10 Facts about Living Conditions in the Bahamas

The Bahamas is an island country located in the Atlantic Ocean. The population totals at just over 400,000 people. The total GDP stands at $11.6 billion, and the country has a market economy. The Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americans today and their economy is finance and tourism based. These top 10 facts about living conditions in the Bahamas presented below will illustrate the way of life on the islands.

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in the Bahamas

  1. The capital of Nassau is home to almost 70 percent of the total population. Second and third largest cities are Lucaya and Freeport. More than 300,000 people live in these three cities. The majority of the economy is located here, and like any major cities, they contain elite suburbs and impoverished slums.
  2. The majority of revenue coming into this tropical country is through tourism as 60 percent of total GDP comes from this industry. In 2007, tourism provided over two million jobs to Bahamian citizens. Just under 50 percent of the working population is directly employed in tourism and another 20 percent are employed indirectly.
  3. The U.S. provides the country with the majority of its tourism and international trade. Economic state in the Bahamas relies heavily on the economic state of the neighboring country. The financial crisis of 2008 negatively affected the country. The GDP decreased by 2.3 percent.
  4. The cost of living in the Bahamas is 31.75 percent higher than the cost of living in the U.S. This includes the prices of groceries, rent and restaurants. When comparing the gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than $22,000 with the one of the U.S. at $58,207, the poverty level seems much more extreme. The U.S. is encouraging the Bahamas to diversify its market, specifically with agricultural exports to increase their GNI.
  5. The national poverty rate of the Bahamas sits at a little more than 9 percent. The highest rate is around 20 percent in the Other Family Islands, home to 6 percent of the population. The Other Family Islands sit well outside the reach of jobs created by tourism, hospitals and education while the main islands of Nassau and Lucaya, Freeport contain a plethora of resources.
  6. Education has seen considerable growth in the Bahamas in the past 60 years. Almost $5 billion was invested to implement computer labs in public schools and teachers were provided with extensive training in technology. Education is compulsory from the ages of 5 to 16. The government allocates 20 percent of the budget to the public school system. The gross enrollment rate for primary school was over 95 percent in 2016 and the gross enrollment rate of secondary school was a little over 90 percent. These positive changes have contributed to the country’s 96 percent literacy rate.
  7. The infant mortality rate has decreased from over 11 deaths per 1,000 births in 2007 to just over five deaths per 1,000 births in 2017. The government has established the Healthy Lifestyles Initiative to reduce deaths due to lifestyle-related illnesses such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and cancer. Even though health care is improving, there is still work to be done in the prevention of spreadable diseases. In 2013, close to 500 individuals died from AIDS. This unfortunate number demonstrates the high infection rate of HIV/AIDS within the country. Since 2013, the government has increased education as well as immunization for adults to reduce the spread of diseases such as hepatitis B, yellow fever and influenza. All children enrolled in school are required to be vaccinated and these vaccinations start after the first 28 days of life. They include hepatitis B, meningitis, polio and influenza.
  8. Natural disasters contribute heavily to economic hardship and living conditions in the Bahamas due to poor infrastructure. The Bahamas sustained $3 billion worth of storm damage from the years 1950 to 2014. Hurricane Frances that wreaked havoc on the Grand Bahamas island in 2004 caused a 14 percent drop in the country’s GDP. The last hurricane to hit the island country was hurricane Irma that tore through the Caribbean killing 24 people in 2017. It was reported that Irma matched the financial blow of hurricane Matthew that cost the country $600 million in damages.
  9. Most endangered categories are children, single mothers, the elderly and the homeless. The Great Commissions Ministry is working to address the homeless and hunger within the Bahamas. They offer services such as daily food packages, job assistance, housing assistance, a drug abuse program and emergency housing for those who lack the basic necessities needed to survive. Hand for Hunger is also working hard to end hunger in the Bahamas by striving towards their goal of making sure every individual in the Bahamas has three nutritious meal every day. They do this by collecting donated food that would initially go to waste from grocery stores and restaurants and putting in front of those who need it most.
  10. There is little to no fresh water resources in the Bahamas since there are no freshwater rivers or streams available. The primary source of drinking water comes from groundwater which must be desalinated. The Carribean Development Bank and Government of the Commonwealth have launched a project to improve the water supply. The project aims to improve the infrastructure of potable water to 3,400 households.

These top 10 facts about living conditions in the Bahamas show the development of this island nation that has become one of the richest countries in the Americans, mainly due to its location and tourism. They also indicate fields where improvement is needed, such as prevention of spreadable diseases and freshwater resources.

Natasha Eckelbarger
Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Romania
Among the European Union (EU) nations, Romania has been considered as one of the most severely underdeveloped for a long time. Some of the worst housing conditions on the continent can be found here, along with a great risk of poverty. However, there are reports of an improving economic climate and rapidly rising incomes indicative of consistent progress. Potential challenges for the country are citizens leaving in more prosperous countries, resulting in negative population growth and threats to the nation’s economic progress. These top 10 facts about living conditions in Romania show a country grappling to maintain both its post-communist prosperity and its people.

