The Other WTO: World Tourism and Poverty

The World Trade Organization gets all the hype. But there is another WTO: the World Tourism Organization. This is the UN body that is committed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) through travel and tourism. This is an industry with a large number of people, money, and resources. However, unlike fuels, chemicals, and automotive parts, world tourism and poverty are naturally linked—each tourist, as a cultural ambassador, has an opportunity to make a tangible difference. There is every reason to believe that travel and tourism can and should be playing an important role in the MDGs.

The UNWTO explicitly focuses on four social objectives: climate change, Millennium Development Goals, economic growth, and poverty reduction. The UNWTO and the World Bank track these objectives along with tourism trends. Notable trends include:

• In 2012, 60 million American citizens traveled abroad
• International travelers totaled 1.035 billion people in 2012.
• 238% growth in international tourist arrivals since 1990.
• Tourism is the 4th largest global industry, after “fuels, chemicals, and automotive parts”
• Tourism occupies the top 1st or 2nd export sector for many nations
• 25% GNP is from tourism for many small island nations

Perhaps the UNWTO deserves a little more attention.

Currently, despite the UNWTO’s efforts, the link between tourism spending and income to the poor is weak. As such, the UNWTO engages national and local governments alongside NGOs and the private sector to change hiring practices, strengthen benefits to the poor, and create pro-poor tourism activities. Examples include training programs for locals in Ebogo, Cameroon, developing ecotourism products in Guatemala, and promoting the Great Himalaya Trail in Nepal.

Katherine Zobre

Sources: Office of Travel & Tourism Industries, International Tourism to Grow in 2013, UNWTO Tourism Highlights, Tourism and Poverty Alleviation
Photo: Nat Geo

Biking in Bangkok is More Than a Tour
For two bicycle tour companies, biking in Bangkok is more than a tour. These two extraordinary companies not only give excellent guided tours of the hidden gems of this city, but also have significant impacts on the poverty in and around Bangkok.

Bangkok, the coastal capital of Thailand has two seasons, covers 606 sq miles, and 18 million residents, and approximately 1.5 million slum dwellers. There are over 400 Buddhist temples and thousands of other tourist attractions including the Royal Palace and the famous Khaosan Road.  One could spend a lifetime discovering new parts of Bangkok. As a tourist with limited time, the best way to see the real Bangkok is to pound the pavement with locals.

The first bicycle tour company is Co van Kessel. Mr. van Kessel, a Dutch ex-patriot, started the tour company over 30 years ago. Frustrated with the image of Bangkok as a city of uninhibited urban sprawl, grid-lock traffic and suffocating pollution, Mr. van Kessel started a bicycle tour company to change this image. His was the first bicycle tour company in Bangkok and has been working towards making Bangkok a cyclist-friendly city ever since.

In addition to being an entrepreneur, Co van Kessel bike tour company is also generous with their time and money. They often donate money to local charity organizations. Additionally, every year they donate bicycles that are unfit for tours but still in good working condition to villages in the north of Thailand. The bicycles serve the villagers as their primary form of transportation thereby allowing them to pursue livelihoods otherwise unavailable.

The second, Recreational Bangkok Biking (RBB), is also run by a Dutch ex-patriot, Andre Breuer. RBB offers several different tours each with their own extraordinary sights. They offer a variety of walking, biking, rickshaw, boat and combination tours throughout the city. Their goal is to give tourists a chance to see what Thai life is really all about—colorful markets full of sounds and smells that make your whole body tingle, daily life along the canals that wind through the city, and stretches of green space one could hardly imagine existed when limited to main tourist areas.

What makes this company stand out is not only the high quality of the tours but also the social commitment Mr. Breuer insists on. His employees are local, mostly low-class Thais. The employees start out as bicycle mechanics and learn English through interacting with foreigners—two skills that are extremely valuable to enhancing their living standards. The restaurants, food stands, boat drivers, and bicycle repair establishments are locals, mostly slum dwellers. Mr. Breuer also uses his influence and business network to help fund a local orphanage, the Mercy Center, and a kindergarten. (Mercy Center is located in the largest slum in Bangkok, Khlong Toey and serves as an orphanage and rehabilitation center for those with AIDS.)  Tourists have the option of stopping at the school and talking to the children, who learn English from their frequent interactions.

