How to End the Hygiene Crisis in Ghana
Diarrhea kills 2,195 children each day, more than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, malaria and measles combined, and n
early 11 percent of Ghana’s population relies on surface water — water that collects on the surface of the ground or top layer of a body of water — for their daily hydration needs. This water is unpurified and unsafe for human consumption, yet Ghanaians lack a safe alternative. Ghanaians who ingest surface water are at risk for water-related diseases, such as ever-deadly diarrhea.  

Risk of Diarrhea

According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, diarrhea is a global health concern with 1.7 billion cases occurring every year. Although diarrhea can affect any age-group, it is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five; in fact, 2,195 child fatalities happen every day worldwide. The hygiene crisis in Ghana has escalated with diarrhea as the third leading cause of death for children under five, taking nearly 10,000 lives every year.

How Does Diarrhea Become Fatal?

Diarrhea depletes body fluids, causing dehydration, and children often die when they have lost too much water from their bodies.

Several organizations have implemented health initiatives to combat the hygiene crisis in Ghana. Preventing diarrhea is possible by increasing water availability and quality, distributing oral rehydration salts, breastfeeding infants until six months of age and educating the population on proper sanitization techniques.


‘IWASH,’ UNICEF Ghana’s handwashing project, yields extremely promising results in entire villages in Ghana; the program educates schoolchildren on the health effects of not washing their hands. While touring a handwashing facility with 70 schoolchildren, District Resource Coordinator Issah-Bello said that students should share their knowledge in order to be an ambassador for behavior change and end the hygiene crisis in Ghana.

The Rehydration Project

The Rehydration Project cites oral rehydration salts, or ORS, as the most effective and least expensive way to combat diarrhoeal dehydration. ORS is a combination of dry salts mixed with clean water that replaces fluids lost from diarrhea. If ORS is unavailable, a homemade solution may be made with six teaspoons of sugar, one-half teaspoon of salt and one liter of clean water.


Breastfeeding infants until six months of age can reduce infants’ likelihood of contracting diarrhea because breastfeeding mothers do not prepare their infant’s formula with contaminated water.

Clean Water believes that clean water is the way to end poverty, save lives and prepare for the future. Since 2009, has worked to increase access to safe drinking water and sanitization facilities in Ghana. The organization’s current project is expected to be completed in late 2017, and is in the process of constructing 61 water facilities. has also reached 53,000 Ghanaians through water systems, health and hygiene education and borehole wells. With numerous solutions like these, the hygiene crisis in Ghana is well on its way to resolution.

– Carolyn Gibson

Photo: Flickr

Togo Charity Works to Help Rural Villages Out of PovertyTogo has struggled to lift its citizens, especially those in rural areas, out of poverty and to ensure adequate access to necessities such as sanitation and drinking water.

A report by the International Monetary Fund found that in 2011, the percent of the rural population that lived below the poverty line was 73.4 percent. In urban areas, the rate was 44.7 percent.

Water Sanitation and Access to Clean Water

Specifically in regards to water sanitation and drinking water, work has been done by various organizations to improve access to these necessities, and as a result, help rural villages out of poverty.

The Water Governance Facility (WGF), backed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), stated on its website that in 2015, 63 percent of Togo’s urban population had access to drinkable water, while in rural areas only 44 percent had access. The same report found that only 11 percent of Togo’s population benefited from water sanitation facilities.

These statistics were reported as part of a larger program called Governance, Advocacy and Leadership in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene that was implemented by the WGF in conjunction with the UNDP from 2014 to 2017.

The Power of Local Aid Groups

However, assistance has also come from organizations closer to home, which strive to help rural villages out of poverty and address its accompanying effects.

Recently, the Togo charity Christian Charity for People in Distress (CCPD) was awarded the Kyoto World Water Grand Prize for the work it has done to help a village of 290 people improve its water sanitation.

CCPD is based in Kpalimé, Togo and was created in April 2004 as a nonprofit Christian charity. The organization’s mission statement declares that its goal is to help rural villages out of poverty by further developing water access, sanitation and hygiene, as well as improving agricultural development, the environment and education.