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Romania

  1. Compared to 23.5 percent of Europeans, about 25 percent of Romanians were considered to be at risk of poverty in 2016, including over half of all people living in rural areas. This rate is higher for adults supporting children at 42.5 percent, particularly single parents at 58.2 percent. An estimated 22 percent of the population already live below the poverty line.
  2. Factors including overcrowding, environmental disturbances like pollution, noise or violence and difficulties keeping homes heated have been measured in Romania by the European Commission. Sixty percent of Romanians live in detached houses with one room per person, with 96 percent of those owning their own home. However, in 2016, 13.8 percent of Romanians reported being unable to heat these homes and 20 percent of the population lives without an improved source of sanitation.
  3. Economic growth of 4 percent was recorded in 2018, down from 7 percent increase the year before, mostly due to slowing foreign investment. Consumption among the Romanian people has helped the economy, rising rapidly due to decreased taxes, alongside exports and trade with EU member states that opened up after Romania joined the EU in 2007. Corruption and slow restructuring following liberation from communism in 1989 have withheld real economic stability.
  4. Average household income in 2016 was about $3,300, a massive increase from about $700 in 2001. Household spending has also increased, from $1,900 in 2006 to $2,800 per capita within 10 years. These increases have likely resulted from Romania’s economic growth, successful exports to the EU and the complete removal of income tax on low-income pensioners, allowing for greater disposable income for older people in particular, who make up most of Romania’s population.
  5. The unemployment rate has declined to 3.7 percent in 2018 from 7.2 percent in 2010. However, the youth unemployment rate is dramatically higher, at 16.8 percent, likely contributing to massive youth migration that search work and better living opportunities. It should be noted, however, that employment does not prevent individuals from becoming at risk of poverty. Over 20 percent of Romanian men and 15 percent of women considered at risk in 2016 were employed.
  6. Romanians experience the fourth highest rate of severe material deprivation in Europe. In 2016, 23.8 percent of Romanians could not afford at least four out of nine necessary material items set by the EU, compared to 7.5 percent of Europeans. Necessary materials include a complete meal every two days, paying for unexpected expenses, an annual vacation, adequate heating, a car, washing machine, color television, telephone and paying for routine bills.
  7. Groups like the estimated 2.4 million Roma people in the country suffer a higher rate of poverty than the ethnic majority. They have been historically persecuted and enslaved and continue to suffer prejudice. Around 42 percent of Roma cannot afford health care and suffer from increased exposure to diseases of poverty. Employment for Roma is estimated at only 42 percent for males and 19 percent for females, compared to over 60 percent employment among the general Romanian population. Many Roma people are subject to human rights abuses, including forced eviction, with little social welfare assistance to fall back on.
  8. Only 7.2 percent of Romanians reported having bad or very bad health in 2016 compared to 8.8 percent of other EU citizens. UNAIDS estimated in 2017 that 16,000 Romanians were living with HIV/AIDS, many as a result of poor hygiene practices that led to an AIDS epidemic in the 1990s. The overall population has a life expectancy at birth of about 75 years, just below the European average of 79 years.
  9. Emigration to neighboring countries and more prosperous European nations like the U.K., Italy and Germany has been significant since the 1990s. An estimated 3.9 million Romanians live outside their native country, leading to a consistently declining population. The Romanian economy is currently suffering from a shortage of skilled laborers and dwindling supply of young workers, prompting initiatives by the Romanian government to draw its citizens back into the country with incentives for reintegration.
  10. Many nonprofit organizations have worked in Romania since the fall of communism in 1989 to help the nation restructure and better serve its people. Habitat for Humanity has worked in Romania since the 1990s, serving 58,000 families and helping to replace crumbling communist-era apartment blocks, install plumbing and access to water. UNICEF works with the Romanian government and other organizations to create support networks for Romanians living with AIDS and to fund HIV/AIDS research. Several World Bank projects are also underway, including reimbursable projects to restructure Romania’s social welfare systems and provide higher quality education and health care.

Romania is currently one of the most underdeveloped nations of the European Union. Due to this reason, many young people are leaving the country, in search of work and better living conditions. However, various nongovernmental organization and government are working to improve the living conditions for the young people and other citizens of the country.

– Marissa Field

Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Botswana
In working on ameliorating living conditions in Botswana, there still remains a lot of work to be done, especially on improving women’s rights. For housing opportunities, organizations and the government in Botswana are still working on providing access to housing to meet the rise of people moving to cities. One positive development is the significant decrease in poverty. In the article below, the positive and negative trends of the country will be presented through the top 10 facts about living conditions in Botswana.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Botswana

