living conditions in morocco
Morocco is a country rich in history and tradition with a unique culture that comes from Arab, Berber, French and African influences. While the country faces several economic, political and social challenges, it has also been experiencing continued growth in GDP, indicating the progress in its development. Evidence of the country’s domestic progress can be seen through its efforts in increasing school enrollment and literacy rates and reducing poverty. It has also displayed its progress internationally by taking the lead on environmental progress in the region. Here are the top 10 facts about living conditions in Morocco.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Morocco

  1. Morocco’s government has implemented programs focused on job creation and the reduction of economic disparities that have been effective enough to improve the overall economy. Morocco represents the sixth largest economy in Africa. Its GDP growth rate increased from 2.40 percent in July 2018 to 3 percent by October 2018. Although in previous years, the GDP had been higher, this increase represents a new upswing in growth.
  2. There was slight progress in reducing unemployment in 2018, with a small drop from 10.6 percent to 10 percent by September that year. The High Commission for Planning estimates that 122,00 jobs were created within the last year. In addition, youth unemployment rates dropped from 27.5 percent to 26 percent.
  3. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concluded in an index evaluation that Morocco is the worst country in North Africa in terms of income inequality. The income share held by the highest 20 percent amounted to 47 percent in 2013 while the lowest 20 percent held a total of 6.70 percent. Distribution of income in Morocco is a challenge that still needs to be addressed.
  4. Although income inequality persists, the poverty rate in Morocco had decreased from 8.9% in 2007 to 4.2% in 2014. The World Bank reported an increase of 3.3 percent in consumption per capita between 2001 to 2014. However, progress is more apparent in urban areas rather than rural.
  5. In order to improve and diversify its economy, the government has been focusing on becoming more innovative. In 2010, research efforts accounted for 0.73 percent of its GDP, making Morroco one of the highest in the Arab world in that focus. In 2009, the country adopted the Moroccan Innovation Strategy by the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Investment and the Digital Economy with the aim of developing domestic demand for innovation and improving innovative funding.
  6. Due to severe understaffing, the World Health Organization (WHO) had listed Morocco as one of the 57 countries that could not provide essential healthcare to its citizens in 2010. The government has since taken measures to improve this. It announced the allotment $10 billion to go towards healthcare and education as part of its $46.5 billion 2019 Finance Bill.
  7. In 2001, Morocco had implemented a program to do away with all the slums. The “City Without Slums Initiative” was set to be accomplished by 2011, but was set back considerably after terrorist attacks in 2003. Its purpose was to improve housing, sanitation and quality of life. It is currently only 68 percent complete. Of the original 85 cities that were scheduled to be updated, 58 have been completed.
  8. In partnership with USAID, Morocco has adopted measures to improve its educational system in 2017. Fewer than 15 percent of students who start in first grade are predicted to graduate from high school. The newly implemented program focuses on teacher training, after-school reading programs as well as distributing important learning materials. The program has already trained more than 340 teachers and improved literacy for 12,000 students.
  9. Literacy rates had improved substantially from 41.6 percent in 1994 to 71.7 percent in 2015. However, the adult literacy gender gap in Morocco is still a challenge that the government is facing. In 2015, the male literacy rate reached 78.6 percent; whereas, the female literacy rate was only 58.8 percent. However, these rates improve significantly when looking at the youth between the ages of 15-24. The gender gap is still present in youth, but much narrower, with roughly 88 percent for women and 95 percent for men.
  10. Similarly to the social challenges the whole region faces, Morocco is a patriarchal society. Gender inequality is embedded in the social, political, legal and economic structures of the country. However, the government has taken constitutional measures to increase gender equality. In 2004, it amended the Mudawanna legal code, guaranteeing legal rights for women in areas like property ownership, divorce and child support. Women currently make up one-third of the formal workforce and almost half of the students graduating from university.

Looking to the Future

These 10 facts about living conditions in Morocco illustrate the government’s efforts to not only achieve economic growth but develop overall. The U.N. Development Program indicated that the Human Development Index for Morocco had increased from 0.458 in 1990 to 0.667 2017. The Moroccan government’s 2019 agenda for development is focused on education and a huge investment in its citizens for the purpose of economic transformation.

Njoud Mashouka

Photo: Flickr

Swaziland Hunger
Swaziland is a small, landlocked Southern African country that borders South Africa and Mozambique. The country is only 120 miles long and 81 miles wide and has a population of less than 1.5 million, making it one of the smallest countries in Africa in these regards. The Swazi population faces some major health issues, the most severe among them being HIV and tuberculosis. The biggest concern for the country is, however, the widespread hunger. Keep reading to learn the top 10 facts about hunger in Swaziland.