On its website, CCPD lists four main objectives it seeks to accomplish through its charity work:

  • Protecting the rights of women and children.
  • Assisting the rural population of Togo in obtaining decent education and healthcare, and providing access to drinking water and sanitation.
  • Helping to economically develop rural areas by working alongside farmers to generate more income.
  • Facilitating food self-sufficiency in rural areas of Togo.

Making a Difference

Since 2006, CCPD’s water, sanitation and hygiene programs have aided more than 6,000 people. These programs usually involve the construction of wells, latrines and ECOSAN toilets, which is a waterless toilet designed to save water in countries that do not have water security. In addition, CCPD has worked to help rural villages out of poverty by providing school supplies to primary and secondary school students, aided in the construction of new schools and improved computer skills in adults and children.

The charity is the second African organization to win the Kyoto World Water Grand Prize, which will not only improve sanitation and water conditions, but will also decrease deaths related to illnesses such as cholera that are caused by poor sanitation.

CCPD has been aiding impoverished, rural areas of Togo since its creation, and does far more than just water and sanitation work. The charity’s efforts in regards to education, agricultural development, business development and environmental protection have all impacted communities in Togo and given them the help they need to transition out of poverty.

– Jennifer Jones

Adequate sanitation and toilets are basic necessities that ensure and promote the health of people in developing countries. The importance of sanitation and toilets lies in helping reduce the spread of diseases. Sanitation systems aim to protect health by providing and promoting a clean environment.

Developing countries face challenges in accessing sanitation and hygiene care. The CDC states that hundreds of millions of people do not have access to adequate clean drinking water and that over one million deaths are a result of diseases transmitted via unclean water, poor sanitation and lack of hygiene. Access to soap is an importance of hygiene, and often a challenge in availability for developing countries. The CDC offers an effective hand washing station within communities in need of proper hygiene. Known as Tippy Taps, these stations use less water and soap than other means of hand washing.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is approaching the importance of sanitation and toilets by partnering with several organizations to reduce water-borne diseases. The Water, Sanitation & Hygiene initiative aims to reduce disease and improve lives by looking closely at communities and governments to understand their environment and what is suitable for providing hygiene and water. The Gates Foundation also supports establishing an end to open defecation and upgrading latrines in order to encourage people to practice good hygiene as well as increasing the demand for sanitation.

The World Bank is addressing the importance of sanitation and toilets through the Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) initiative, which assesses the relationship between poverty and hygiene to properly develop methods in bringing hygiene and water. The World Bank found that the effects of unsafe drinking water and lack of proper hygiene result in various other health issues, such as child stunting. WASH, in coordination with other organizations, works to provide appropriate services. The WASH program aims to reduce childhood mortality via investing clean water access to rural communities.

Shedding light on the importance of sanitation and toilets can lead to proposing and establishing sustainable sanitation for communities with no access to sanitation. The disparities of hygiene access need to be addressed to ensure the health of communities and generations to come.

– Jennifer Serrato

Photo: Flickr

hand hygiene
Revolutionizing hand hygiene, the “crayon-soap” hybrid known as SoaPen is the brainchild of Amanat Anand, Yogita Agrawal and Shubham Issar — a trio of industrial designers from the Parsons School of Design. Primary-colored and lipstick-sized, each pen is packed with an analogue solution that accommodates up to 60 hand washes, providing children a thrilling way to fight bacteria and develop a habit of hand washing at a young age.

Fun and flair aside, Shubham Issar said, the SoaPen is primarily a teaching tool aimed at promoting “better hygiene practices among children” and illuminating the benefits of hand washing, a habit that can stonewall the spread of lethal viruses.

According to a study published by The Lancet, preventable infectious diseases accounted for two-thirds of the 9 million child deaths in 2008. Pneumonia and diarrhea, two deadly diseases that can be suppressed by vaccines, jointedly contributed to 25 percent of 2015 deaths in children under five years old.

“There is not enough awareness around the benefits of hand washing, not only among children, but among parents, teachers and caretakers,” Issar said. “With SoaPen’s playful design, ability to mark all over a child’s hand, and portability we have created a teaching tool that opens dialogue around hand washing.”

SoaPen’s Goal

SoaPen seeks to create a lasting psychological shift in the way children perceive hand washing by ingeniously transforming it from a chore to a pastime. Incorporating art and health, drawing and scrubbing, the product shows parents and children alike that hand washing can be made into a daily routine almost as exhilarating as tag.