  1. The unemployment rate for women remains higher than the unemployment rate for men. Of the girls and women who are unemployed in urban areas, 48 percent of them aged 15 to 29 did not have employment in 2009.
  2. There have been significant strides in reducing poverty and ameliorating living conditions in Botswana. From 2002 to 2010 poverty decreased from 30.6 percent to 19.4 percent, mostly in rural areas. One of the causes of this decrease is the government bolstering incomes for people working in agriculture and demographic changes. The result of this was 180,000 people who have gotten out of poverty. Of this number, 87 percent were from rural areas. However, 50 percent of the population in the country still lives below the international poverty line of $60 per month.
  3. Beginning in 1981, Botswana has affirmed the human rights to water and sanitation. Section 57 of the Public Health Act helps officers to provide the purity of water for drinking and domestic purposes by the public. There have been reforms in sanitation in a period from 2008 to 2013 from the review of the Botswana National Water Master Plan as well as in water supply, wastewater services and resource management.
  4. Working on achieving the Millenium Development Goal 1 (eradicate extreme poverty and hunger), Botswana has been made substantial progress towards zero hunger. One area of research is weight-for-age children. The Botswana National Nutrition Surveillance System oversees this part of the research. The information records that there has been a substantial decrease in child malnutrition. Child malnutrition has gone down from 14.6 percent in 1993 to 4.3 percent in 2008. Botswana has strived to support the connection between nutrition and development, demonstrated by providing free meals in public schools.
  5. Starting in 2011, Project Concern International (PCI) has been helping to improve the quality of life in Botswana. Botswana is the country with the third largest HIV prevalence in the world. In total, 21.9 percent of the population is infected with HIV. Yet, there have been significant strides in the antiretroviral treatment program, completely free for everyone.
  6. In 2017, the GDP in Botswana was $17.41 billion. Botswana’s GDP value in the world economy totals to 0.03 percent. Value of GDP in 2017 was the highest ever, and the lowest value of the country’s GDP was $0.03 billion, recorded in 1961.
  7. There has been a sharp increase in urban growth in Botswana. One issue that impoverished people in Botswana face is lack of access to land and housing. Possible solutions for this problem are the construction of squatter settlements, public housing and service and self-help housing.
  8. Around 60 percent of the population lives in the cities. As a result of this high percentage of urbanization, there is a difficulty in providing substantial access to quality housing in urban areas.
  9. The health system is made up of the public, profitable private and nonprofitable profit sector. The public sector provides 98 percent of all health care. In addition, referral hospitals, primary hospitals, clinics and health posts administer health care. Shedding light on Botswana’s health system is an analysis carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report made the claim that providing universal coverage of health care is key to striving for an equitable health system. As of yet, there has not so far been a way developed to finance a health system to provide all people in the country with equal access to health services. One initiative working to improve people’s health in Botswana is the IntraHealth International CapacityPlus initiative that seeks to increase access to data on the health workforce in order to bolster teaching skills to the health workforce and boost retention.
  10. The education system aims to provide high-quality education to its students. In primary schools, 86 percent of the children who began enrollment in school have a probable chance of moving on to the fifth grade. Students have the assurance of having at least 10-year long education. Half of the students go for two years of additional schooling to receive the Botswana General Certificate of education. After completing secondary school, there are opportunities to seek out vocational training and opportunities in higher education.

While there is room for efforts to be made to improve living conditions in Botswana, the country has made significant progress. Specifically, it has almost cut the poverty rate in half from 2002 to 2010. With more work, Botswana can continue to see an improvement in living conditions for its citizens.

– Daniel McAndrew-Greiner

Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Chile
Located on the western edge of South America, Chile is a densely populated country and home to as many as 18.05 million people. Unlike many other countries in Latin America, Chile has a relatively stable government, economy and society as a whole. In the text below, the top 10 facts about living conditions in Chile are presented.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Chile

  1. Being one of the most stable governments in the region, Chile is the Representative Democratic Republic in which the president is elected by a majority vote with a 40 percent voter turnout as of 2017. Michelle Bachelet has been the president since 2014. According to the OECD, 60 percent of Chileans feel like they have a say in what the government does. For comparison, only 33 percent of Venezuelans feel like they have a say in their government’s actions.
  2. Chile has the lowest level of corruption in Latin America and the country has a score of 67 out of 100 on the International Corruption Index, the highest score out of all other countries in Latin America  For comparison, Venezuela has a score of 18, lowest in the continent.
  3. Chile has an extremely stable economy. The GDP per capita stands at $24,000. The country earns $56.32 billion in exports and $56.86 billion in imports. China, the U.S. and Japan are Chile’s top three trading partners. The living cost for residents of Chile is very low, with an average of $939 of monthly living expenses.
  4. The Chilean government provides all citizens with access to free public health care through the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA). However, hospitals tend to be overcrowded and urban areas such as the capital Santiago have better equipment than rural areas and smaller towns.
  5. Most Chileans have internet and telephone access. An estimated 73.9 percent of the population uses smartphones as of 2016, according to eMarketer. The Chilean government has recently implemented a tech visa allowing entrepreneurs to acquire a visa in just 15 days.
  6. The unemployment rate in Chile has dropped dramatically from 13.50 percent in 1986 to 6.7 percent in December 2018. The employment rate is at 55 percent and the average hourly wage is $7.27, which is also very high compared to Chile’s neighboring countries.
  7. Chilean women still struggle to attain equal rights. Although Chile has made progress in terms of electing a woman to the highest office in the country, women still earn about 25 percent less than men. In addition, Chilean women are encouraged to work caretaking jobs whereas men work industrial jobs such as engineering, electricity and construction. Ever since Michelle Bachelet has been in office, she has been working to advance women’s rights in Chile.
  8. According to UNICEF, 93.4 percent of males and 93.3 percent of females are enrolled in primary school, and overall, 98.9 percent of the youth in Chile are literate. A very high number or 86.4 percent of Chilean adolescents are enrolled in secondary school, though the graduation rate is decreasing, which could be due to economic factors such as needing to support their family at an earlier age.
  9. Over the last decade, climate change has damaged the quality of water in the country. Glaciers have acted as the main source of water supply to rivers, lakes and groundwater in dry regions, and warmer weather has caused glaciers to retreat. There has also been a decrease in ecosystems in Chile which has a negative effect on the quality and availability of drinking water.
  10. Since Chile is located on a tectonic plate boundary where there is a subduction zone, compressional deformation causes earthquakes and volcanoes. Frequent earthquakes wreck thousands of homes every year and damage the country’s infrastructure. In recent years, the Chilean government has been working to build earthquake-resistant buildings and have developed better modes of public communication to warn people of natural disasters.

