Renewable Energy in HaitiRecognized as one of the most impoverished nations in the world, Haiti has experienced a lot of turmoil over the last several decades. The challenges that political and natural disasters have brought have affected hundreds of thousands of people who now live in poverty and without access to electricity. Today, Haiti’s government is exploring new alternatives so that more people have the means to power their homes. Renewable energy in Haiti hopes to decrease poverty and increase access to electricity.

The Present Situation

As it currently stands, only about 45% of Haiti’s residents have access to electricity. Right now, 80% of the electricity in Haiti comes from imported fossil fuels and those who live in rural areas find themselves relying on dirty energy solutions like wood and charcoal. These resources can potentially lead to environmental issues such as deforestation and carbon emission while also negatively impacting the health of Haiti’s inhabitants. For these reasons, Haiti’s government is committed to investing in new means of energy that are both clean and cost-efficient.

Hydroelectricity

Although imported fossil fuels are Haiti’s primary source of electricity, there are several other options available that hold significant potential to transform Haiti if the country was well-optimized for these alternative sources. These resources are not only safe but are also renewable, meaning that they are unlikely to deplete or ever run out.

One alternative that Haiti is trying to integrate into its systems is hydroelectricity, which is power that water generates. Of all the renewable options available, hydropower has contributed the most to Haiti’s energy supply. It has improved conditions for those who live near areas where water flows, such as Haiti’s Artibonite River, where the Péligre Dam is based. Despite its prevalence in many communities, hydropower is still underutilized and it takes a lot of time and effort to incorporate such systems countrywide. With that said, the developments that Haiti’s government has made are promising and speak volumes about the future of Haiti. The Péligre Dam, which used to run at less than 60% capacity, is now generating 54 megawatts of power after more than a decade and will continue to provide sustainable energy for the next 40 years.

Solar Power

Solar power is another form of renewable energy in Haiti, which has a lot of potential due to the country’s warm and tropical location. In rural areas that do not receive electricity, such as Haiti’s South department, people depend on the energy that generators produce. Generators run on diesel, kerosene and other dirty solutions. These expensive generators, however, are not fully effective and only provide enough power to fulfill basic needs. The installation of mini-grids and solar panels in these areas could alleviate such problems and provide enough electricity for homes and businesses to receive power every day. Schools, hospitals and agricultural institutions are among those that can benefit from solar energy. Today, Haiti’s rural southwest has implemented grid systems to provide electricity for 8,000 people across 1,600 households.

Project Phoenix

While hydropower and solar power are at the focus of Haiti’s developments, other solutions are also available and can address additional issues the country faces. One example of this is waste-powered energy, which appeared as the subject of an initiative titled Project Phoenix. This proposal, which called for the collection of 1,600 tons of garbage every day, anticipated the generation of at least 30 megawatts of electricity per hour. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) published a final review of the project in 2014, highlighting the strategic recommendations and steps necessary to proceed as planned. Introducing a waste-to-energy method in Haiti would benefit cities such as Port-au-Prince, where garbage is overabundant and illegal dumping is a serious problem.

Wind Energy

Wind energy is another option Haiti has considered, though it is not as viable since it depends on seasonal variability and location. Additionally, Haiti does not have any wind farms, which makes this alternative appear less effective. However, Haiti does have measurement systems to record data on the capabilities of wind power. Estimates suggest that wind power can deliver electricity at 30-50% of the cost of solar energy in windier areas. Though there are no plans to build wind farms in Haiti, the construction of a power plant did begin in 2017. Not only will the plant optimize wind but it will also be the first to utilize a mixture of wind, solar and diesel energy. The power plant will be able to produce up to 160 kilowatts of electricity.

How Renewable Energy Reduces Poverty

While these renewable energy sources are capable of substituting imported fossil fuels, they also play a significant role in alleviating poverty. Hundreds of thousands of Haitians rely on generators, which are expensive and can only provide electricity for a limited time. By implementing renewable energy substitutes, impoverished Haitians can save money that would otherwise go toward paying for diesel-powered electricity, enabling them to afford other basic essentials such as food, water and shelter.

About 10Power

Over and above the fundamental benefits of renewable energy, the renewable energy sector has the potential to create job opportunities for Haitians. With the demand for low-cost electricity being so high in Haiti, businesses are starting to emerge and are combating the frequent problems residents endure. One company, known as 10Power, is a solar startup partnering with locals to install and provide financing for solar energy projects in Haiti’s rural areas. It was responsible for installing solar arrays at two of Haiti’s water purification centers, which provide water to local communities and support more than 600 microbusinesses. Women lead many of these microbusinesses.