In recent years, in-depth research has yielded alarming findings on the toxically high alcohol content in hand sanitizers — ranging from 45 to 95 percent — and how it severely cripples a child’s immune system. From 2010 to 2015, poison control center hotlines across the U.S. reported a 400 percent increase in emergency calls pertaining to inebriated children who had ingested excess sanitizer alcohol.

Parents are becoming increasingly anxious to find a safer replacement like the SoaPen, which Issar compared to a “portable soap.” Striking a delicate balance between caution and fun, Issar said, SoaPen “has a place in not just every classroom around the world,” but also every daycare center, pre-school and arts-and-crafts class.

Making a Difference

One of the team’s priorities is to teach children in low-income schools the importance of hand hygiene and provide teachers creative methods of using the SoaPen. After conducting multiple campaigns in schools, team members report to seeing more lasting hand hygiene retention. The company hopes to develop a “buy one, give one” business model to convert product sales in the U.S. to donations toward developing countries, Issar said.

With a Kickstarter fundraising campaign already underway, the team plans to soon contact nonprofits in the hygiene sector to disseminate SoaPens through their extensive connections in poorer corners of the world.

Claire Wang

Photo: SoaPen

Bicycle Powered Washing MachineDue to the lack of access to electricity and money, 14-year-old Remya Jose, from Keezhattor, India, created a bicycle powered washing machine. This machine created power through pedaling. As time goes on, this bicycle powered washing machine has the potential to make life much easier for families living without access to electricity.

In December 2014, Frank Clemente, Professor Emeritus of Social Science at Penn State University stated that no nation holds more of the world’s poor than India. At least 300 million people had no power at all and 700 million lacked access to modern energy services for lighting, cooking and water pumping. A simple task, such as washing clothes, is time consuming in India because many lack access to electricity.

It was with this in mind that Jose created her machine. She drew a diagram of it and her father took it to a nearby auto shop and asked workers to build it using his daughter’s instructions. The machine looks like a stationary bicycle connected to a metal box. It is composed of aluminum and has a horizontal cylinder in the center made of iron net wire.

To wash clothes, users put them into the cylinder, fill the box with water and detergent. The user then pedals for three to four minutes which rotates the cylinder at a very high speed with the clothes inside, cleaning them thoroughly. The soapy water drains out, the barrel is refilled and the process repeated.

There are many benefits to using the machine. First and foremost, it doesn’t require electricity in a region where electricity is rare. Second, it saves time. Washing clothes in the region took hours prior to the invention of Jose’s machine. With the machine, it takes about 30 minutes. Third, it can be used for exercising. The bicycle that powers it gives the user a workout. Fourth, it’s cheap. It costs about Rs.2000. Finally, it is mobile. One can pick it up and go. This is very practical for rural areas where it is used.

Unfortunately, the practicality of the machine has made it a turn-off for investors. Investors state that the machine is not commercially viable. So, despite the awards Jose received for the innovative invention, she has been looking for a job.

While investors may be uninterested in backing the bicycle powered washing machine, one thing is clear: Remya Jose made a difference. Her invention saves time and money for several of the world’s poor. In addition, it has inspired others to create improved versions of it to market to people interested in conserving energy. Jose’s story shows that with creativity, one individual can improve the lives of many.

Jeanine Thomas

Photo: Flickr

Water in TanzaniaMore than 35 percent of the world’s population lacks access to improved sanitation. Worldwide, millions of people are infected with, or are dying from, water or hygiene-related diseases. The issue of water in Tanzania is critical, especially in relation to sanitation.

Currently, 85 percent of schools do not have hand washing facilities. Children attend school all day without being able to wash their hands, subjecting themselves and their communities to countless illnesses and infections. The need for hygiene education and sanitation facilities in schools is imperative. Hand soap is one of the simplest and most powerful ways to prevent disease; however, the inability to access soap and the limited availability of water in Tanzania makes this modest daily task a commodity. Water scarcity is closely related to sanitation and hygiene complications.

The Full Belly Project, based in Wilmington, North Carolina, developed a hand washing station that is made completely of recycled materials and uses 90 percent less water than other current hand washing systems. Ten of these life-saving systems were built and installed in and around Arusha, Tanzania in the spring of 2016.