Top 10 Facts About Hunger in Swaziland

  1. Swaziland has a score of 22.5 out of 50 on the Global Hunger Index (GHI), indicating that the level of hunger in the country is serious. The country ranks 76th out of 119 qualifying countries. This indicator is calculated using factors such as child undernutrition, inadequate food supply and child mortality. Although hunger is still a huge problem in Swaziland, the GHI score is trending generally downwards, from 28.9 in 2000 to 22.5 currently.
  2. Around 25.5 percent of Swazi children under the age of 5 show signs of growth stunting or being irreversibly short for their age. In real numbers, this is around 43,000 children. This number is trending downwards and has dropped for 11.1 percent from 36.6 percent in 2000. Stunting is an indicator of child undernutrition due to the particular vulnerability of children to dietary deficiencies.
  3. Child undernutrition has significant economic ramifications for Swaziland. According to the World Food Programme (WFP), approximately $92 million or 3.1 percent of the country’s GDP was lost in 2009 as a direct result of child undernutrition. These costs come from clinical episodes, grade repetition and school dropouts (more common in stunted children) and loss of working hours due to undernutrition.
  4. Forty percent of adults in Swaziland are considered to have stunted growth due to undernutrition as children. This presents a significant challenge for these individuals as most job opportunities require manual labor. The WFP estimates losses of $14.8 million in 2009 due to the impaired physical capacity of this demographic.
  5. According to national surveys, the country has reduced the population living under the poverty line from 69 to 63 percent. However, there has been no improvement in the last decade regarding the high levels of income inequality. It is estimated that around 40.6 percent of Swazi people live under $1.25 per day.
  6. Life expectancy in Swaziland is trending upwards. Between 2000 and 2002, life expectancy at birth stood at 46.5 years but rose to 48.7 years from 2009 to 2016. This is still far below the World Health Organization’s estimated global average of 72 years in 2016.
  7. The country has slashed the rate of new HIV infections by 44 percent through a number of initiatives including greater access to anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs). A 2017 Washington D.C.-funded survey found that 73.1 percent of the infected population has fully suppressed the virus and the HIV incidence had dropped to 1.4 percent. Proper nutrition also has an impact on the ability of those infected to maintain a healthy weight and absorb HIV medication.
  8. Swaziland consistently fails to produce enough maize, its staple crop, to fulfill its population’s needs. Around 140,000 metric tonnes (MT) of the crop would be needed to satisfy the population’s requirement, but only 84,344 MT was produced in 2016/2017 and 33,460 MT in 2015/2016.
  9. Drought is a huge factor when it comes to agricultural production. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the majority of Swazi people live in rural areas, and over 70 percent or more than a million people rely on subsistence farming.
  10. Swaziland’s under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000) is on the decline. In 2016, this metric stood at 70.4 compared to 120 a decade prior.

These top 10 facts about hunger in Swaziland presented in this article highlight the issues that the country still faces in its development and the progress that has been made to combat food insecurity, especially in children.

– Chelsey Crowne
Photo: Flickr

10 Facts About Living Conditions in Zambia
Zambia, a southern African country with a population of 15.5 million, is one of the fastest growing economies on the continent due to copper mines and agriculture diversification. However, despite its economic growth, Zambia is still one of the poorest countries in the world with 60 percent of the population living below the poverty line and 40 percent of those people living in extreme poverty. With a fast-growing population and high youth unemployment rates, Zambia is still facing the challenge of widespread poverty. In the article below, the top 10 facts about living conditions in Zambia are presented.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Zambia

  1. According to Habitat for Humanity, around 64 percent of Zambian’s live under $2 a day and people that are extremely poor live under $1.25 a day. However, due to the rapidly growing economy, living in Lusaka, the country’s capital, is more expensive than living in Washington D.C.
  2. Zambia is experiencing rapid urbanization due to the increased job and higher income opportunities. The current urban housing shortage is around 1.3 million housing units. This figure is expected to increase to 3 million housing units by 2025. Due to the lack of housing, it is reported that about 70 percent of the urban population lives in slums with critical water and sanitation problems. Habitat for Humanity has been trying to reduce housing poverty in the country for a few decades. and has served about 3,500 families and continues to improve the housing conditions for many Zambians.
  3. Fertility rates in Zambia are on the rise. Between 2013 and 2014, the reported fertility rate was 5.2 percent of children per woman. It is reported by the United Nations that Zambia’s population is projected to increase by 941 percent by the end of the century, making it the highest projected growth rate in Africa.
  4. In many areas, Zambia has an inadequate sewage system and many Zambians lack a proper toilet. According to National Public Radio (NPR), it is reported that about 6.6 million people in Zambia lack a proper toilet. The country has an acute sewage issue with pit latrines covering about 45 percent of Lusaka. When the pits are filled there are either emptied by the local authority or the owners just fill them up and construct new ones.
  5. It is estimated that 4.8 million people in Zambia do not have access to clean water and rely on rivers and lakes that are contaminated with feces. The contaminated water is used as drinking water and to cook food which leads to diarrhea and cholera. However, WaterAid is helping countries like Zambia to get access to clean water, decent toilets and good hygiene.
  6. Approximately 2,000 children under the age of 5 die on a yearly basis due to contaminated water and poor toilets. In 2013, statistics showed that more than 3,500 new-born babies died of infections that were linked to unsanitary water in Zambia.
  7. Zambia is one of the 20 countries have pledged to end child marriage by 2020. Around 6 percent of Zambian girls are married before the age of 15. However, child marriage rates have reduced from 42 percent to 31 percent in 2014. To reduce the child marriage rate, Zambia has adopted the National Strategy on Ending Child Marriage in Zambia.
  8. Zambia, like many other African countries, has been battling the challenge of hunger for many decades. About 1.12 million children under the age of 5 in Zambia suffer from chronic malnutrition. Furthermore, there is about 60 percent prevalence of anemia among young children in Zambia.
  9. According to the CDC, HIV/AIDS and TB are the top diseases in Zambia that cause death. However, HIV/AIDS-related deaths have declined by more than a third. Also, the infection rates among young children have declined from 14,000 in 2005 to 7,300 in 2017.
  10. Access to education in Zambia has increased rapidly. However, the quality of education is still lacking. USAID is putting in the effort to improve the quality of education by implementing education programs that target the performance of the students and teacher.