These top 10 facts about living conditions in Chile show that compared to many other countries in Latin America, Chile is considered progressive in terms of technology, government, economics and living conditions. Countries such as Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador struggle in terms of overall living conditions due to corrupt governments and failing infrastructures. Chile is continuing to progress regardless of its hazardous geographical location and state of its surrounding countries.

– Sara Devoe
Photo: Flickr

Top Ten Facts About Living Condition in Thailand
In the last few years, Thailand is becoming a really popular tourist and backpacking destination, not only for its breathtaking nature and for its rich culture, but also for its particular and interesting culinary. But not everything that most people see as travelers truly represents real life in the country. In the text below, the top 10 facts about living conditions in Thailand, that will try to give a clearer picture of this Southeast Asian nation, are presented.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Thailand

  1. Between the 1970s and 1990s, Thailand went through a monumental economic growth that led the country to a position in which it could improve the living conditions of a lot of its citizens. GDP per capita has increased from $863 in 1975 to $1,335 in 1985.
  2. Although some people could get huge benefits from Thailand’s economic growth, the wealth was not equally distributed, leaving the lower 30 percent of the population in rough conditions to fight for their survival.
  3. In the past, there used to be some policies that encouraged Thailanders to take their personal credit with programs like first car loans, for example. But after resulting in high household debt, the government decided to shut down the program.
  4. The country is suffering from a lack of labor force due to its quickly aging population. As a response to this, Thailand’s government is promoting women’s participation in the workforce by giving support to child care services.
  5. Thailand is considered to be a safe country to live in with a moderate crime rate of 47.7 percent. However, in the past three years, the country has increased its crime rate by 62.7 percent. Of all the cities of the country, Phuket is considered to be its most dangerous one to live in.
  6. Due to is high demand for entertainment and for being the economic, cultural, historical and commercial hub of the country, Thailand’s capital Bangkok is the most expensive city to live in and is among the world’s 100 most expensive cities.
  7. During the majority of the year, the weather is extremely hot in Thailand. April is the hottest month when the temperature can reach more than 30 degrees Celsius. From May to October, the country is in the monsoon season, presented with the particularly hot weather, but along with it with heavy rains. This can be thought for the ones not prepared for these living conditions.
  8. Thailand is considered to be highly polluted country. The belief is that this issue emerged after the country migrated from an agricultural economy to an industrialized one, resulting in rough polluted air that directly affects the population’s health.
  9. In the country’s education system, it is optional for the children to go to pre-school education. However, the percentage of parents that opt to enroll their infants in a daycare center or kindergartens is high. Nine years of public education are mandatory for all children in the country.
  10. The traffic in Thailand is considered a bit chaotic, as the average time index is 39.38 minutes. A car is the most used form of transportation, further compounding to the issue of air pollution in the country.

As for every country, the top 10 living conditions in Thailand show that there are various pros and cons of living in the country. There are things that cannot be easily repaired, such as the unequal distribution of wealth. But improving other things, such as air pollution and the safety of the country can be done by realizing that everyone is responsible and that only by a joint effort of all citizens, Thailand can move forward.

– Rafaela Neno

Photo: Flickr

Top Ten Facts about Living Conditions in Sudan
Since the start of the new year, Sudan has received a flurry of media attention. What started as students protesting rising wheat prices escalated into civil unrest quickly spread across the country as thousands of activists call for President Omar al-Bashir’s resignation. The government’s response has received widespread condemnation, with Amnesty International reporting the death of 40 protestors and thousands of arrests.