This project received additional funding through a Clif Bar Family Foundation grant to build and install more systems in the summer of 2017. The project was executed with the goals of providing three months of soap for each installed station and providing education on the importance of hand washing, sanitation and the conservation of water in Tanzania.

The Full Belly Project’s hand washing station is built from recycled materials that are abundant in most regions. A large part of the Full Belly Project’s mission is to alleviate global poverty by providing tools to those in need, which in turn improves their lives and helps generate income. The organization encourages self-efficacy rather than providing handouts.

The hand washing system only requires an oil drum, half of a truck tire, soda bottles, bits of steel and a pail full of cement. Although the Full Belly Project and volunteers build the systems, the materials are found locally and the systems can be recreated by members of the community. “Our contact in Tanzania had already gathered all of the needed materials when our volunteers arrived,” said Amanda Coulter, Executive Director of the Full Belly Project, “The volunteers built five hand washing stations and taught community members so that they could create an additional five.”

The most significant feature of the hand washing system is its ability to conserve water. This is vital considering the scarcity of water in Tanzania, where most healthcare facilities and schools have no water source within 500 meters.

Soda bottles are filled with water from the nearest water source and by attaching bolts to the lids of the bottles, the openings use only 10 percent of the amount of water that other systems waste. In addition to conserving water, the system reduces the need to revisit the water source, which can be as far as 500 meters from the system.

The Full Belly Project has not only aided in addressing some of the most pressing health needs in Tanzania, it has given local civilians the knowledge and training required to recreate the hand washing stations. The life-saving ability of the Full Belly Project’s hand washing station showed its full potential with the recent widespread outbreaks of Cholera, a water and hygiene-related bacteria.

Full Belly Project volunteers were also able to bring eight rocker water pumps to Tanzania. The rocker water pump is an irrigation device that allows farmers to get more food from two acres of land and more income than ever before. The device draws water from 30 feet and can pump five gallons of water each minute. This kind of productivity is unprecedented because of the scarcity of water in Tanzania. “Our volunteers built them, packed them up as access carry-on luggage – that’s a funny story going through security,” Coulter laughed, “and they were able to deliver them to Massiah Women’s Groups and Orphanages in Tanzania that are pursuing agricultural programs.” The rocker water pumps are also made completely of recycled materials and can be recreated like so many of the Full Belly Project’s devices.

The Full Belly Project has made immense impacts worldwide; however, “our local impacts shouldn’t be forgotten,” Coulter said. “Volunteers come in and we are able to teach them about the problems other people face and how they can help; they get to make contributions and are really able to see their significance in the lives of others.” The Full Belly Project continues to provide help to those in need, through education and sustainable living programs, as seen through the hand washing system and rocker water pump installations in Tanzania.

Jamie Enright

Photo: Flickr

Inescapable Poverty: Greenland Continues to StruggleLocated between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans is the world’s largest island, Greenland. Ironically, it is also the least populated country in the world, with about 57,728 people as of July 2016. Nevertheless, it is not safe from the problems that plague the world today. The Central Intelligence Agency reports that 16.2 percent of the population lived below the poverty line in 2015. This is a serious problem, given the country’s already small population.

Famous for its Arctic landscapes in the north and sheep farms in the south, Greenland is often a tourist destination, with tourism having grown 20 percent in 2015 and 2016.

However, what countless people do not see when they travel to Greenland is the poverty and the helplessness of individuals around the country. The signs of poverty in Greenland are the same as everywhere else. The inability to afford food and inadequate living conditions are rampant. Furthermore, Project World reports that “many people in Greenland do not have water or sanitation capabilities in their homes, particularly in rural areas, because there is no national grid to supply these services”. Additionally, climate change is affecting the daily lives of indigenous people who live in the Arctic region, as global warming causes erosion, which destroys homes and heritage sites.

Approximately 88 percent of Greenland’s population is Greenlandic Inuit, an indigenous group of people. These people rely on traditional methods of obtaining food, which mainly include fishing, hunting and gathering. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program reports that unpredictable shifts in the number of animals, “travel safety in changing ice and weather conditions present serious challenges to human health and food security”.

