And they are not alone, other groups, like Pacific Women, are working to change the way that women are seen in society to bring about gender equality. Their three-year plan will invest 1.8 million while working with the Department of Gender Affairs to give a voice to the women of Tuvalu.

Girls’ education in Tuvalu already provides the foundation for combatting pre-existing inequality. The next step is addressing Tuvaluan societal expectations. With the help of groups like these and government support, Tuvalu has a great chance of being a positive example not only for girls’ education in Tuvalu but also for a gender-equal society.

Joanna Dooley

Photo: Flickr

sustainable agriculture in TuvaluSustainable agriculture in Tuvalu, a small island developing state (SIDS), requires a cooperative network of individuals that understand and manage an unsure climate and disaster risk. Tuvalu consists of nine islands with its highest point being only a few meters above sea level. This makes for an unfriendly climate and physical environment as well as poor land resources and soil.


Agricultural Challenges

Due to the harsh variation in the climate, Tuvalu faces major setbacks in agricultural development.  This forces the government to rely heavily on imported food, rather than locally produced food, to feed the country. According to the USAID Demographic Health Survey, the lack of sustainable agriculture in Tuvalu in 2007 caused a reported 61.2 percent of children under five years old to become anemic because of insufficient nutrients found in vegetables. This resulted in further issues as inflation hiked to 12 percent in 2008 instilling a reliance on imported food that has threatened the health of the country’s children.

Most of the crops grown in the villages are kept for individual sustenance (the taro, breadfruit, pandanus, pumpkin, etc.) with production being limited and often damaged by animals. Coconut trees remain the country’s largest crop and export, despite the high prices and restricted amount of exports by the government.


Sustainable Solutions

To create a reliable food source, the government turned its focus to home gardening, teaching Tuvalu’s women and children how to produce nutritious foods in their backyards to promote health. According to the 2005-2015 Tuvalu National Strategy for Sustainable Development, there is hope for revamping the country’s agricultural practices that have declined or been forgotten due to increasing urbanization, specifically on the local level within the villages.

Sustainable agriculture in Tuvalu centers on creating a reliable food source that can survive the country’s harsh climate and soil conditions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) partnered with Tuvalu in 2003 to develop an environmentally secure source of food production. The Secretariat of the Pacific Community’s Centre for Pacific Crops and Trees supplied a banana plant that can resist the climate, the black sigatoka disease along with 20 other diseases that are common among plant crops.

Local farmers have been supplied with these disease-resistant plantlets for crops that could support local and household consumption. Workshops and field demonstrations provided by the FAO to farmers and extension officers have helped boost the success of these crops significantly. They demonstrated two cultivation systems appropriate for the successful production of these crops in Tuvalu’s environment.

The FAO provided further workshops to teach farmers how to protect plants against invasive pests and harmful plant species. Educating farmers on these matters is key to creating sustainable agriculture in Tuvalu. Through continued education and working directly with local farmers, Tuvalu’s economy and agriculture will improve.

– Kayla Rafkin

Photo: Flickr

Humanitarian Aid to TuvaluTuvalu is an independent island country consisting of nine islands in the South Pacific. As one of the smallest countries in the world, Tuvalu’s economy is constrained. This is also affected by the country’s remoteness.

Despite Tuvalu remaining fiscally resilient, the poverty rate is still high. The small economy does not allow room to grow and the country has few exports, meaning that Tuvalu relies almost entirely on foreign aid. As of 2015, about 89.2 percent of the Growth National Income (GNI) was in foreign humanitarian aid to Tuvalu.

Tuvalu’s primary donor and partner in humanitarian aid is New Zealand. Official visits between Tuvalu and New Zealand began in 2010 and New Zealand created an official partnership in 2015 in order to bring humanitarian aid to Tuvalu. However, New Zealand has been helping fund Tuvalu since the 1980s. In 1987, New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom created the Tuvalu Trust Fund, an international fund dedicated to benefitting Tuvalu. The goal of the fund is to help Tuvalu reach financial autonomy.

New Zealand has continued to support and send humanitarian aid to Tuvalu, especially after Tuvalu joined the United Nations in 2000. The New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade introduced and started implementing the New Zealand Aid Programme 2015-2019 in Tuvalu in early 2015. The program’s goal is to increase economic growth and create a sustainable economy, reduce poverty and increase Tuvalu’s resilience to natural disasters. Through the implementation of this program, New Zealand and Tuvalu have signed a Joint Commitment for Development.