The company also worked on the array installation at Haiti’s UNICEF headquarters, which was the largest solar installation on any UNICEF base in the world. The startup 10Power has grown dramatically since its founding in 2016 and is now working with a sales pipeline of projects worth more than $100 million. Today, it is collaborating with the Solar Electric Light Fund and Haiti Tec to provide field experience for student technicians and create jobs for many of Haiti’s men as women. Implementing renewable energy methods in Haiti is significant because doing so will positively impact the nation’s economy.

Haiti continues to explore various renewable energy options available in the hopes of making a positive difference in many of its cities and regions. If Haiti optimizes these alternatives correctly, the government will bring power not just to people’s homes but to their lives as well.

– Eshaan Gandhi
Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Renewable Energy in BangladeshAccess to electricity addresses symptoms of world poverty. The World Bank describes access to electricity as at the “heart of development” and the United Nations recognizes access to reliable and clean electricity as a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). For Bangladesh, achieving full energy accessibility by 2022 is a major goal. However, the specific source of energy production influences the effectiveness of energy development. As a result, the implementation of renewable energy in Bangladesh could help the country reach its goal.

Bangladesh significantly increased access to electricity by utilizing non-renewable sources of energy. However, working toward Bangladesh’s energy accessibility goal through non-renewable sources alleviates certain symptoms of poverty and exacerbates others. These circumstances leave room for the growth of renewable energy in Bangladesh. Renewable energy in Bangladesh can address poverty along with the unintended consequences of non-renewable sources of energy.

The Paradox of Energy in Bangladesh

Citizens are receiving the power they need while their neighborhoods suffer from harmful pollution. Government policy allowed for substantial increases in Bangladesh’s access to reliable energy. Between 2000 and 2019, access to electricity in Bangladesh rose from 32% of its population to 92.2%. Regardless, Bangladesh’s government invested in non-renewable power stations to power its most populous settings. This means those in urban settings are gaining energy access while sacrificing their health.

Natural gas has been leading Bangladesh’s surge in energy production. Other non-renewable sources of energy in Bangladesh such as coal and diesel are responsible for producing the majority of Bangladesh’s pollutive energy. Both release harmful pollutants that can cause various health problems. These consequences disproportionately affect those living in poverty. Impoverished citizens in Bangladesh who face pollution are more subject to illness and are less likely to receive treatment for it.

Bangladesh has recently rejected coal plant plans. The move is evidence that the Bangladesh government understands the health and environmental implications of certain forms of energy. According to a 2009 report, Bangladesh could save an estimated 10,000 lives per year if it reduces air pollution in four of its largest cities. In the decade following, Bangladesh increased its energy production through pollutive means. This means energy production, a contributor to such air pollution, is responsible for the deaths of Bangladeshi citizens. Renewable energy in Bangladesh presents an opportunity for Bangladesh to address this issue.

Energy in Comparison

Investing in renewable energy in Bangladesh is a matter of scale. Despite having the world’s largest rural solar installment and investing in wind power, renewable energy in Bangladesh only accounts for 3.3% of the total energy that the country generates. Renewable energy in Bangladesh has the potential to address the remaining energy needs without the pollution of non-renewable energy. This is a major advantage of renewable energy in Bangladesh. Improvements are occurring through more than one main source of renewable energy in Bangladesh: solar and wind.

Nearly 62% of Bangladeshis live in rural areas. This is where the Bangladesh government is working to provide more energy. Solar and wind are increasing the renewable share of Bangladesh’s energy market. Starting in 2003, the Bangladeshi government began the world’s largest rural solar installment. Today, the installment provides clean and reliable power to more than 20 million rural Bangladeshi citizens. Bangladesh also approved the country’s first major wind installment in 2020. Both provide alternatives to Bangladesh’s non-renewable grid.

Solar has a major advantage over other forms of renewable energy in Bangladesh. Solar can be easier to install than fossil-fueled power plants and wind power, especially in rural areas where Bangladesh’s lack of energy currently concentrates. Natural-gas-fueled power plants require significant investment in both finances and physical location and wind installments require similar investments. One can install solar nearly anywhere. This means solar energy in Bangladesh can be effective in its rural areas where large power plants are infeasible. For these reasons, small-scale renewables are growing in popularity.

Alleviating Poverty Through Renewables in Bangladesh

Communities that have access to electricity do better. Small-scale solar installments in similar rural areas to Bangladesh, such as villages in India, give households access to other necessities. Solar energy can more reliably and safely fuel pumps that provide potable water to villages. Bangladesh’s solar installment reduced the consumption of kerosene by 4.4 million liters. In addition, the installment of small-scale solar can provide energy for refrigeration and cooking. This means providing solar energy to remote villages can be effective for the Bangladesh government to ensure electricity is provided for every citizen. The installment of small-scale renewable energy in Bangladesh can mediate two crises: poverty and energy accessibility.