Zambia’s economy is improving rapidly. However, living conditions have hardly improved over recent years. People are still struggling to get access to basic survival resources and are living in unsanitary conditions that give rise to chronic diseases. One of the adverse effects of the growing economy is it has widened the inequality gap. Despite the country’s growing economy, 60 percent of the population is still struggling to make a living. However, the living conditions in Zambia can improve if the government focuses on implementing programs that will reduce the overcrowding, the improve the quality of education and help provide clean water to every citizen. Zambia may have grown economically, but the fight for poverty reduction is yet to come.

– Komalpreet Kaur
Photo: Flickr


Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated and financially significant regions on Earth, but it also has a massive issue with income inequality. Roughly one-fifth of Hong Kong’s residents are living in poverty as of November 2018, with monthly income for those people falling below the poverty line equaling $700 a month. The average cost of living for a 900 square foot apartment plus utilities in a normal area for two equals $3,885 a month. In the text below, the top 10 facts about poverty in Hong Kong are presented.

Top 10 Facts About Poverty in Hong Kong

  1. The population is aging. With 7.4 million residents, Hong Kong is home to many people of older generations. The combination of changing technologies and markets has impacted those who served in more blue-collar jobs in years past. This has a dramatic effect on how they are able to pay for housing, food and basic necessities when white collar jobs are taking over the city. The government has provided handouts that have helped many in poverty, but what truly needs to be done is proper job reeducation and reassignment.
  2. Cohabitating with elderly parents is becoming necessary. As many young adults seek to explore their career paths and the vast megalopolis of the Pearl River Delta, they realize they don’t have the means to expand. In order to keep parents from falling below the poverty line and to give their future children exceptional opportunities, many young couples are forced to stay with their parents. However, this is only a temporary solution to the long-term issue of how to deal with economic struggles. Thankfully, the local and national governments are considering how to reengage the elderly through the use of their accumulated knowledge.
  3. Monthly rent is 70 percent of the median household income for half of Hong Kong. With the average monthly income of those below the poverty line not reaching the 70 percent statistic to pay for livable housing, a dark housing market has appeared. Illegal housing has entered roughly one in four structures in Hong Kong. In order to combat the rise of illegal housing and unlivable structures, the government of China must provide affordable and government subsidized housing rather than solely catering to the wealthy.
  4. Wages have not risen to meet the rise in housing cost. The average unskilled worker has to work 12-hours per day to afford a 100 square foot coffin home. In order to meet the needs of its citizens, Hong Kong must increase welfare payments in the form of Comprehensive Social Security Assistance (CSSA). CSSA must become more than just a safety net for basic needs and should fully encompass the needs of those in poverty in Hong Kong through food assistance and other means.
  5. Women are disproportionately affected by poverty. China has historically undervalued women. The one-child policy preferred boys and illegal sex-selective abortions were utilized. Hong Kong’s 2017 census stated that roughly 451,700 women fell below the poverty line, where only 80,800 men did. In order to fully engage society and bring skilled workers into the workforce, education and protections must be put in place for women and young girls.
  6. The poor are unfairly stigmatized. Those in poverty in Hong Kong are seen as being lazy for the position they’ve fallen into. This attitude speaks to a larger ambivalent attitude towards meaning and wealth in Hong Kong, as status and titles have unfortunately taken over humility and humanity. In order to combat this harsh attitude, people of Hong Kong must embrace the people in their society that make them uncomfortable.
  7. Cyber cafes have become havens for the poor. Hong Kongers who fall below the poverty line and cannot afford to house have taken to spending their days and nights at cyber cafes. For a low cost of entry, cyber cafes provide shelter and internet access between jobs for the poor.
  8. Hong Kong’s bureaucracy is one of the causes of the problem. The issues the homeless face could be solved, but government division has slowed progress. Separate departments cover similar issues but have no central governing body. Experts suggest that examples from New York’s consolidated Department of Homeless Services should be followed.
  9. Nongovernmental organizations could help Hong Kong. Government leasing of properties occurs in Hong Kong but leasing from nongovernmental organizations could greatly assist those in need. Government support of organizations who control these properties would allow for the poor and homeless to be taken care of effectively by trained professionals.
  10. The wealth distribution is uneven. The top 10 percent in Hong Kong earn roughly 44 times more than the lowest 10 percent who fall far below the top monthly earnings. This income divide is further pushed by wealthy business interests who influence politicians. This directly damages the ability of the poor and homeless to receive any assistance.