The majority of the program’s funding goes toward activities and initiatives in Tuvalu. As of 2017, New Zealand’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade has spent $9 million in humanitarian aid to Tuvalu. Though the program is still new, improvements in Tuvalu have already begun. The Tuvalu Trust Fund has successfully adopted a new investment strategy which has resulted in economic growth. This has strengthened economic governance, returning just under $9 million to the government.

Furthermore, Tuvalu has seen a strengthening of resilience against natural disasters, specifically in Tuvalu’s capital Funafuti. The program has also funded the fixing of the Tagako Breach, a thin strip of land on the island of Funafuti. This has improved Tuvalu’s stability during cyclones and storms.

Though New Zealand has already helped create some stability and relief in Tuvalu, it is still working to make a more sustainable and prosperous economy in the country. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, through the New Zealand Aid Program, offers scholarships to Tuvaluan scholars. The applications open in early 2018 and studying will begin in early 2019. The goal of these scholarships is to help young Tuvaluans get an education they can use to improve the development of their country.

New Zealand will also fund and implement the Tuvalu Borrow Pits Rehabilitation Project in 2018. Based mainly in Funafuti, the aim of the project is to improve the living standards, sanitation services and access to clean water. The project will fill up 10 borrow pits on the Funafuti Atoll. The project has already been approved.

The humanitarian aid to Tuvalu from New Zealand seems small but has already started making a difference. New Zealand has laid the groundwork for Tuvalu to continue to improve for years to come.

– Courtney Wallace

Photo: Flickr

Education in TuvaluEducation in Tuvalu: Increasing Failure Rates

The South Pacific nation of Tuvalu is comprised of only 11,000 citizens. Tuvalu’s small population and its remote location require a specialized economy. Tuvaluan citizens work in tourism, agriculture, an increasingly respected internet domain and a prevalent maritime industry. However, education in Tuvalu is seeing a rising failure rate compared to Australia and other neighboring countries.

Primary Education

Tuvaluan children attend primary school starting at age seven. Nearly a sixth of Tuvalu attends one of the 11 primary schools across the small country. Despite the high percentage of Tuvaluans in primary school, there is a relatively small teacher-to-student ratio — nearly 1:18 — and the country enjoys a 99 percent literacy rate.

Education in Tuvalu is compulsory for seven years and is free for its students. The accessibility of primary education is an incredible advantage for its citizens and paves the way for further education.

Secondary Education

While not compulsory, Tuvalu offers a strong secondary education system. Secondary schools such as the Tuvalu Maritime Training Institute strive to integrate Tuvaluans into their seafaring industry. For students who don’t excel academically, Tuvalu has created vocational schools that help train students with technical skills for other jobs throughout the country.

On the far end of the spectrum, Tuvalu provides Community Training Centres for students who are unable to pass entry exams for secondary schools. Education in Tuvalu, therefore, allows training for every citizen. Despite this, failure rates are rising, putting a strain on the national economy.

Increasing Failure Rates

While the population has grown in Tuvalu, the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) has decreased. Since 2012, Tuvalu’s GDP has shrunk from an all-time high of nearly $40 million by nine percent. This may be explained, in part, by the increasing failure rates in Tuvaluan schools. In recent years, 40 percent of students applying for secondary education have failed their entrance examinations.

This discrepancy makes it clear that while students are required to go to primary school, a large portion of students are not taking advantage of the accessibility of secondary education in Tuvalu. Options at that point are scant; failing students are either pushed out of the educational system or must retake higher levels of primary school in order to achieve the required results. 

What Can be Done

Education in Tuvalu allows for easily accessible training. However, the increasing failure rates from primary schools are mirrored by a decreasing GDP. Educators are being brought in from neighboring countries, and Tuvaluans are experiencing the consequences of a decreasing economy.

Due to Tuvalu’s small population and specialized economy, options are limited for the 40 percent of failing students. Tuvalu would benefit from legistlation and organizations that strive to raise pass rates among its students. It is vital that the country’s pass rates and GDP rise along with an increasing population.  