Bangladesh has significantly increased its electricity access. However, past development largely left renewables out. This means renewable energy in Bangladesh can address the remaining accessibility gaps in the electric grid. Future investments in renewables provide a viable pathway for Bangladesh to sustainably develop its most impoverished communities.

– Harrison Vogt
Photo: Flickr

Renewable energy in SpainIn 2018, Spain announced its goals of deriving 75% of its electricity from renewable energy sources by 2030, and by 2050, increasing this renewable energy reliance to 100%. Within two years, Spain rethought its entire energy consumption pattern and transitioned to generating 43.6% of its energy renewably by 2020. Along with producing more sustainable and efficient energy, renewable energy in Spain also helps reduce poverty throughout the country.

5 Ways Renewable Energy in Spain Reduces Poverty

  1. Providing Clean Energy Jobs. In 2018, Spain made its first step toward renewable energy by closing coal mines and redirecting mining employees to clean energy jobs. Former coal mine employees were re-trained for jobs focusing on solar and wind power. The construction of renewable plants is providing jobs as well. By 2019, the switch to renewable energy in Spain created approximately 90,000 jobs in the sector. Enel Green Power’s Totana Solar Plant gave preference for employment to locals and provided training for the unemployed. The shutdown of coal mines did not bring about hardship to the country as new jobs were created through the transition to renewable energy, benefiting the entire nation.
  2. Lowering Energy Prices. Typically, renewable energy is more costly than conventional energy because it involves far less production. However, with the increased demand for renewable energy in Spain, renewable energy prices are dropping. Renewable energy also saves money in the long term due to its efficiency and sustainability. Experts estimate that the switch to renewable energy will save the average household €210 per year.
  3. Renewable Energy Tax Reform. Spain also uses taxes as an incentive to push renewable energy. Specifically, in 2019, Spain dropped its “sun tax,” which charged for self-consumption of solar energy and sharing of solar power. The sun tax made sustainable energy more expensive, essentially serving as a barrier in the renewable energy transition.
  4. Helping Economic Growth. As with the rest of the world, the COVID-19 pandemic hurt Spain’s economy considerably. Spain’s economy contracted by 11% in 2020, “the biggest contraction since the days of the Spanish Civil War in the late 1930s.” Furthermore, the unemployment rate reached 16.1%, affecting tourism-dependent industries the most. In the wake of the economic consequences of COVID-19, renewable energy provides a way to stimulate the economy. In September 2020, Spain allocated €181 million to renewable energy in order to increase jobs, investment and affordable electricity access. As such, renewable energy is part of COVID-19 relief in Spain and will help repair the economy.
  5. Reducing Energy Poverty. Overall, energy poverty impacts “between 3.5 and 8.1 million citizens” in Spain. The definition of energy poverty is a lack of “access to affordable, safe, sustainable and modern energy.” Energy poverty can occur because of the inability to afford energy or because of the lack of energy availability in certain areas. With renewable energy replacing conventional energy, however, energy is not only becoming more affordable but the efficiency of renewable power makes it more widely available.

Looking to the Future

Spain’s new energy plan has greatly contributed to the decrease in both carbon emissions and poverty. Currently, the country is inching closer to the 50% mark of renewable energy reliance. The Spanish nation is following its plan closely and is set to achieve zero emissions by 2050.

– Maddie Rhodes
Photo: Flickr

solar panels in SenegalIn Senegal, close to a quarter of the total population lacks access to electricity, with rural communities enduring the least access. In May 2021, two new photovoltaic solar plants opened in Kael and Kahone, two towns located in Western Senegal. The plants will provide electricity for 540,000 citizens at a low cost. The addition of the solar power plants form part of the World Bank Group’s Scaling Solar program and are funded by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), European Investment Bank and Proparco. The project estimates that more than 400 jobs in the towns benefit from the existence of the new solar power plants in Senegal. Because Senegal mainly relies on imported oil for electricity, solar power plants offer a more reliable and sustainable green energy source that costs less. Access to electricity is critical for the economy and businesses, improving people’s daily lives in several ways.

Poverty in Senegal

With roughly half of the total population living above the poverty line, significant improvements are needed to lift more people out of poverty. Roughly 75% of the Senegalese population depends on agriculture as their income source. Another primary industry in Senegal is mining. Senegal’s economy rises and falls, following global trends of prices. When export prices fall, farmers suffer the adverse effects since their incomes decrease. Many Senegalese people lack access to education, healthcare and other essential services. As a result of economic hardships, many people migrate from Senegal in hopes of finding better work.

Electricity in Senegal

Access to electricity plays an important role in the economy and contributes to reducing poverty. Senegal relies heavily on oil imports for fuel. Roughly 80% of Senegal’s energy is “oil-based.” The prices of imported oil fluctuate, and recently, prices have been high. The combination of no access to electricity, power cuts and limited electricity infrastructure takes a toll on the economy, especially businesses. Individuals also face hardships in their homes with a lack of lighting and energy to power appliances.