While poverty is a massive issue in Hong Kong, individuals and governing bodies can no longer turn a blind eye. For the sake of those in need, the country and its politicians must take notice of the damaged parts of their society, as it is shown in these top 10 facts about poverty in Hong Kong.

– Zach Margolis

Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Cyprus
Cyprus, a Mediterranean island with a population of 1.2 million, has endured several different occupations by major powers since the birth of the civilization. Beginning with the Assyrian, Egyptian, Persian and Roman Empires, Cyprus was then taken by the French Venetians and then the Ottoman Empire (from 1571 to 1878). The United Kingdom was the last imperial body to control Cyprus, from which Cyprus gained independence in 1960. In the article below, the top 10 facts about living conditions will be presented and will try to show how the people in this country live and what impacts their lives.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Cyprus

  1. Since 1974, Cyprus has been politically and ethnically divided into two territories- Northern and Southern Cyprus. Northern Cyprus is a de facto state of Turkey and populated primarily by Turkish Cypriots, while Southern Cyprus governs itself and is populated primarily by Grecian Cypriots. While Turkey recognizes Northern Cyprus as a Turkish territory, the rest of the world considers Northern Cyprus a part of the Republic of Cyprus, along with Southern Cyprus. Both Greek and Turkey are official languages in Cyprus. This division mostly impacts people in the country and reunification talks have been held in order to improve the situation.
  2. Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) in 2004 and has benefited politically and economically since its admission. Living conditions in Cyprus improved as the nation gained access to European treaties and European Union law to resolve internal unrest, and also the increased security that comes with EU membership. Today, more than half of Cyprus’ trade happens within the EU, expanding its markets farther and with more ease than that would be possible without the membership status.
  3. Cyprus has one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union despite the economic crisis of 2013. The nation’s economy grew 3.9 percent in 2017 and is predicted to continue growing in 2019 in the wake of expanding employment and a flourishing tourism industry.
  4. Poverty in Cyprus is notoriously hard to track, but it is presumed that the number of people at risk of poverty has been steadily decreasing over the last few years, starting from 28.9 percent in 2015, 27.6 percent in 2016 and to 25.2 percent in 2017. Improvement in poverty rates is largely due to continued economic growth, coupled with a rise in income in the nation.
  5. Along with a reduction in poverty, unemployment rates continue to fall in Cyprus. From about 15 percent in 2015, the unemployment rate fell to 13 percent in 2016 and further to 11 percent in 2017. In 2018, the unemployment rate fell to 8.2 percent, among the lowest in the EU.
  6. Global Finance Magazine ranked Cyprus 32nd in its 2019 list of the world’s safest countries. This ranks the country higher than the United Kingdom (38th), Japan (43rd) and the United States (65th).
  7. Education completion rates in Cyprus have been maintained at high rates. School completion rates hover between 97 and 98 percent, except for the year Cyprus divided in 1974 when the education completion rate was 64 percent. The political and social unease of this time is to blame for this dip in education completion rates, as the number went right back up the following year.
  8. Matching its high education completion rates, Cyprus’ literacy rate sits at around 99 percent, ranking the country among the best in the world regarding this issue.
  9. The life expectancy in Cyprus is around 80.5 years, which is comparable to neighboring countries Malta (81.8 years) and Greece (81.04 years). This rate is higher than the one in the United States (78.69 years).
  10. Health care in Cyprus is comparable to health systems in other developed nations. Split into public and private sectors, health care in Cyprus is generally free or very inexpensive for citizens and persons from EU nations. Emergency treatment is free for citizens, and EU nationals are eligible for free health insurance at public hospitals, which are located in all major cities.

While living conditions in Cyprus are already good, life in the nation could be improved by the reunification of the North and South. By some estimates, reunification could improve Cyprus’ GDP by as much as $5.7 billion in only five years, as Southern Cyprus would be less vulnerable to the economic problems of Greece and also gain access to Turkish markets. If the two territories gain free access to each other, the economy will benefit as a whole, improving further the Cypriotic economy and living conditions in Cyprus as a whole.

– Jillian Baxter
Photo: Flickr

Life expectancy in Mexico
Before jumping into this discussion about life expectancy in Mexico, it seems important to explain the importance of measuring life expectancy when attempting to solve the problem of global poverty. Life expectancy, just like malnutrition and infant mortality statistics, shows how well a certain country is living.

If you notice that a country has high life expectancy rates while malnutrition rates are low, one can assume said country has beneficial living conditions and most likely, low poverty rates. From certain facts about life expectancy in Mexico, one will not be able to the whole story about living conditions and poverty in Mexico but will be able to gain some insight on how do Mexicans live.