The unrest sweeping through Sudan is complex, rooted in social, political and economic instability. For decades, living conditions across this African nation have fostered an environment that leaves behind vulnerable citizens and perpetuates poverty. The following top 10 facts about living conditions in Sudan are intended to unpack these factors.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Sudan

  1. Much of Sudan’s geography is defined by the Nile river and its tributaries, winding through the country’s expansive plains. The Sahara desert sweeps across the north, rendering much of the land arid and unusable. However, in the Southern Savannah, especially the Southeast regions, summer storms deliver nearly 30 inches of rain each year. These fertile grasslands allow communities to fish, grow crops and raise livestock.
  2. Sudan has been plagued by one of the longest and deadliest civil wars in the world. For the past 27 years, President Omar al-Bashir has clung to power in a brutal fashion, including the 2003 genocide in Darfur that drew international condemnation. Fighting between the Sudanese government and southern rebels finally cooled in 2011 when an almost unanimous referendum granted what is now South Sudan independence. However, the violence within Sudan continues today. The constant war weighs heavy on the civilian population as more than 2 million people remain displaced in Darfur, with a PTSD prevalence of 55 percent in some areas.
  3. The 2011 secession of South Sudan sparked economic turmoil across the nation that continues to affect daily life. Prior to 2011, Sudan saw sustained economic growth from its vast oil reserves. The petroleum industry fueled nearly 95 percent of the country’s exports and was one of the largest areas of employment. Shrinking 2.3 percent in 2018, the economy has been in a downward spiral as 47 percent of the population lives below the poverty line and Sudan has the worlds second highest rate of inflation.
  4. The unemployment rate in Sudan have been slowly but consistently falling over the past two decades. In 1995, unemployment hovered around 14 percent. Today estimates place this rate at 12.5 percent. Conflict continues to afflict labor participation in some regions and the collapse of Sudan’s oil industry left thousands jobless. An unknown number of Sudanese are also engaged in non-wage work, primarily subsistence farming. Therefore, Sudan’s relatively low unemployment rate is not entirely indicative of the country’s economic standing.
  5. Agriculture is a driving economic force in Sudan, employing 80 percent of the labor force and comprising 40 percent of the country’s GDP. With two main branches of the Nile running through Sudan, the country boasts some of the most fertile lands in the region. In the White and Blue Nile plains, some farmers receive government subsidies to operate large scale, mechanized farms. These farms are integral to the economy, sometimes providing entire communities with steady work.
  6. Roughly 70 percent of the nation’s 39.5 million people live in rural areas where the government is unable to provide the most basic of services. Clean water, food and adequate sanitation are scarce in these regions and only 22 percent of rural residents have access to electricity. At 20 percent, rural unemployment in Sudan is almost twice as high as the national average, while the poverty rate jumps to 58 percent outside of urban areas.
  7. Some of the most notable improvements in Sudanese society have been in the education sector. In 2009, 67 percent of children attended primary school, increasing significantly from 45 percent in 2001. Although primary education is free, parent-teacher associations sometimes impose fees to cover the cost of school supplies. This can have a chilling effect on attendance. UNICEF estimates nearly 3 million children between the ages of 5 and 13 are kept out of school, one of the highest rates of out-of-school children in the entire continent.
  8. Hunger continues to impact communities across Sudan. In 2017, 3.8 million people suffered from food insecurity and in 2018, 5.5 million were affected. A staggering 80 percent of the entire population is unable to afford the food they need to sustain a healthy and nutritious diet and roughly 40 percent of Sudanese people are malnourished. Famine and conflict in neighboring South Sudan continue to bring refugees into the country, with only 1 percent of newcomers able to afford the food they need.
  9. Since 2000, the Sudanese government has doubled its annual health care budget, allocating 6.6 percent of its GDP towards health expenditures With only 5.6 doctors per 10,000 people, hospitals across the country are often overwhelmed. Despite much of the population residing in rural areas, most hospitals are located in Sudan’s urban centers and nearly two-thirds of the country’s doctors worked in the capital Khartoum. Malaria, yellow fever and diarrheal diseases are common throughout the country, especially in conflict-afflicted areas that lack public health initiatives and adequate medical supplies.
  10. Some reports suggest 87 percent of Sudanese women between the ages of 15 and 49 have been forced to undergo female genital mutilation (FGM), the highest rate in the world. However, with help from the World Health Organization, over 1,000 communities across the country have denounced FGM. The Sudanese government has also taken steps to address gender inequality, passing the 2008 Electoral Law that mandated 25 percent of parliamentary seats to be occupied by women. Today, women hold 30 percent of Sudanese Parliamentary seats.

These top 10 facts about living conditions in Sudan do not paint a hopeful picture for this African nation. But despite the various adversities imposed upon the people of Sudan, many are optimistic when it comes to the future. The historic protests dominating daily life since January indicates people are not afraid to mobilize for change. As pressure continues to mount on President al-Bashir, and his 27-year rule that dictated life for millions of oppressed people, could be coming to an end.