The Solar Power Plants

The solar power plants are located in Kael and Kahone, two small towns that rely on agriculture and have high poverty rates. Lack of electricity access is higher in rural areas similar to Kael and Kahone in comparison to urban areas. The new solar plants in Senegal bring opportunities for employment, improved conditions in workspaces and homes and affordable electricity costs.

Solar power plants in Senegal form part of the strategy for increasing access to electricity, focusing on regenerative sources. Senegal’s government wants to become an emerging economy by 2035 and the energy sector is one of the major components of Senegal’s growth. Rural areas remain the most challenging areas to install power grids. However, with low incomes, rural people struggle to afford the high costs of electricity. Solar energy from the new plants costs less than four euro cents per kilowatt-hour, making the energy more affordable than oil-based electricity and more accessible to rural areas with high poverty rates.

Attracting Investment and Igniting Economic Growth

These renewable energy projects attract potential investors to Senegal, giving the country even more opportunities to increase sustainable energy, including hydro, wind, thermal and off-shore natural gas. Senegal is also home to “the largest solar farm in West Africa,” with many private home-installed solar power systems. More micro-financing options and interest in infrastructure improves economic growth and increases access to electricity for those in low-income areas.

Although poverty rates are high in much of rural Senegal, one solution is growing the energy sector, which will improve the economy. The inability to access electricity puts a major constraint on economic growth. Solar power plants in Senegal bring people much-needed electricity at a low cost. Renewable energy sources are critical as the world is depleting its oil reserves. Bringing sustainable energy solutions to people living in poverty positively affects development indicators such as “health, education, food security, gender equality, livelihoods and poverty reduction.” Senegal is on its way to success as more and more countries switch to earth-friendly energy.

– Madeleine Proffer
Photo: Unsplash

Renewable energy in KenyaWithin the continent of Africa, Kenya has become one of the fastest-growing nations. Between 2010 and 2018, the country saw annual growth of 5.9% and a GDP of $95 billion. Due to COVID-19, there have been challenges toward the attempts to continue growth. However, there is one area that continues to grow and is apparently the key to ensuring this growth prevails. This new safety net is a renewed use of renewable energy in Kenya.

Over the past decade, Kenya shifted to clean and natural energy. This change received support from the African Development Bank, the Kenyan government and European investment partners. The result has been a rise of new resources for renewable energy in Kenya and their implementation in new areas. With around 16% of the country’s population having access to electricity, the use of renewable energy has given Kenya the ability to supply it to more homes. The results have led the nation’s electrification to rise from 28% in 2013 to over 60% in 2017. Even if the issues from COVID-19 have impeded the current growth, the government still prioritizes this shift of resources. However, one of the most interesting developments is Kenya’s focus on multiple types of energy that can consistently provide electricity.

Wind

The usage of wind power had previously been prominent in Kenya and has provided a considerable amount through wind farm projects. Using wind turbines to generate electricity, this type of power has become one of the more widespread methods of obtaining renewable energy throughout the world. In Kenya, one of the most notable projects has been the Lake Turkana Wind Farm. The area of Lake Turkana was prime for this type of installation as it has consistently high wind speeds. Having 365 turbines, the farm has a power output of around 300 megawatts. The goal of the farm is to increase the electrical supply of the country by 13%. The project took 15 years to build and is the largest of its kind in Africa.

Another successful farm is the Ngong site that the company KenGen operates. Located near the city of Nairobi, the station’s output provides 5,100 kilowatts of power. Ngong was also the largest wind farm until Lake Turkana underwent construction. These projects both ensure the decreased use of fossil fuels and the growth of jobs to help maintain the farms. The Lake Turkana project alone employed over 2,500 people for its construction.

Also, the government support for these projects shows the country’s desire to have its own independent sources of power. The ability for Kenya to tap into grids and resources within its own borders provides benefits and allows for less of a need to rely on other nations for energy. While costs could be an issue, as most areas suitable for wind generation sites are far from the main grids, the benefits are tangible and the support from the government and other organizations could alleviate any financial problems concerning renewable energy in Kenya.

Hydroelectricity

Another of the most prominent types of renewable energy in Kenya is hydropower. This type of energy uses the natural flow of water to generate electricity. The amount of energy from the hydropower installations has resulted in a capacity of 743 megawatts. Due to Kenya being part of the African Great Lakes region, its potential for hydropower could reach 3,500 megawatts. The use of this energy also has a long history as small systems were present since the 1920s. The company Andritz Hydro first commissioned modern stations in 1968 with the Kindaruma Power Station. Since then, hydropower has remained a constant source of energy within Kenya.