– Eric Paulsen

Photo: Flickr

Tuvalu Poverty RateConsisting of nine small islands in the South Pacific, Tuvalu is known for its social programs and fiscal resilience. However, the Tuvalu poverty rate remains a large impediment to the nation’s development.

Being one of the smallest countries in the world, the country remains in isolation and depends significantly on imports such as food and fuel. With poor natural resource endowments other than fisheries, the Tuvalu poverty rate can be attributed to the minuscule opportunities for monetary gain and the dependence on the outside world.

The most recent record of the poverty rate in Tuvalu was in 2010, placing 26.3 percent of the country’s population below the poverty line. While poverty has declined in the country since the mid-1990s, the lack of local employment opportunities has manifested in high levels of unemployment, which increases the burden of low earnings.

In addition to low employment rates, climate change has also had a significant effect on the people living on Tuvalu’s islands. A recent study found that a significant proportion of individuals living on the islands suffered monetary losses due to natural disasters. Cyclone Pam, the natural disaster that swept over the island in 2015, proved this, as 45 percent of the nation’s population was displaced due to the storm’s effects.

With the highest point of the Tuvalu islands only reaching 4.6 meters above sea level, the country is vulnerable to and significantly impacted by the increased magnitude and frequency of natural disasters. With the poor investing their earnings in their homes, durable goods and furnishings, they are that much more threatened by storm surges and the floods associated with them.

Therefore, while the poverty rate has been decreasing in recent years across the Tuvalu islands, climate change negatively threatens the future livelihoods of the native population and further deepens the levels of poverty.

With the increasing threat from the waves surrounding the islands, more needs to be done to reduce the chance of future impacts. Aso Ioapa, a citizen from Tuvalu, noted that “We have to face that we might have to go to another place. That is hard. But migration is the last option. We want to save our countries.”

Tuvalu citizens will continue to do just that; save the country they love. The ADB country operations business plan emphasizes this. The 2017-2019 plan aims to improve fiscal management, communication services, and island port facilities while also building disaster resilience for Tuvalu.

If the country continues to improve its employment opportunities and address the climate change issues, the Tuvalu poverty rate will continue to reduce over time.

Tess Hinteregger

Photo: Flickr

How to Help People in TuvaluTuvalu is a tiny Pacific nation with a population of about 10,000 people. While the population may be small, the people of Tuvalu face significant threats, with the foremost being climate change. Tuvalu sits only two meters above sea level and some experts think the group of islands could eventually vanish if sea levels keep rising. It is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world when it comes to being affected by climate change.

Here are some ideas on how to help people in Tuvalu:

  1. Encourage your representatives to support cutting carbon dioxide emissions.
    Climate change is already beginning to affect Tuvalu. While emergency response to flooding and other natural disasters is important, the most important long-term solution is for countries all over the world to make swift cuts in emissions, until the world reaches what scientists say is a safe level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere – 350 parts per million.
  2. Donate water or other necessary supplies in the event of an emergency.
    When Tuvalu has experienced flooding or other weather disasters in the past, several humanitarian organizations have responded promptly. However, climate change also exacerbates droughts. One of the biggest problems that can occur during a drought is a lack of safe, clean water. Many on the island will have to ration water. A household of six to nine people is allotted just 40 liters of water per day. This means that basic water needs are only just being met in these conditions.
  3. Express the importance of keeping the U.S. in the Paris climate accord to the White House.
    In 2015, Enele Spoaga, the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, asked European leaders to help save Tuvalu ahead of the negotiations for the Paris climate accord. Spoaga warned that a climate that was even 2 degrees celsius warmer would mean that Tuvalu would eventually disappear under water. Later that year, leaders from around the world agreed to take steps to limit future global warming. However, President Trump has recently said he wants to take the U.S. out of the Paris climate accord. Since the U.S. is a large, highly industrialized and influential country, the effects of it leaving the Paris climate accord would be devastating. If you would like to help protect Tuvalu from the effects of severe climate change, consider calling the White House and expressing your concern about this issue.

Tuvalu is in a uniquely frightening position, since its very existence is under threat from climate change. However, as people realize the dangers of climate change, more and more will hopefully seek to learn about how to get involved to help people struggling in Tuvalu.