Top 10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Mexico

  1. Mexico’s life expectancy in 2018 was at 77.5 years, up from 76.9 in 2015. Mexico’s overall growth in average life expectancy increases by 0.24 percent annually. As a middle-class country that is still dealing with cases of extreme poverty and violence, Mexico scores much better than the global average life expectancy of 72 years. However, much work still needs to be done to improve living conditions to ensure higher life expectancy in Mexico.
  2. Between 2005 and 2015, average life expectancy in Mexico actually declined. Life expectancy in the country was 77.8 years for women and 72.6 for men in 2005, but by 2015 the figures decreased to 77.6 for women and 71.9 for men. This is in stark contrast to most of the world where life expectancies are rapidly increasing elsewhere. According to the National Population Council (CONAPO) report, recent fluctuations in life expectancy are a reflection of changes in mortality levels due to the increase in older adults and deaths related to diabetes mellitus and violent causes.
  3. There is a noticeable gap between life expectancies based on the various regions in Mexico. For example, in 2015, Mexico City was the region with the highest life expectancy at 76.2, while Guerrero had the lowest life expectancy at 72.7.
  4. Life expectancy in Mexico is predicted to increase to 79 years by 2050. The gap between the highest life expectancies in a state and the lowest is supposed to shrink as well from the 3.5 years in 2015 to 1.7 years in 2050.
  5. It is predicted by the Lancet, that because of United States’ stagnancy in life expectancy, as well as increases of this category by Mexico, the two countries will be on par with each other in life expectancy by 2030. It should be noted that this comparison was based on women’s life expectancies in these two countries.
  6. Heart disease, kidney disease and diabetes, in that order, are the biggest killers in Mexico. However, from 2007 to 2017, deadly interpersonal violence skyrocketed 215 percent to become Mexico’s fourth biggest killer of people.
  7. Diabetes is such an epidemic in Mexico that in 2017 Mexico declared a national emergency to combat this disease and to provide support and better care for the 13 million Mexicans that currently have diabetes. The country has tried to prevent it with a soda tax and a public awareness campaign. Among the 35 countries that make up the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Mexico accounts for the most hospitalizations related to diabetes.
  8. Before 2007, around 10,000 people were murdered each year in Mexico. However, since the start of the war on drug trafficking in Mexico, homicide rates have increased. In 2018, a new record was set as 28,816 people were murdered. President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office in December 2018, has promised to “calm” the country after 12 years of a militarized crackdown on drug-related organized crime.
  9. The United States gives $290 million a year to Mexico in foreign aid and nearly three-quarters of that money goes to counternarcotics programs. The drug wars in Mexico are very bloody and obviously create conditions that are violent and unsafe. It is not a bad decision to fund the solving of the violent drug problem in Mexico, but the U.S. would undoubtedly benefit in putting more money into programs that would better the living conditions in Mexico directly. Only $500,000 of the funds went to emergency response. Very little money, if any, is given to Mexico to create better water access and 21st-century technology that can increase life expectancy in Mexico.
  10. The infant mortality rate in Mexico is 11.60 deaths per 1,000 births. This statistic places Mexico in a better ranking than countries like Brazil, Saudi Arabia and China. However, Mexico’s rate is still double than that of the United States. 

To be certain, Mexico, just like every country on this Earth, can do better in terms of creating the conditions to make life expectancy rise, as well as making poverty fall. To those that may not know much about Mexico’s performance in the eradication of poverty and its symptoms, this fact sheet hopefully gave insight into what life might currently be like in this Central American country and what can be improved.

Kurt Thiele

Photo: Flickr

10 Facts about Living Conditions in the BahamasThe Bahamas is an island country located in the Atlantic Ocean. The population totals at just over 400,000 people. The total GDP stands at $11.6 billion, and the country has a market economy. The Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americans today and their economy is finance and tourism based. These top 10 facts about living conditions in the Bahamas presented below will illustrate the way of life on the islands.