Rural communities have consistently used hydropower. One individual who has taken advantage of this opportunity is Kenyan native John Magiro. His family raised him in a rural farming community with no electricity. As an adult, he dedicated his life to ensuring that communities like his would receive electricity and other modern advantages. This has culminated in the construction of a micro-hydropower plant along the Gondo river around 2015. The creation of plants like this, alongside support from organizations like the Kenya Environmental Trust Fund (NETFUND), shows that there is a desire in the country to easily give rural communities the benefits that renewable energy can provide.

However, as of late, there has been a consistent issue with the reliability of hydropower in Kenya. Over the past few years, there have been consistent droughts and a lack of rain. This has reduced the water going through dams and less overall production from plants. Between December 2016 and January 2017, production of energy declined from 299 million kilowatts per hour to 252 kilowatts per hour. While this does not spell doom for the future of this energy since weather is unpredictable and rain patterns could go back to their prior state, events like this show the necessity of investing in multiple types of energy. If one energy declines, another that supplies at a more consistent rate will be available. In particular, there has been one source of energy that has grown in importance in the wake of declining water in Kenya.

Geothermal

Accompanying the slight decline of hydropower has been the advancement of geothermal energy. This energy relies on the natural steam from rifts within the earth and, unlike other resources, outside influences such as weather or other natural occurrences, do not affect it. In 2017, data from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics found that at least 274 million kilowatts per hour come from thermal sources monthly. Through its application, geothermal energy has managed to create 32% of the overall electricity that people consumed in Kenya.

The construction of new plants has shown abundant results and higher energy outputs. In 2015, two new plants in Kenya’s rift valley, Olkaria, helped the national energy increase by 51%. The World Bank Group has backed Kenya in financing the use of this energy through its Internal Development Association (IDA). This has resulted in the region of Olkaria turning into one of the largest sources of geothermal energy in the world and one of the most prominent energy suppliers in the country. These efforts have helped geothermal energy rise up as one of the most prominent types of renewable energy in Kenya. At the moment, geothermal energy looks to be the most important source to the current efforts of change within Kenya due to the advantages it offers in output and availability.

Why This Matters

The rise of renewable energy in Kenya is important as it represents a lot for the country. The creation of new advancements represents a drive to modernize and connect Kenya to a larger global scene. Many people dedicate their lives to ensuring that those living in rural areas have opportunities that are common in other countries. In general, this is what renewable energy represents for Kenya. Not only does it supply a lot for the nation, but it also brings new innovations. They can connect electricity to places that have never had it before and all could reap the benefits of a revitalized Kenya. It may take some time, but a better future is on the horizon not just for Kenya, but also for all countries focusing on new ways to improve themselves.

– John Dunkerley
Photo: Flickr

Renewable Energy in IndonesiaRenewable energy in Indonesia will improve if the country continues to tap into geothermal energy. Indonesia is the second leading source of geothermal energy in the world. Yet, only 5% of the reservoirs are actually in use according to the NS Energy and U.S. Energy Information Administration. Unfortunately, geothermal energy is expensive to investors. However, a nonprofit organization called the Indonesian Geothermal Association (INAGA) is helping pave the way to unlocking an enormous renewable energy source in Indonesia.

What is Geothermal Energy?

Below the earth’s crust, magma heats pools of water. The heated water pools provide renewable energy. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory explains that “There are three types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash steam and binary cycle.” Each of the three systems converts the water into steam. Whenever someone uses the water, it undergoes recycling and goes back into the earth so that people can use it later. The harvested steam is geothermal energy.

As the world heads away from fossil fuels and global warming, geothermal energy could be an absolute game-changer for the industrial country and the Earth. The largest benefit is that geothermal energy is renewable. According to Stanford MAHB, experts expect that fossil fuels will run out in the next century. Indonesia already experienced nationwide blackouts and air pollution due to a lack of fossil fuels. However, geothermal energy may be a beneficial solution.

Indonesia’s High Geothermal Potential

Many know Indonesia’s location as the Ring of Fire, an area with the most volcanoes on Earth. Home to 147 volcanos, 76 of which are active, the area is very hot underneath the surface. Volcanoes contain much magma, which will allow for the successful harvesting of geothermal energy in Indonesia. Because of its location, Indonesia has 40% of the world’s stores for geothermal energy. Additionally, Indonesia contains 29,000 megawatts of renewable geothermal energy.

Cost of Geothermal Energy

Although Indonesia is moving toward using more of its geothermal energy, there are a few major obstacles that the country must face. World Bank country director for Indonesia and Timor-Leste, Rodrigo A. Chaves, says that “Financing for exploration drilling has been among the main barriers for geothermal expansion in Indonesia.”