– Kyle Dunphey

Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Bolivia
Bolivia has recorded growth in several important life categories. However, being home to more than 11 million people, the country has a long way to go before being considered a developed country. In the article below, the top 10 facts about living conditions in Bolivia are presented.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Bolivia

  1. Unemployment in Bolivia is currently at 6.2 percent. The poverty rate in 2016 was at 39.5 percent, and this number almost halved from 66.4 percent in 2000. Bolivia is one of the most impoverished countries in South America, but the numbers show vast improvement over the last decade.
  2. The expected years of schooling of 14 years ranks Bolivia at 118th place in the world for education below the countries like Chile, Columbia, Venezuela and Brazil. However, education in Bolivia used to average around 11 years in 1990, indicating great improvements in this area.
  3. According to the U.N. development program reports, both genders receive the same amount of primary schooling, but women still face more struggles on a day-to-day basis. Child marriage for girls below age 18 is at 19 percent and estimated yearly income for women is only about half of what men are paid.
  4. For the last 28 years, Habitat for Humanity has worked transforming lives and providing homes with basic facilities for 58 percent of Bolivians who live in slums. Dirt floors, crowded bedrooms and lack of clean water and essentials spell proliferation of illness and parasites. As rising urbanization means 68.5 percent live in cities, Habitat views managing the space of the millions who live in city slums as a human rights issue.
  5. Out of the total labor force, skilled labor makes up 45.2 percent. Socio-economic sustainability often relies on diversification of employment opportunities and resources. While child labor still exists, Bolivia has made strides in 2017 to eliminate child labor in agriculture. In the past, many children were allowed to work as young as 10 years old. Data from 2016 published by UNESCO estimates that 13.9 percent of the population aged from 7 to 14 are child workers, employed in agriculture, services, mining and other hard labor.
  6. Life expectancy is up to 69.1 years as of 2016, and with the assistance of organizations such as Habitat for Humanity and CHOICE Humanitarian, basic access to nutrition and clean water has increased within the last decade. Still, the country does not have a comprehensive health care system and around 60 percent of people do not have access to basic facilities like clean water and modern sewage.
  7. In 2017 alone, Action Against Hunger helped 12,651 people in Bolivia. Out of this number, 7,672 were reached by nutrition and health programs, 1,470 were reached by safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene programs and 3,509 benefited from food security and livelihood programs. Some 75 percent of Bolivians lack regular access to basic food and nutrition. Action Against Hunger began a project in 2000 providing long-term food security to thousands of residents and job support while working with the health system addressing child malnutrition.
  8. According to the World Bank data, 39.7 percent of the population has access to the internet, an increase of over 15 percent since 2010.
  9. Along with Action Against Hunger and Habitat for Humanity, CHOICE Humanitarian is working to end extreme poverty in the rural indigenous groups of the high plains. The director Willy Mendoza, whose Aymará heritage gives him special insight to the needs of the indigenous people the organization serves, directs the bulk of efforts into school construction, microcredit and enterprise programs, clean water and latrines. The long bond of trust established between CHOICE and the Bolivian people helps implementation of the programs run smoothly.
  10. In 2006, the Bolivian government instituted a national Zero Malnutrition program prioritizing undernutrition in communities with high rates of food security. CHOICE Bolivia is supported by the government as a means of battling extreme poverty and has changed many of the indigenous communities with access to water, sanitation, and credit opportunities. The organization hopes extreme poverty will continue to be eradicated through tools based on knowledge, science, technology and sustainable social development.

Overall, Bolivia has grown in its diversification of employment, access to basic facilities and consideration of human rights issues. Poverty still troubles 39 percent of the population and many still require access to clean water and nutrition, but with the help of leaders like Willy Mendoza and groups like Habitat and CHOICE Humanitarian, fundamental needs like good shelter and water continue to be satisfied. These changes and many of the top 10 facts about living conditions in Bolivia show what sustainable organizations backed by the government can accomplish in a developing country.

– Hannah Peterson
Photo: Pixabay

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in El Salvador
El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America, bordered by Guatemala and Honduras. It is about the same size as the state of Massachusetts with a population of 6.4 million people. Most of the country overflows with mountains and rainforests, while one side is bordered by the Pacific Ocean, possessing miles of sandy beaches. El Salvador is a unique country filled with vivid culture, people, and beauty. In the article below, a list of the top 10 facts about living conditions in El Salvador is presented.