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in the Bahamas

  1. The capital of Nassau is home to almost 70 percent of the total population. Second and third largest cities are Lucaya and Freeport. More than 300,000 people live in these three cities. The majority of the economy is located here, and like any major cities, they contain elite suburbs and impoverished slums.
  2. The majority of revenue coming into this tropical country is through tourism as 60 percent of total GDP comes from this industry. In 2007, tourism provided over two million jobs to Bahamian citizens. Just under 50 percent of the working population is directly employed in tourism and another 20 percent are employed indirectly.
  3. The U.S. provides the country with the majority of its tourism and international trade. Economic state in the Bahamas relies heavily on the economic state of the neighboring country. The financial crisis of 2008 negatively affected the country. The GDP decreased by 2.3 percent.
  4. The cost of living in the Bahamas is 31.75 percent higher than the cost of living in the U.S. This includes the prices of groceries, rent and restaurants. When comparing the gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than $22,000 with the one of the U.S. at $58,207, the poverty level seems much more extreme. The U.S. is encouraging the Bahamas to diversify its market, specifically with agricultural exports to increase their GNI.
  5. The national poverty rate of the Bahamas sits at a little more than 9 percent. The highest rate is around 20 percent in the Other Family Islands, home to 6 percent of the population. The Other Family Islands sit well outside the reach of jobs created by tourism, hospitals and education while the main islands of Nassau and Lucaya, Freeport contain a plethora of resources.
  6. Education has seen considerable growth in the Bahamas in the past 60 years. Almost $5 billion was invested to implement computer labs in public schools and teachers were provided with extensive training in technology. Education is compulsory from the ages of 5 to 16. The government allocates 20 percent of the budget to the public school system. The gross enrollment rate for primary school was over 95 percent in 2016 and the gross enrollment rate of secondary school was a little over 90 percent. These positive changes have contributed to the country’s 96 percent literacy rate.
  7. The infant mortality rate has decreased from over 11 deaths per 1,000 births in 2007 to just over five deaths per 1,000 births in 2017. The government has established the Healthy Lifestyles Initiative to reduce deaths due to lifestyle-related illnesses such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and cancer. Even though health care is improving, there is still work to be done in the prevention of spreadable diseases. In 2013, close to 500 individuals died from AIDS. This unfortunate number demonstrates the high infection rate of HIV/AIDS within the country. Since 2013, the government has increased education as well as immunization for adults to reduce the spread of diseases such as hepatitis B, yellow fever and influenza. All children enrolled in school are required to be vaccinated and these vaccinations start after the first 28 days of life. They include hepatitis B, meningitis, polio and influenza.
  8. Natural disasters contribute heavily to economic hardship and living conditions in the Bahamas due to poor infrastructure. The Bahamas sustained $3 billion worth of storm damage from the years 1950 to 2014. Hurricane Frances that wreaked havoc on the Grand Bahamas island in 2004 caused a 14 percent drop in the country’s GDP. The last hurricane to hit the island country was hurricane Irma that tore through the Caribbean killing 24 people in 2017. It was reported that Irma matched the financial blow of hurricane Matthew that cost the country $600 million in damages.
  9. Most endangered categories are children, single mothers, the elderly and the homeless. The Great Commissions Ministry is working to address the homeless and hunger within the Bahamas. They offer services such as daily food packages, job assistance, housing assistance, a drug abuse program and emergency housing for those who lack the basic necessities needed to survive. Hand for Hunger is also working hard to end hunger in the Bahamas by striving towards their goal of making sure every individual in the Bahamas has three nutritious meal every day. They do this by collecting donated food that would initially go to waste from grocery stores and restaurants and putting in front of those who need it most.
  10. There is little to no fresh water resources in the Bahamas since there are no freshwater rivers or streams available. The primary source of drinking water comes from groundwater which must be desalinated. The Carribean Development Bank and Government of the Commonwealth have launched a project to improve the water supply. The project aims to improve the infrastructure of potable water to 3,400 households.

These top 10 facts about living conditions in the Bahamas show the development of this island nation that has become one of the richest countries in the Americans, mainly due to its location and tourism. They also indicate fields where improvement is needed, such as prevention of spreadable diseases and freshwater resources.

Natasha Eckelbarger
Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Romania
Among the European Union (EU) nations, Romania has been considered as one of the most severely underdeveloped for a long time. Some of the worst housing conditions on the continent can be found here, along with a great risk of poverty. However, there are reports of an improving economic climate and rapidly rising incomes indicative of consistent progress. Potential challenges for the country are citizens leaving in more prosperous countries, resulting in negative population growth and threats to the nation’s economic progress. These top 10 facts about living conditions in Romania show a country grappling to maintain both its post-communist prosperity and its people.

