Since Feb. 24, 2022, Ukraine has been in armed conflict with Russia, which has caused significant deterioration in Ukraine’s economy and an increase in poverty. However, the international community has been quick to come to Ukraine’s assistance. In particular, Japan has provided several essential services to Ukraine through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Here is a breakdown of Japan’s support to Ukraine since the recent escalation of the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
Poverty Increase in Ukraine
The humanitarian situation in Ukraine has worsened significantly since the start of the conflict. Approximately 34% of households reported having no income or relying on assistance as of April 2022. The country’s unemployment rate has drastically increased to 34% in 2022, according to the National Bank of Ukraine. However, the actual rate is likely more severe as “so many people in Ukraine had undeclared jobs before the invasion,” NPR says. This is a stark increase from the 8.9% unemployment rate recorded in 2021, according to World Bank data.
This increase corresponds to a third of the population suffering from food insecurity. Food insecurity affects some oblasts (provinces) more severely than others, with provinces in the east and south reporting food insecurity rates of 50%. Luhansk notes the highest food insecurity rates across all oblasts. Further, the Ukrainian economy is projected to contract by close to 32% by the end of 2022.
The easternmost oblasts of Donetsk, Kharkiv and Luhansk are disproportionately affected by the conflict. A greater presence of landmine contamination, continued damage to infrastructure and a generally higher risk of Russian targeting makes these areas less accessible for aid and commerce.
Japan’s support of Ukraine since the beginning of the conflict has three focal points:
- Assistance to attain financial stability.
- The “improvement of people’s lives and environment.”
- The “promotion of autonomous governance and internal reconciliation.”
The first measure the JICA took to help Ukraine in March 2022 came in the form of “a needs assessment survey team for humanitarian and medical assistance,” the JICA website says. The JICA dispatched this medical team to Moldova to assist with the influx of Ukrainian refugees. The team collaborated with the World Health Organization and the Moldovan Health Ministry to help strengthen already existing systems and also provide advice on resource allocation and data management as the crisis continues to unfold.
Additionally, on May 16, 2022, the JICA signed an Official Development Assistance (ODA) contract, giving a 13 billion Japanese yen loan to support Ukrainian economic stability. However, this amount was not adjusted in light of the scope of the war, and so, on June 17, Japan modified the original ODA to give an additional 65 billion yen to Ukraine. This combined total is equivalent to a 78 billion yen loan. As stated on the JICA website, the loan’s goals include “fostering de-monopolization and anticorruption institutions, strengthening land and credit markets and bolstering the social safety net… by offering financial assistance to Ukraine, which is facing an economic crisis due to the impact of a military invasion.”
Lastly, in late June 2022, the JICA gave its first of “a series of online seminars” designed to help advise Ukrainian officials in waste and debris management amid the war. Oblasts that are particular targets of the Russian military have experienced a high level of infrastructural damage, contributing to transportation and waste management issues. Considering Japan’s experience with these matters, the JICA hopes to share its expertise and contribute to Ukraine’s stability and crisis recovery.
For Ukraine to endure during these times while safeguarding the well-being of citizens, it is essential to sustain support efforts like those demonstrated by the JICA. It is likely that Japan’s support to Ukraine will continue to play a critical role as the war unfolds.
– Xander Heiple