Many people wonder what contribution they can make to alleviate this suffering. The best way to eliminate poverty is by directly donating to organizations that support financially disadvantaged individuals. Global associations like UNICEF and the International Rescue Committee all work to eliminate human suffering in the world. While the latter focuses on refugees primarily, it also provides aid to people who live in disastrous conditions.

However, donations are not the only way to improve the lives of these people. Another method is fundraising. Many of these organizations support both large and small-scale projects that raise money for the association.

There is also the opportunity to educate. Many times, people do not realize that almost everywhere, there are people who cannot afford an appropriate living space, food, water and other essential resources. By attending city council meetings, starting a conversation with neighbors, or even visiting schools and universities to inform the community about the widespread poverty in the world, a huge difference can be made.

It is important to realize that such tragic circumstances can be prevented, as long as people come together to solve the underlying problem. These different methods of support all contribute to alleviating poverty in Greenland.

Sheharbano Jafry

Photo: Flickr

Natural Disasters Hit Poor the HardestThe aftermath of Hurricane Irma, which hit the Caribbean and United States in September 2017, along with the 8.1 magnitude earthquake that shook Mexico also in September illustrate the total destruction entire communities face when hit by natural disasters. Natural disasters have been proven to increase poverty and most adversely affect those who are already poor.

The category five Hurricane Irma made landfall on Antigua, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Barbuda, Guadeloupe and more, totaling over 10 Caribbean countries affected. In Barbuda alone, 90 percent of vehicles and buildings have been destroyed and many people have been left homeless. Because Barbuda is not as wealthy as other Caribbean countries, it cannot as quickly rebuild for its people, leaving its citizens more impoverished than ever.

Mexico’s 8.1 magnitude earthquake has also left many suddenly in poverty or more impoverished than they previously were. Many buildings were reduced completely to rubble, particularly in the town of Juchitan, which was hit hardest by the earthquake. Residents of the town slept in streets and parks following the earthquake to avoid aftershock and because of damages to numerous homes creating uninhabitable conditions.

Juchitan is located in Oaxaca, a rural region in southwestern Mexico, and one of the poorest areas in the country. Jorge Valenica, a reporter from Mexico City, discussed the damaging effects of the earthquake on Juchitan in an interview with NPR. He stated, “As with many natural disasters, the communities that get hit the worst sometimes are the communities that were already the most in need.”

The World Bank reports that poor people are so adversely affected by natural disasters because they are usually more exposed to natural hazards – i.e. their homes, if they have them, are not built as well, and they have less access to evacuation resources than those who are middle and upper class. Unfortunately, when the poor lose necessities like shelter, they typically do not have savings, family, friends or the government to fall back on. Even those who do not completely lose their homes often cannot avoid repairs and renovations due to new building standards created to make homes safer.

In light of the worsening of poverty in places hit by natural disasters, organizations such as Oxfam continue to work to provide basic needs to individuals, focusing upon hygiene and sanitation for those most affected by the storms. Oxfam’s main goal after Hurricane Irma is to contain and eliminate any cholera and other diseases caused by damage to water infrastructure, helping to keep people healthy. Natural disasters continue to hit the world’s poor the hardest, but even in the wake of a catastrophe, goodness, giving and help can be found.

Mary Kate Luft

Photo: Flickr

Building Toilets in IndiaKnown as the home of the magnificent Taj Mahal and the world’s largest democracy, the subcontinent of India lies in South Asia and borders both Pakistan and China.

Although India has significantly improved its infrastructure and is now one of the world’s fastest growing economies, much of the population continues to lack access to basic sanitation facilities such as toilets and clean running water. An astounding 500 million people in India resort to open defecation, accounting for 60 percent of the world’s population who do so. Unexpectedly, an Indian romantic comedy aptly named “Toilet, a Love Story” has been instrumental in pushing the need for building toilets in India into the spotlight.

With a renewed focus on providing more access to toilets, Narendra Modi, India’s Prime Minister, has promised to build 100 million new toilets across the country. Additionally, he started a new cleanliness initiative called Clean India mission in 2014 that will attempt to make India open defecation-free by 2019. According to the Indian government, 47 million toilets have already been built in rural villages and public areas, but many have criticized the program for its many failures. New toilets are being built around the country so rapidly that many of them are not even connected to running water, rendering them dirty to the point that few use them. The Indian government must focus on adding additional sewage systems throughout the country in order to properly handle the increase in toilets.