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Romania

  1. Compared to 23.5 percent of Europeans, about 25 percent of Romanians were considered to be at risk of poverty in 2016, including over half of all people living in rural areas. This rate is higher for adults supporting children at 42.5 percent, particularly single parents at 58.2 percent. An estimated 22 percent of the population already live below the poverty line.
  2. Factors including overcrowding, environmental disturbances like pollution, noise or violence and difficulties keeping homes heated have been measured in Romania by the European Commission. Sixty percent of Romanians live in detached houses with one room per person, with 96 percent of those owning their own home. However, in 2016, 13.8 percent of Romanians reported being unable to heat these homes and 20 percent of the population lives without an improved source of sanitation.
  3. Economic growth of 4 percent was recorded in 2018, down from 7 percent increase the year before, mostly due to slowing foreign investment. Consumption among the Romanian people has helped the economy, rising rapidly due to decreased taxes, alongside exports and trade with EU member states that opened up after Romania joined the EU in 2007. Corruption and slow restructuring following liberation from communism in 1989 have withheld real economic stability.
  4. Average household income in 2016 was about $3,300, a massive increase from about $700 in 2001. Household spending has also increased, from $1,900 in 2006 to $2,800 per capita within 10 years. These increases have likely resulted from Romania’s economic growth, successful exports to the EU and the complete removal of income tax on low-income pensioners, allowing for greater disposable income for older people in particular, who make up most of Romania’s population.
  5. The unemployment rate has declined to 3.7 percent in 2018 from 7.2 percent in 2010. However, the youth unemployment rate is dramatically higher, at 16.8 percent, likely contributing to massive youth migration that search work and better living opportunities. It should be noted, however, that employment does not prevent individuals from becoming at risk of poverty. Over 20 percent of Romanian men and 15 percent of women considered at risk in 2016 were employed.
  6. Romanians experience the fourth highest rate of severe material deprivation in Europe. In 2016, 23.8 percent of Romanians could not afford at least four out of nine necessary material items set by the EU, compared to 7.5 percent of Europeans. Necessary materials include a complete meal every two days, paying for unexpected expenses, an annual vacation, adequate heating, a car, washing machine, color television, telephone and paying for routine bills.
  7. Groups like the estimated 2.4 million Roma people in the country suffer a higher rate of poverty than the ethnic majority. They have been historically persecuted and enslaved and continue to suffer prejudice. Around 42 percent of Roma cannot afford health care and suffer from increased exposure to diseases of poverty. Employment for Roma is estimated at only 42 percent for males and 19 percent for females, compared to over 60 percent employment among the general Romanian population. Many Roma people are subject to human rights abuses, including forced eviction, with little social welfare assistance to fall back on.
  8. Only 7.2 percent of Romanians reported having bad or very bad health in 2016 compared to 8.8 percent of other EU citizens. UNAIDS estimated in 2017 that 16,000 Romanians were living with HIV/AIDS, many as a result of poor hygiene practices that led to an AIDS epidemic in the 1990s. The overall population has a life expectancy at birth of about 75 years, just below the European average of 79 years.
  9. Emigration to neighboring countries and more prosperous European nations like the U.K., Italy and Germany has been significant since the 1990s. An estimated 3.9 million Romanians live outside their native country, leading to a consistently declining population. The Romanian economy is currently suffering from a shortage of skilled laborers and dwindling supply of young workers, prompting initiatives by the Romanian government to draw its citizens back into the country with incentives for reintegration.
  10. Many nonprofit organizations have worked in Romania since the fall of communism in 1989 to help the nation restructure and better serve its people. Habitat for Humanity has worked in Romania since the 1990s, serving 58,000 families and helping to replace crumbling communist-era apartment blocks, install plumbing and access to water. UNICEF works with the Romanian government and other organizations to create support networks for Romanians living with AIDS and to fund HIV/AIDS research. Several World Bank projects are also underway, including reimbursable projects to restructure Romania’s social welfare systems and provide higher quality education and health care.

Romania is currently one of the most underdeveloped nations of the European Union. Due to this reason, many young people are leaving the country, in search of work and better living conditions. However, various nongovernmental organization and government are working to improve the living conditions for the young people and other citizens of the country.

– Marissa Field

Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Botswana
In working on ameliorating living conditions in Botswana, there still remains a lot of work to be done, especially on improving women’s rights. For housing opportunities, organizations and the government in Botswana are still working on providing access to housing to meet the rise of people moving to cities. One positive development is the significant decrease in poverty. In the article below, the positive and negative trends of the country will be presented through the top 10 facts about living conditions in Botswana.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Botswana

  1. The unemployment rate for women remains higher than the unemployment rate for men. Of the girls and women who are unemployed in urban areas, 48 percent of them aged 15 to 29 did not have employment in 2009.
  2. There have been significant strides in reducing poverty and ameliorating living conditions in Botswana. From 2002 to 2010 poverty decreased from 30.6 percent to 19.4 percent, mostly in rural areas. One of the causes of this decrease is the government bolstering incomes for people working in agriculture and demographic changes. The result of this was 180,000 people who have gotten out of poverty. Of this number, 87 percent were from rural areas. However, 50 percent of the population in the country still lives below the international poverty line of $60 per month.
  3. Beginning in 1981, Botswana has affirmed the human rights to water and sanitation. Section 57 of the Public Health Act helps officers to provide the purity of water for drinking and domestic purposes by the public. There have been reforms in sanitation in a period from 2008 to 2013 from the review of the Botswana National Water Master Plan as well as in water supply, wastewater services and resource management.
  4. Working on achieving the Millenium Development Goal 1 (eradicate extreme poverty and hunger), Botswana has been made substantial progress towards zero hunger. One area of research is weight-for-age children. The Botswana National Nutrition Surveillance System oversees this part of the research. The information records that there has been a substantial decrease in child malnutrition. Child malnutrition has gone down from 14.6 percent in 1993 to 4.3 percent in 2008. Botswana has strived to support the connection between nutrition and development, demonstrated by providing free meals in public schools.
  5. Starting in 2011, Project Concern International (PCI) has been helping to improve the quality of life in Botswana. Botswana is the country with the third largest HIV prevalence in the world. In total, 21.9 percent of the population is infected with HIV. Yet, there have been significant strides in the antiretroviral treatment program, completely free for everyone.
  6. In 2017, the GDP in Botswana was $17.41 billion. Botswana’s GDP value in the world economy totals to 0.03 percent. Value of GDP in 2017 was the highest ever, and the lowest value of the country’s GDP was $0.03 billion, recorded in 1961.
  7. There has been a sharp increase in urban growth in Botswana. One issue that impoverished people in Botswana face is lack of access to land and housing. Possible solutions for this problem are the construction of squatter settlements, public housing and service and self-help housing.
  8. Around 60 percent of the population lives in the cities. As a result of this high percentage of urbanization, there is a difficulty in providing substantial access to quality housing in urban areas.
  9. The health system is made up of the public, profitable private and nonprofitable profit sector. The public sector provides 98 percent of all health care. In addition, referral hospitals, primary hospitals, clinics and health posts administer health care. Shedding light on Botswana’s health system is an analysis carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report made the claim that providing universal coverage of health care is key to striving for an equitable health system. As of yet, there has not so far been a way developed to finance a health system to provide all people in the country with equal access to health services. One initiative working to improve people’s health in Botswana is the IntraHealth International CapacityPlus initiative that seeks to increase access to data on the health workforce in order to bolster teaching skills to the health workforce and boost retention.
  10. The education system aims to provide high-quality education to its students. In primary schools, 86 percent of the children who began enrollment in school have a probable chance of moving on to the fifth grade. Students have the assurance of having at least 10-year long education. Half of the students go for two years of additional schooling to receive the Botswana General Certificate of education. After completing secondary school, there are opportunities to seek out vocational training and opportunities in higher education.