Additionally, Think Geoenergy explains that “The Indonesian government projects geothermal investment needs of up to” about “$29.39 billion to boost the installed capacity of geothermal power plants (PLTP) to reach 8,008 MW by 2030.” Money for drilling is one of the largest conflicts to building more geothermal energy plants. However, a nonprofit organization, the Indonesian Geothermal Association, is working toward creating a smooth path.

Mitigating the Cost of Geothermal Drilling

As organizations such as INAGA advocate for more geothermal energy, the Indonesian government is taking notice. While there is a recent decrease in the budget for geothermal energy plants, the government decided to prioritize drilling wells in Cisolok, West Java and Nage in 2022.

Government organization, Geological Agency of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM), using the State Revenue and Expenditure Budget (APBN), will be working on drilling upcoming wells, which may reduce the cost of geothermal energy electricity. The government could allow incentives to developers to decrease the price of electricity.

Other Efforts of INAGA

The Indonesian Geothermal Association is working to combat the obstacles that blockade Indonesia’s geothermal energy potential. INAGA educates citizens of Indonesia about geothermal energy and advocates for the progression of geothermal projects in Indonesia.

The nonprofit organization also approves new geothermal projects for Indonesia. For example, INAGA recently gave support to a new geothermal establishment called BUMN. BUMN will be a state-owned geothermal plant in Indonesia and will help to harvest more geothermal power, providing more energy to its citizens. Additionally, INAGA is working with the government to create regulations for geothermal energy plants.

More Benefits of Geothermal Energy

The U.S. Department of Energy has explained the many benefits of geothermal energy. For example, geothermal energy is not only predictable and stable but it can also run for 24 hours. Additionally, it is able to control temperatures and produce electricity. Geothermal energy is also capable of reducing the carbon footprint.

The Asian Development Bank has stated that if geothermal energy in Indonesia becomes available, the country may be able to reduce its carbon footprint and help power other countries. Although there are many obstacles to overcome in the process, the Indonesian Geothermal Association is striving to create more renewable energy in Indonesia through the use of geothermal energy.

– Sydney Littlejohn
Photo: Flickr

Renewable Energy in El SalvadorWorld Bank statistics indicate that, in 1999, only about 79% of people in El Salvador had access to electricity. By 2009, the percentage increased to about 91%, and in 2019, 100% of the population of El Salvador had access to electricity. The significant improvement in electricity access in just two decades is primarily due to the government’s investments in renewable energy in El Salvador and the work of companies in providing electricity to rural communities.

Poverty in El Salvador

The government’s success in providing universal electricity access within El Salvador comes at a time when much of the population still lives in poverty. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a fall in economic output and a decline in poverty reduction rates. Consequently, COVID-19 jeopardized the country’s recent successes in decreasing poverty and inequality. The World Bank predicted that El Salvador’s GDP would contract by 4.3% in 2020. As a result, it expected the poverty rate to rise by 4%, bringing the total percentage of the population living in poverty to a possible 30%.

Development of Renewable Energy in El Salvador

As the smallest country in Central America, El Salvador lacks natural coal, oil and natural gas. Therefore, El Salvador has historically relied entirely on imports of fossil fuels from other countries “to meet domestic demand.” In the mid-1990s, the government began promoting renewable energy sources to reduce dependence on imports.

In 2010, the government implemented the National Energy Policy, which further pushed for increased renewable energy sources. The policy, which runs till 2024, has seen success so far. El Salvador has not built any additional fossil-fuel-powered generators since the year 2013. By 2019, renewable energy “had reached 64.3% of the country’s total installed capacity of 2.2 gigawatts (GW).” Renewable sources in El Salvador consist of solar power, hydropower and geothermal power. In El Salvador, oil generates only 32.36% of electricity. Renewable sources are responsible for creating the rest of the electricity used by the population.

Economic and Social Benefits of Renewable Energy

Renewable energy in El Salvador has helped stabilize electricity prices. Consequently, renewable energy has led to a more stabilized economy. This economic advancement through renewable development has helped pull people out of poverty and reduce the negative effects of decades of violence and emigration. The ever-growing renewable energy sector provides jobs for many individuals in El Salvador, especially women.

This helps to close the economic and social gap, consequently creating a more gender-balanced workforce while providing a way for women to support their families. LaGeo is a Salvadoran state geothermal energy company that generates close to a quarter of the total energy created in the nation. At LaGeo, 30% of the employees are female. LaGeo is responsible for producing 27% of El Salvador’s electricity and commits to empowering local women and backing reforestation and conservation programs near its plants.

Health Benefits of Renewable Energy in El Salvador

The growth of geothermal power, hydropower and solar energy provide alternatives to biomass for those living in poverty. Though biomass is a renewable energy source, the U.N. considers high biomass usage to be a sign of energy poverty. Regular practices of burning firewood and other biomass materials can cause a number of health and environmental problems.