Brock Hall

Photo: Flickr

Tuvalu refugees represent some of the first waves of climate refugees. Huge numbers of Tuvaluans have been displaced after watching their island home between Hawaii and Australia be eroded by rising sea levels, intensifying natural disasters and soil degradation from contaminated groundwater. With no official recognition of climate refugees, Tuvaluans are increasingly threatened by the loss of their homes and hung out to dry by wealthy neighboring countries unwilling to accept their refugee status.

Here are ten facts about Tuvalu refugees:

  1. The island nation of Tuvalu has its highest elevations at just 15 feet above sea level. Experts predict that if sea levels were to rise by just three feet, many of the most populated areas of Tuvalu would be severely damaged, if not completely destroyed.
  2. Funafuti, the most populous island of Tuvalu, has suffered from severe droughts, water shortages and contaminated groundwater due to rising sea levels in recent years. The effects of these conditions on agriculture have translated to widespread malnourishment and displacement.
  3. Climate change experts predict that Tuvalu might become completely submerged underwater between 30-50 years from now if current trends continue. There is a general consensus that Tuvalu and similar nations will no longer exist by the end of the century.
  4. Already, one-fifth of Tuvalu’s population of 12,000 have left their homes to relocate to larger islands, where croplands are still fertile, or to neighboring New Zealand. As a result, the Tuvaluan community in New Zealand has nearly tripled since 1996.
  5. Life is difficult for Tuvalu refugees who have legally immigrated to New Zealand, with just more than half of Tuvaluan adults employed. Those who have immigrated illegally face even more economic and social hardships. Tuvaluan immigrants also worry about losing their cultural identity, as their children are born in highly developed host countries.
  6. Reports on climate trends have predicted 200 million “environmental refugees” by 2050, essentially one out of every 34 people on earth. Other estimates of future climate change migrants range from tens of thousands to one billion in the next 50 years.
  7. Climate refugees are not yet considered refugees under the 1951 UN Refugee Convention. Consequently, there are “no current provisions for their protection and assistance” according to the U.N. Refugee Agency.
  8. A landmark 2014 ruling by New Zealand’s Refugee Court granted legal residency to Tuvaluan Sigeo Alesana and his family after they appealed for asylum, citing climate change and overpopulation among the reasons that made life “untenable” on their native island. The court acknowledged the presence of climate change as a factor in the case, other factors affecting the family, such as an elderly mother who needed care, would have been enough to grant them asylum regardless. As a result, this case won’t open the doors for other climate change refugees from island nations. New Zealand has allocated Tuvalu only 75 annual slots in its visa program for Pacific workers.
  9. As the intensity of natural disasters and storms in the region increase, experts worry that if a natural disaster similar to Hurricane Katrina were to hit Tuvalu, it would cause irreversible damage. Tuvalu has few exportable natural resources and a GDP that relies heavily on the sale of collectible stamps and its internet domain suffix, .tv, nothing that could help its rebuild after large-scale damage.
  10. The Tuvaluan government has considered using its $100 million in reserves to purchase a new homeland for the small population, but legal and political obstacles threaten this plan. Moving could affect Tuvalu’s right to sovereignty as a nation, its fishing rights and the government’s ability to continue providing public services after financing such a move.

Based on these 10 facts about Tuvalu refugees, there are many hurdles for Tuvalu to cross both short term and long term. In the short run, Tuvalu should continue investing their reserves heavily in renewable freshwater storage systems and ongoing soil rehabilitation and protection programs. They should enlist foreign aid to help build one-time purchases, such as stabilizing bulwarks that prevent coastal erosion.

In the long run, Tuvalu should look to neighboring nations such as Kiribati who have established forward-thinking programs, such as their “Migration With Dignity” program, which involves training citizens as highly skilled workers who will then be welcomed into other countries because of their human capital when they are eventually forced to relocate. Tuvalu would do well to begin such programs as soon as possible, as the threats of climate change are more pressing and real for them than foreign leaders care to believe.

Saru Duckworth

Photo: Flickr

How is Climate Change and Hunger in Tuvalu Related?
Once known as the Ellice Islands, the country of Tuvalu is a collection of nine islands located in the South Pacific Ocean. Though Tuvalu has a population of around 11,200, it is considered one of the least developed countries in the world. As a result, hunger in Tuvalu is a major concern for the people and their government.