While there is room for efforts to be made to improve living conditions in Botswana, the country has made significant progress. Specifically, it has almost cut the poverty rate in half from 2002 to 2010. With more work, Botswana can continue to see an improvement in living conditions for its citizens.

– Daniel McAndrew-Greiner

Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Chile
Located on the western edge of South America, Chile is a densely populated country and home to as many as 18.05 million people. Unlike many other countries in Latin America, Chile has a relatively stable government, economy and society as a whole. In the text below, the top 10 facts about living conditions in Chile are presented.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Chile

  1. Being one of the most stable governments in the region, Chile is the Representative Democratic Republic in which the president is elected by a majority vote with a 40 percent voter turnout as of 2017. Michelle Bachelet has been the president since 2014. According to the OECD, 60 percent of Chileans feel like they have a say in what the government does. For comparison, only 33 percent of Venezuelans feel like they have a say in their government’s actions.
  2. Chile has the lowest level of corruption in Latin America and the country has a score of 67 out of 100 on the International Corruption Index, the highest score out of all other countries in Latin America  For comparison, Venezuela has a score of 18, lowest in the continent.
  3. Chile has an extremely stable economy. The GDP per capita stands at $24,000. The country earns $56.32 billion in exports and $56.86 billion in imports. China, the U.S. and Japan are Chile’s top three trading partners. The living cost for residents of Chile is very low, with an average of $939 of monthly living expenses.
  4. The Chilean government provides all citizens with access to free public health care through the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA). However, hospitals tend to be overcrowded and urban areas such as the capital Santiago have better equipment than rural areas and smaller towns.
  5. Most Chileans have internet and telephone access. An estimated 73.9 percent of the population uses smartphones as of 2016, according to eMarketer. The Chilean government has recently implemented a tech visa allowing entrepreneurs to acquire a visa in just 15 days.
  6. The unemployment rate in Chile has dropped dramatically from 13.50 percent in 1986 to 6.7 percent in December 2018. The employment rate is at 55 percent and the average hourly wage is $7.27, which is also very high compared to Chile’s neighboring countries.
  7. Chilean women still struggle to attain equal rights. Although Chile has made progress in terms of electing a woman to the highest office in the country, women still earn about 25 percent less than men. In addition, Chilean women are encouraged to work caretaking jobs whereas men work industrial jobs such as engineering, electricity and construction. Ever since Michelle Bachelet has been in office, she has been working to advance women’s rights in Chile.
  8. According to UNICEF, 93.4 percent of males and 93.3 percent of females are enrolled in primary school, and overall, 98.9 percent of the youth in Chile are literate. A very high number or 86.4 percent of Chilean adolescents are enrolled in secondary school, though the graduation rate is decreasing, which could be due to economic factors such as needing to support their family at an earlier age.
  9. Over the last decade, climate change has damaged the quality of water in the country. Glaciers have acted as the main source of water supply to rivers, lakes and groundwater in dry regions, and warmer weather has caused glaciers to retreat. There has also been a decrease in ecosystems in Chile which has a negative effect on the quality and availability of drinking water.
  10. Since Chile is located on a tectonic plate boundary where there is a subduction zone, compressional deformation causes earthquakes and volcanoes. Frequent earthquakes wreck thousands of homes every year and damage the country’s infrastructure. In recent years, the Chilean government has been working to build earthquake-resistant buildings and have developed better modes of public communication to warn people of natural disasters.

These top 10 facts about living conditions in Chile show that compared to many other countries in Latin America, Chile is considered progressive in terms of technology, government, economics and living conditions. Countries such as Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador struggle in terms of overall living conditions due to corrupt governments and failing infrastructures. Chile is continuing to progress regardless of its hazardous geographical location and state of its surrounding countries.

– Sara Devoe
Photo: Flickr