The World Health Organization reports that more than one million households in El Salvador rely on unclean fuel for cooking. Continuing to replace biomass with cleaner, safer alternatives will improve the lives of those living in poverty in El Salvador.

In 2016, AES El Salvador, a power company, provided photovoltaic kits to more than 70 individuals living in poverty in rural areas. These kits offer a way to harness and store solar power. Furthermore, the beneficiaries also received turbo cookers to reduce biomass consumption. For more than 15 years, “AES El Salvador has brought electricity to more than 70,000 Salvadoran families with rural electrification projects.”

Overall, El Salvador has made great strides in reducing poverty, boosting the economy and providing electricity access through the growth of the country’s renewable energy sector. Universal electricity access has undoubtedly improved the quality of life for many families living in poverty.

Julia Welp
Photo: Flickr

offshore wind farmSouth Korea’s government announced plans to construct an 8.2 gigawatt “offshore wind facility by 2030.” Once completed, the project will stand as “the world’s largest single offshore development.” The project comes with economic and environmental advantages for South Korea. In order to help the economy recover from the COVID-19 pandemic, the offshore wind farm will increase revenue and energy production. The plan forms part of President Moon Jae-in’s Green New Deal project. The Green New Deal began in 2020 and will help Asia’s fourth-largest economy reduce its dependence on fossil fuels.

Offshore Wind Farm Funding and Benefits

The offshore wind facility project has already garnered significant funding. Several companies have contributed $42.4 billion to the project and the government will cover $802 million of the cost. In addition to generating renewable energy, the offshore wind project will create 5,600 jobs in the area. It will also extend South Korea’s “existing 1.67GW wind power capacity to 16.5GW by 2030.”

South Korean officials state that the wind energy facility “will produce energy equivalent to the output of six nuclear reactors.” The project has garnered significant support around the country due to its many benefits. A signing ceremony recently occurred for the new wind project in Sinan, a coastal town in the southwest region of the country. The offshore wind farm project is predicted to make an impressive impact on the country’s economy due to citizen, government and fiscal support.

Economic Impact of COVID-19 on South Korea

South Korea’s early response to the COVID-19 pandemic was successful as early testing and containment of the virus limited spread. However, the virus caused an economic recession due to halted business operations, closed borders and restricted mobility. For the first time since 2003, South Korea fell into a “technical recession.” In the first quarter of 2020, South Korea’s GDP declined by 1.3% followed by a second quarter decline of 3.3%.

The recession was caused greatly by a lack of demand for South Korean exports. Exports make up about 40% of the country’s GDP, so without the typically high supply and demand for products, South Korea’s economy was hard-hit. The economic decline also led to job losses across multiple sectors such as services, travel, hospitality, retail and manufacturing. As a consequence, South Koreans experienced harsh economic impacts, especially those already in poverty.

How Wind Power Improves Poverty

Despite South Korea’s status as a large world economy with high rankings in terms of education and healthcare, it still has a high poverty rate. The OECD ranked South Korea fifth among 33 countries for relative income poverty, with a rate of 16.7%. Relative income poverty is defined as “the ratio of the number of people whose income falls below half of the national median household income.”

Renewable energy sources such as wind power can help reduce poverty by decreasing a country’s reliance on fossil fuels. Fossil fuel prices can fluctuate drastically, causing instability in the economy. Wind turbines can replace the use of fossil fuels. The renewable energy sector also creates jobs and allows for energy security. With the power to use clean energy and bring economic prosperity to South Korean citizens, offshore wind farms provide a solution to poverty reduction.

The Future of Wind Farms

Overall, South Korean offshore wind farms could help South Korea bounce back economically after the COVID-19 pandemic. Wind energy is a sustainable resource as it is readily available. In comparison to fossil fuels, wind energy is more consistent and less expensive to harness. The boost in wind power could also place South Korea on the leaderboard for renewable energy.

Future prosperity and poverty reduction in South Korea will come from inclusive economic growth. With the use of renewable energy sources, sustainability and economic success are possible. Increasing accessibility to energy will thus help South Korea win the fight against poverty.

– Courtney Roe
Photo: Flickr

Renewable energy in New ZealandNew Zealand, an island country located in the South Pacific Ocean, has an economy propelled by agriculture, manufacturing, tourism and geothermal energy resources. The government sees renewable energy as the future, and in accordance, it has taken major steps to expand renewable energy in New Zealand.