  1. El Salvador has an extremely dense population. As of 2016, the population density was about 306 people per square kilometer of land. This creates overcrowded living situations, squeezing huge families into tiny houses. As a result, for low-income families, alleyway houses are created in rows of up to 50.
  2. The education level remains extremely low. Many children do not end up attending secondary school due to financial or economic reasons. Most families cannot afford to send their child to school and other children must work in order to help support their families. Almost 20 percent of males and 25 percent of females aged 15 or above cannot read or write.
  3. El Salvador has one of the highest rates of crime and murder in the world. The country has been labeled, “the most violent in Latin America.” From 2014 to 2017, about 20,000 people were murdered as a result of gang violence. The gangs are active in 94 percent of the country and run as a continuous threat to children, families and business owners.
  4. Agriculture plays a key role in the economy of the country. Agriculture employs about 25 percent of the country’s labor force and meets about 70 percent of the countries food needs. The top agricultural exports include coffee and sugar. Having the country’s mild climate and fertile soil in mind, it is safe to say that these exports will continue to provide a steady income.
  5. El Salvador is extremely prone to natural disasters. Due to its location in a very seismically active region, the annual average loss from earthquakes for the country is about $176 million or 0.7% of the country’s GDP. Floods, tropical storms and volcanoes have also been known to displace many families.
  6. Although poverty is a persistent issue, it has been declining over the past decade. The poverty rate declined 8 percent from 2007 to 2016. The extreme poverty rate also declined 5 percent over the same time period. This was a result of several factors, most notably increased salary and economic growth.
  7. El Salvador struggles to provide quality and adequate health care to its people. This is directly associated with a low level of income of most individuals and families. Upon illness, these people are unable to receive the proper medical care they need. The health care system was ranked poorly, coming in at 115th place out of 190 different countries’ health care systems around the world.
  8. Because of the overall low-income levels, the housing situation is evidently affected. In urban settings, most of the homes are made up of bricks and cement. They are extremely small, averaging about 480 square feet, sometimes even for very large families. In the slums, most of the houses are huts made with aluminum sheets, cardboard and plastic.
  9. About 1.8 million minors between the age of 5 and 17 are forced to work. Often times these children are placed in unsanitary or dangerous work environments just to earn a few dollars for themselves and their families.
  10. In 2016, the World Bank Group proposed a new Country Partnership Strategy for El Salvador. This initiative focuses on several areas including economic growth, education and employment. It was created to work with and support the government’s ambitious agenda for change.

The top 10 facts about living conditions in El Salvador open the door for several improvements and changes the country has the opportunity to make over the next few years. Slowly but surely, El Salvador is developing better living conditions for its people.

– Savannah Huls

Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions In Cameroon
Cameroon is in trouble. The country is economically plagued by a devastatingly high poverty rate, struggling education and health care systems, paralyzing corruption and various internal rifts that threaten national security and any prospects of a vibrant tourism industry.  Nevertheless, some bright spots remain that point towards a more prosperous future. With an official goal in place to be labeled as an “emerging market” by 2035, many questions about Cameroon’s precarious future linger. The top 10 facts about living conditions in Cameroon presented below will try to give a better picture of the situation in the country.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Cameroon

  1. A picture of the living conditions in Cameroon is not complete without the all-important measures of GDP and GDP per capita. With the 15th largest economy in Africa, Cameroon’s total nominal GDP of $38 billion places it at 98th place globally. When taking heed of the population, the nation’s GDP per capita of $1,400 places it near the bottom of the pack globally, at 152nd place, and 26th out of 55 countries in Africa.
  2. Despite the sobering figures above, Cameroon’s economy has made great strides towards becoming a prosperous emerging market in recent years. In the period from 2004 to 2008, while the countries reserves quadrupled to $3 billion, the public debt was reduced from over 60 percent of GDP to around 10 percent. Furthermore, over the last decade, Cameroon’s GDP per capita grew at a steady 4 percent annually, well above the global average of 2.6 percent. In addition, Cameroon’s unemployment rate currently rests at a healthy 4.24 percent.
  3. Nonetheless, Cameroon still has a ways to go, as 48 percent of the population continues to live under the poverty line. With this in mind, it is important to note that poverty remains a largely rural phenomenon in the country. Despite only accounting for roughly 45 percent of the country’s total population of 24 million, nearly 55 percent of those living in poverty dwell in rural areas where access to steady-paying jobs and adequate infrastructure is sparse.
  4. With a relatively low score of 0.56, placing the country 151st out of 189 total countries measured, Cameroon currently ranks last in the “Medium Human Development” category of the U.N.’s Human Development Index. Established to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone, a country’s HDI takes into account various measures of health, education and per capita wealth.
  5. As of 2010, the last year on file, the adult literacy rate in Cameroon was estimated at 71.3 percent, well below the world average of 84.6 percent at the time. On a more positive note, Cameroon boasts one of the highest school attendance rates in Africa, with most children having access to relatively inexpensive, state-run schools. In 2013, the enrollment rate for primary schools was 93.5 percent. It is important to note that boys continue to attend school at a significantly higher rate than girls as a result of entrenched cultural norms.
  6. Cameroon is plagued by crippling corruption on an epic scale. The Corruptions Perceptions Index (CPI) that ranks countries by their perceived levels of public sector corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys, places Cameroon 152nd overall out of 180 countries measured. The rippling economic ramifications of prolific corruption at a governmental level can be devastating, with research highlighting a direct correlation between a higher CPI score and positive long-term economic growth. So much so, in fact, that a country can expect GDP growth in the range of 1.7 percent for every “unit increase” in a country’s CPI score.
  7. One of the biggest factors limiting Cameroon’s education attendance rate is not only the accessibility of schools but also the prevalence of child labor. Unfortunately, according to the U.S. Department of Labor’s Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, 56 percent of children between the ages of 5 and 14 were working, while 53 percent of children aged between 7 and 14 were forced to balance both work and school.
  8. Cameroon’s health care system is sparse and insufficient, significantly affecting the overall quality of life in the country. This is best represented in the country’s markedly low life expectancy and high infant mortality rate. Cameroon’s life expectancy rests at just 57 years for males and 59 years for females. The infant mortality rate is extremely high, at 84 deaths per 1,000 births. Cameroon’s substandard health care system can be rooted back to the government’s minimal funding. Currently, health care expenditures are equal to just 4.1 percent of the country’s GDP.
  9. Paul Biya has ruled Cameroon as its authoritarian President since 1982. Over these 37 years, he has quelled democratic hopes and limited any and all civic and civil liberties. Having this in mind, it comes as no surprise that Cameroon was labeled as “not free” by Freedom House. With an overall score of 22 out of 100 (100 being entirely free), Cameroon ranks 174th out of 210 countries measured.
  10. Bordering Nigeria and Chad, Boko Haram continues to pose a threat to Cameroon, especially in the country’s far north. This represents a huge issue for the safety of the country’s citizens.