It is easy to get sucked into the tourist traps in Bangkok. Everyone wants to take you for a ride. Let yourself be taken by Recreational Bangkok Biking or Co van Kessel and you will not regret it!

Katherine Zobre

Sources: Co Van Kessel , The Mercy Center
Photo: Google Plus

pro-poor-tourism-development

The World Travel & Tourism Council predicts that travel and tourism will be one of the world’s fastest growing industries between 2013 and 2021, and the best part is – this will create about 66 million jobs.

According to the World Tourism Organiza­tion (UNWTO), international travel to developing countries is on the rise and the tourism boom is driving development, exports, and jobs. Tour­­ists are increasingly looking for cultural and natural attractions in rural areas, thereby exploring more developing countries. Overall, two-thirds of people living in extreme poverty live in rural areas, so these communities will benefit from this pro-poor tourism according to the Rural Poverty Report 2011 (International Fund for Agricultural Development).

Tourism requires local labor and thus presents more employment opportunities for even low-skilled people. According to the UN International Trade Center (ITC), “tourism offers superior poverty reduction opportunities.” And the UNWTO points out that women and young people, who are generally proportionally disadvantaged, have more opportunities to find jobs within tourism.

It is not all trouble-free, tourism is vulnerable to natural disasters and political instability, and poor communities do not automatically benefit as some companies prefer to import supplies and services. But the ITC is taking measures to promote “inclusive tourism” and elevate the priority of this industry with international organizations and corporations. In 2003 it launched a project in Brazil’s Coconut Coast to increase capacity building activities for  agriculture, arts and crafts, the hotel business, computer science, English, environmental education, design, and culture, all as part of the tourism industry. They even installed an organic waste processing plant, providing balanced fertilizer at subsidized rates to 300 farmers. Today, 70 percent of the 3,000 beneficiaries of the project have found employment (mostly in nine five-star partner hotels) and the monthly income of 390 local women artisans has risen from $40 US to $250 US. The portion of the population earning less than one minimum salary has also decreased from 40 percent to 28 percent. The success of this and other projects confirms the fact that tourism represents an important opportunity for developing countries in their fight against poverty.

– Mary Purcell

Source: UN ITC

Tourism in Sri Lanka Mount Resort Hotel
The recent developments in the Sri Lankan tourism industry were made with the welfare of the citizens in mind, according to the Sri Lanka government and the Economic Development Minister Basil Rajapaksa. The government wishes to increase tourism to their country to bring in the new revenue and stimulate the economy with outside sources. Other countries have also been using this tactic in order to eradicate poverty.

How does tourism help eradicate poverty? Well, in addition to bringing in money from outside of the country, it also helps the country become more known as a whole and attempts to put the country on the global radar. Rajapaksa says that most of the tourists that have traveled to Sri Lanka enjoy staying in small hotels in the region, which primarily aids small businessmen. This is certainly a positive; rather than giving money to the rich, it helps buffer the country’s inequality and aids those who are actually at risk of poverty. Recently, Rajapaksa opened the Mount Resort Hotel located in Kithulkanda, Meepe. It is a hotel with multiple rooms giving 19 different views of the area. Plus, it is an environment-friendly hotel on a wooded hilltop. The hotel also gives a beautiful view of star observation through a facility provided by the satellite station, Padukka.

The boost to the small businessmen has led to an increase in food production by small-scale entrepreneurs, as well as an increase in the production of clothing and souvenirs that serve to attract foreign visitors. The World Tourism Organisation has predicted that in the next decade, tourism will rise to three times greater than what it is now in Sri Lanka, with tourists coming from countries such as China and Japan.

Overall, tourism has proven to be helping boost the economy of Sri Lanka while it reduces poverty at the same time. This is a model that many other countries with high levels of poverty can replicate in order to help their own economies.

– Corina Balsamo