5 Facts About Renewable Energy in New Zealand

  1. New Zealand has a history of being innovators in energy. The first hydroelectric power plant in the Southern Hemisphere was built in New Zealand in 1885. Since then, the country has been a leader in renewable energy and was the second country to ever use geothermal energy for hydrogen production.
  2. Roughly 84% of the electricity in New Zealand is produced from renewable sources. This large amount of renewable energy production ranks the country second in the world for energy security. Hydro, geothermal, wind and bioenergy are among the largest producers of electricity. New Zealand’s volcanic and tectonic features give the country the ability to utilize geothermal energy. For this reason, geothermal energy represents more than half of the renewable energy in New Zealand. An estimated one in five people living in New Zealand has to sacrifice powering their homes in order to pay for other essentials because of the expensive energy bill that comes from non-renewable energy sources. When the power grid in a country comes increasingly from renewable energy, those living in poverty are placed in a more favorable situation because the high cost of fossil fuels no longer burdens people.
  3. Renewable energy will play a part in the country’s COVID-19 economic recovery plan. The Labour Party-led government in New Zealand sees the pandemic as an opportunity to invest in more renewables in order to create more jobs. The Labour Party plans to develop more high-skill jobs that it believes will immediately boost the economy and also help the country prepare for the future. It is estimated that renewable energy could create almost NZ$165 trillion in global GDP gains by 2050. Such a large economic comeback would significantly benefit those living in poverty, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic hurts the impoverished the most.
  4. The government is spending NZ$30 million on investigating pumped hydro storage. This investment expects to bolster New Zealand’s broader renewable energy goals as well as create thousands of skilled and semi-skilled jobs. The result of the investigation will potentially create a more affordable solution to the problem of hydropower storage during dry years when hydro lakes are low. This large investment signals the country’s dedication to renewable energy with plans to mitigate much of the risk of supply and demand.
  5. New Zealand’s goal is to have 100% renewable energy by 2030. Additionally, the country hopes to have net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. The proponents of the plan believe this will cause a massive increase in job growth and reduce electricity bills, which will benefit New Zealanders living in poverty.

Overall, New Zealand is making significant strides in its renewable energy sector in order to address the issue of energy poverty that impacts the most vulnerable people in the country.

Stephen Illes
Photo: Flickr

Renewable Energy in Thailand
Championed as a success of development in the region, Thailand has achieved upper-middle-income country status due to a steadily increasing economy and substantial reductions in poverty. Thailand’s energy consumption has grown rapidly in line with this development. It has seen an 18% increase in energy consumption in the last decade. The industrial and transport sectors account for the majority of national energy consumption. Furthermore, Thailand strives to meet its energy demands through the use of emergent renewable energy technologies. 

A Burgeoning Industry

The country has increasingly relied on renewable energy sources to ensure that its steady development is sustainable. Renewable energy accounts for a whopping 10% of the country’s energy usage. This number is comparable to the U.S. rate of 12% of total energy consumption from renewable sources. Thailand is on track to surpass the U.S. in just 10 years. Renewable energy in Thailand comes from diverse sources, relying equally on hydropower, solar, biomass and wind-generated power.

Thailand imports much of its renewable energy technology from overseas. However, future emphasis on domestic manufacturing of these technologies would create jobs. This emphasis will eventually position Thailand as a world leader in the use of renewable energy. The biofuel industry alone employs more than 102,000 people in Thailand, making Thailand the fifth largest employer in the liquid biofuels industry internationally. Thailand’s unemployment rate is meager at just 1%, but a large portion of these jobs are low-paying. Renewable energy jobs have the potential to create higher earners and address Thailand’s 10% poverty rate.

How Energy Access Alleviates Poverty

In addition to the thousands of jobs in the renewable energy sector, renewables are becoming more cost-effective than other sources like natural gas, so that more people have access to cheaper electricity than ever before. In fact, the World Bank states that nearly 100% of Thailand’s population has access to electricity, up from 82% in 2000.

However, this universal access to electricity comes at a cost: energy consumption makes up 10% of household spending per month, which qualifies Thailand as energy-poor. Paired with the fact that the cost of natural gas has been increasing recently, renewables are the affordable choice for decreasing the financial burden of energy on individual households.

Electricity access is vital when it comes to improving the living conditions of those in poverty. Electricity can enhance quality of life by providing refrigeration of food and increasing educational outcomes due to lighting at night, among other benefits.

The Future of Renewable Energy in Thailand

As Thailand’s demand for energy increases, it is essential that its development stems from a sustainable core. The Thai Ministry of Energy set a goal to reach 30% reliance on renewable energy by 2036. This would save an estimated $8 billion annually when considering the environmental and health costs of fossil fuel consumption.

Thailand must keep in mind the needs of its low-income citizens as it continues to integrate sustainable energy into its power grid. Further, renewable energy in Thailand should not be the only focus of sustainability initiatives. The focus should also be on reducing pollution and carbon emissions. With these accomplishments, Thailand is in an excellent position to secure a better economic future for its citizens.

– Helen Spyropoulos
Photo: Flickr