Despite being an independent country from 1960, Cameroon still has an autocratic rule that made country one of the poorest in the world. The country has a lot of work to do, especially in the fields of child labor and corruption. The positive developments are present, such as the low unemployment rate and high school attendance rates. These and similar positive examples provide hope for the citizens that a country can be categorized as an “emerging market” by 2035.

– William Lloyd

Photo: Flickr

PA Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Benin
Benin is a relatively small country located in West Africa and is home to approximately 11.7 million people. The climate is hot and many people are impoverished. As of late, organizations have started programs in Benin to reduce poverty and alleviate the problems associated with it. Living conditions in Benin can vary for those living in urban areas versus those living in rural areas, with those in urban areas typically having access to more resources.

Although Benin is working toward development, with increases in business and transportation, the country still faces issues associated with underdevelopment. With increased development, a decrease in poverty is likely to follow. In this article, the top 10 facts about living conditions in Benin are discussed.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Benin

  1. More than one-third of the population in Benin is impoverished. While equality for women is largely lacking, families in which women are the leaders have lower levels of poverty. According to The World Bank, the levels of poverty are 28 percent for women-led families compared to 38 percent for male-headed families.
  2. Natural resources are not the easiest to find in Benin. However, agriculture plays a large part in the country’s economy. Increased cotton production led to a positive increase in GDP from 4.0 percent in 2016 to 5.6 percent in 2017. Additionally, domestic oil has benefited economic productivity.
  3. From a political standpoint, Benin is doing well. Their democratic elections are peaceable and people are generally pleased with those in power. In the 2016 presidential election, cotton businessman, Patrice Talon, won. His election provides for positive increases with trade between Benin and its foreign partners.
  4. The Global Hunger Index rates Benin at a 24.3, which means that Benin is labeled under the “serious” category for hunger. While that number reflects a large number of people facing malnutrition, the number of people facing food insecurity is decreasing over time. This is hope-inspiring evidence that organizations working to combat hunger such as UNICEF are gradually making progress in Benin.
  5. Sanitation remains an issue in Benin. According to UNICEF, only 20 percent of people have access to basic sanitation services. Open defecation is practiced by half of the population and lack of toilets can cause other health issues. This can be instrumental in the spread of various diseases. Organizations, such as UNICEF, are working to improve sanitation in countries where open defecation is still practiced through expanding access to sanitation services.
  6. Transportation in Benin is developing. Currently, urban roads are primarily paved, unlike rural areas. There is a railroad in Benin connecting domestic cities, but it does not go into any other nations. Cotonou, a largest and economically most important city, has a port and airport, proof of development.
  7. Child marriage is a serious problem for the country. Girls Not Brides reports that 26 percent of girls in Benin are married before their 18th birthday. This issue persists, in part, from gender inequality. The United Nations, UNICEF and the Government of Benin are working to fight this through advocating for policy changes regarding the legal age of marriage.
  8. Nigeria and Benin have a close relationship. The majority of Benin’s exports go to Nigeria. Consequently, the economy in Nigeria can have both positive and negative effects on the country. Lately, increases in Nigeria’s economy have led to subsequent improvements in the economy of Benin. Trade is somewhat limited, partially resulting from lack of credit access to the people. However, in recent years, aspects of business, such as agriculture and exports, have positively grown.
  9. Seven percent of the country’s expenditures go toward public health. Under-five mortality rates are at a continuous decline. With growing emphasis placed on health care, this trend should continue. In addition, private health care is growing. There are some limitations though. For example, private health care is typically only available in urban areas. Within the health sector, UNICEF is diligently working to improve health care for both women and children through shaping policy and providing access to health care services.
  10. Benin initiated free public education for all citizens in 2007. International schools are also options for those who can afford it. Higher education is also a possibility in Benin at the National University of Benin.

Based on these top 10 facts about living conditions in Benin, it is clear that poverty is still abundant in the country. However, in recent years, there have been many efforts to combat underdevelopment and improve living conditions. Organizations, such as UNICEF and USAID, are working to improve the quality of living conditions in the country. UNICEF places an emphasis on helping women and children. USAID has implemented programs to shed light on corruption in Benin. These top 10 facts about living conditions in Benin show that with the joint efforts of these organizations and local communities, the country has a bright future.

– Carolyn Newsome
Photo: Flickr