The latest report on poverty headcount ratio conducted by the World Bank was in 2010, which stated that 26.3 percent of the population is estimated to live below the national poverty line. Additional reports conclude that 61.3 percent of Tuvalu citizens aged 15-years and up are employed. Thus, places where poverty is allowed to fester, increased rates of hunger are expected to rise.

Hunger in Tuvalu is considered to be a result of one of the biggest instigators in the country, climate change. Climate change is a constant concern for the people and the government of Tuvalu. Many political figures of Tuvalu are strong advocates for environmentalism and continuously campaign against climate change.

These politicians argue that climate change will not only contribute to increasing sea levels but will expedite the salination of soil that threatens agriculture.

According to U.N. reports, Tuvalu is expected to completely disappear beneath the ocean because of global warming. Moreover, salinization of the soil reduces agricultural output which detrimentally affects local farmers and the Tuvalu economy.

In Tuvalu, the largest export commodity within the country is the dried coconut kernels of coconut palm trees. Without enough land coverage or quality soil for agriculture, hunger in Tuvalu is expected to climb substantially within the following years.

The U.N. has even identified that hunger in Tuvalu is a result of climate change in the following released statement, “The diet of Tuvaluans is primarily based on the marine environment and a limited number of food crops. These will be seriously affected by climate change. There will be a number of impacts that will affect the food security of Tuvalu. These include coral bleaching, ocean acidification, saltwater contamination and sea level rise.”

In response, the U.N., as well as delegates of the Pacific Island States, have committed to reducing both hunger and climate change through the use of ratifying the Paris Agreement.

In 2016 during the annual debate at the U.N. General Assembly, Tuvalu’s Prime Minister Enele Sosene Sopoanga applauded and showed solidarity with the ratification of the Paris Agreement.

Prime Minister Sopoanga stated that “We must [now] ensure that the Paris Agreement enters into force [and that] it must be fully elaborated and operationalized as early as possible on real adaptation and mitigation.”

Prime Minister Sopoanga also brought to light the plight that climate change has had on the country of Tuvalu. The prime minister expressed that, “We pray that through these great halls of the U.N., our humble voice will be amplified by the conscience and goodwill of humanity for real urgent action.”

During the debate, Prime Minister Sopoanga expressed numerous times that the country of Tuvalu was fully prepared to meet the targets of the global development agenda in order to reduce climate change.

With continued efforts to ratify legislation as well as advocate against climate change, the country of Tuvalu should expect to see significant improvement in not only the integrity of their islands but also a reduction of hunger in Tuvalu.

Shannon Warren

Photo: Flickr

Poverty in Tuvalu
Tuvalu is one of the poorest nations in the world. It has one of the smallest populations of the Pacific Islands, with an estimated 2011 population of 11,200 people.

However, just 1,500 of the population is formally employed, and the average worker makes only $1,000 per year. Creating and maintaining fiscal resilience in Tuvalu, as well as upgrading maritime infrastructure are currently key priorities for the country’s government.

As the country has few exports, it is almost fully dependent on external aid, variable revenue from fishing licenses, remittances, surpluses from the country’s overseas trust fund and rent of its “dot tv” internet extension. Roughly 26.3 percent of the population lives below the national poverty line. This makes Tuvalu one of the poorest nations on earth.

However, what Tuvalu lacks in revenue generation, it makes up for in its social initiatives. Despite above average poverty in Tuvalu, education is free and compulsory between the ages of 6 and 13.

About 98 percent of the country’s youth attend primary school. While many of Tuvalu’s citizens remain in poverty, there is little poverty of academic opportunity in Tuvalu as most citizens have the ability to receive an education.

Health care is also free for the inhabitants of Tuvalu. However, this freedom is limited as only the main island of Funafuti has a hospital. The rest of the islands house medical dispensaries.

Almost all births are attended by a medical professional, and infant and maternal mortality rate are low. Though health care has improved and the child mortality rate has declined, the under five mortality rate in Tuvalu was at 30.8 in 2012. For every 1,000 babies born, 23 die before their first birthday.

Low-income levels are often offset by strong support networks in towns and villages. In 1998, Tuvalu was judged as the only nation above reproach for human rights violations.

Poverty in Tuvalu sets a phenomenal example for other countries by taking care of its people despite its economic instability. The complex social matrices within the island ensure that its citizens are supported and cared for, despite their general lack of revenue.

Kayla Provencher

Photo: Flickr