Even if toilets are built, there needs to be an entire shift in mindset before open defection will stop. For many Indians, having a toilet inside a house is considered an unclean practice, so there needs to be tangible steps taken to confirm that the newly built toilets are actually being used. Educating communities, particularly rural ones, about the undeniable health benefits of utilizing toilets, is a worthwhile pursuit. With many families using toilets as a store house for fodder, India’s government must dedicate time and resources to bringing the serious harms of open defecation to the forefront of public health issues.

The lack of basic sanitation often leads to epidemics of dangerous diseases, including potentially fatal ones such as cholera, which are spread through fecal matter. Furthermore, water sources and crops are commonly contaminated by open defecation, but many lack the awareness or the resources to properly clean their food and water before consuming it, leading to thousands of deaths every year. In addition to the need for a larger effort into raising awareness of the benefits of building toilets in India, resources need to be invested into infrastructure for waste management.

Also, the lack of sanitation facilities has proven to be an issue for women’s rights and human dignity. Without access to toilets, women in rural villages are often forced to travel in groups and are only able to relieve themselves before the sun rises in order to ensure their safety. Unfortunately, these groups of women are often met with verbal and sometimes physical abuse. Sexual assault remains a frighteningly common occurrence for Indian women who are forced to relieve themselves in open fields.

Several studies have shown that lack of access to private toilets frequently make women significantly more susceptible to sexual violence. According to a senior police officer in the state of Bihar, about 400 women were raped while they relieved themselves outside simply because they did not have access to a private toilet. Rapidly and effectively ending open defecation must be of the utmost urgency, as millions of Indian women continue to endure vicious sexual violence on a daily basis.

With toilets being a taboo subject in India, there are undoubtedly serious obstacles to be overcome if India wishes to end open defecation, which is linked to sexual violence and the spread of disease. “Toilet, a Love Story” has gone a long way in helping Indians openly discuss and raise awareness of the dangers of continuing to avoid building toilets in India. If there is to be lasting success, the Indian government must prioritize shifting the public’s mindset away from believing that toilets are unclean as well as build an accompanying sewage system alongside the new toilets.

Akhil Reddy

Photo: Google

Clean WaterEach year, 289,000 children under the age of five die due to diseases caused by poor water quality and sanitation. This means that one child dies every two minutes and 800 children die per day because they do not have access to clean water or proper sanitation.

On August 29, UNICEF made a statement that declared that access to clean water is a right – not a privilege – and that in countries facing conflict or instability, clean water must be made a priority. The lack of clean water and sanitation is particularly alarming in areas that are in the middle of conflicts; more than 180 million people in crisis-ridden areas do not have access to clean drinking water.

To ensure that children are given their rights to clean water and sanitation, UNICEF has developed an initiative called WASH, which stands for water, sanitation and hygiene. Their goal is to achieve universal access to sanitation, hygiene and safe drinking water by 2030. Through a team that works in more than 100 countries, UNICEF has been able to provide close to 14 million people with clean water and more than 11 million with toilets.

UNICEF is not the only group working to improve access to clean water and sanitation. Pure Water for the World is a nonprofit organization that works closely with underserved communities in Central America and the Caribbean, which gives residents the resources and knowledge to be involved in water projects in their communities. In their 18 years of existence, they have reached more than 750,000 people in Haiti and Central America with solutions to water, sanitation and hygiene problems. Pure Water for the World seeks local and international volunteers and donations to keep the organization running.

Water for Good specifically targets the Central African Republic in its efforts to increase access to clean water and sanitation. They use local businesses for supplies and resources to start sustainable water programs, with over 90 percent of them being functional long after Water for Good has done their part.

Charity: Water is another nonprofit organization that provides clean water to struggling populations. They rely on private donors to fund their operation costs, so all of the money donated to Charity: Water goes directly into funding water projects. The company also follows up each water project with a detailed report of its results and locations, so donors can know exactly where their money has gone.
All of these nonprofits are working toward UNICEF’s ultimate goal – to have worldwide equal access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene for children – which is, as UNICEF states, not a privilege, but a right.

Téa Franco

Photo: Flickr