PA 10 Facts about Life Expectancy in Tanzania
Tanzania is home to Africa’s highest peak and borders the continent’s deepest lake, but among these geographical wonders lives East Africa’s largest population struggling to reach adulthood. According to the United Nations, Tanzania has the world’s largest youth population in modern history that, if cultivated with proper programmatic support, could result in unprecedented societal growth and progress as the population ages.

However, surviving childhood and staying healthy are major threats to an aging Tanzanian population where life expectancy is low. Lack of quality health care and poor sanitation contribute to high infant mortality and lives lost to preventable diseases. International aid is bolstering local and government-sponsored programs to address some of the most critical issues contributing to life expectancy in Tanzania, but more support is needed. In the article below, these and other issues are discussed in a form of 10 facts about life expectancy in Tanzania.

Ten Facts About Life Expectancy in Tanzania

  1. Overall, life expectancy in Tanzania has increased by nearly 10 years in the past decade. According to the most recent data, Tanzanians are expected to reach nearly 66 years of age, compared to 57 years of age in the mid-2000s. Several factors contributing to this success include socioeconomic growth through employment, higher incomes and more education.
  2. Nearly 20 percent of deaths in Tanzania are preventable with proper access to surgical care. The Tanzanian government is aware of the gap in health care access and has launched the National Surgical, Obstetric and Anesthesia Plan, dedicated to improving access to surgical, anesthesia and obstetric services by 2025.
  3. Malaria is the leading cause of hospitalization and death of children in Tanzania and one of the leading causes of all deaths in the country. Tanzania’s malaria epidemic has sparked decades of solution-driven support and strategic oversight from the Millennium Development Goals and Roll Back Malaria Partnership. Both initiatives have helped address this preventable disease and allowed Tanzanian children to live longer.
  4. Every day, 270 Tanzanian children under the age of 5 succumb to preventable diseases such as malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. The need for a stronger health system and service delivery is reflected in the high rates of childhood mortality. The childhood mortality rate is, however, improving and has dropped by nearly half since the early 1990s due to concerted efforts from Tanzania’s government and international aid.
  5. Seventy-five percent of Tanzanian children have received all basic immunizations. With global immunization coverage consistent at 85 percent, Tanzania is taking health security for children seriously. One major barrier to higher coverage is the disparity between regions. International aid efforts like those from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) offer support for childhood vaccination which is a contributing factor for a drop of two-thirds since 2000 in child mortality.
  6. Tanzanian children born to mothers with little education are 1.3 times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children whose mothers have secondary or higher education. Further, adolescent women in Tanzania who have not been able to access education are five times more likely to be mothers than those with secondary or higher education. Programs from the Girls Educative Collaborative like Launch a Leader, that prepares girls heading to secondary school, help break down barriers and expand access to continuing education for young women.
  7. Two-thirds of women in the country give birth in a facility with a skilled practitioner. The assistance of an attendant reduces the chances of maternal mortality during birth, however, large gaps in skill among delivery attendants leave women at risk for maternal mortality.
  8. Twenty-seven million Tanzanians lack access to safe drinking water and 35 million Tanzanians rely on unimproved sanitation. These unsafe water and sanitation conditions disproportionately affect children and rural communities. But, there is hope. Organizations like Water.org have begun tapping into Tanzania’s existing technology infrastructure to improve the country’s water and sanitation infrastructure through digital finance and the company’s WaterCredits program.
  9. Tanzania has one of the world’s lowest physician-to-population ratios. WHO estimates that there are three doctors, nurses or midwives for every 10,000 Tanzanians. With a population of over 50 million and a recommended minimum threshold of 23 providers for every 10,000 people in low-income countries, these numbers highlight a significant gap in health care coverage. One USAID program, in collaboration with Tanzania’s government, has trained over 500 health providers in more than 400 facilities to address critical needs.
  10. Almost 1.5 million Tanzanians living with HIV, the AIDS epidemic are being well managed. Tanzania’s extensive roll out of antiretroviral medications has helped minimize the impact of the country’s epidemic over the last decade and improved life expectancy in the country.

The above presented 10 facts about life expectancy in Tanzania speak about the positive outcomes international and government solutions have on Tanzania’s population, but also highlight areas for further growth. Malaria is one of the leading deterrents for economic development and foreign investment in the country, and Tanzania did not meet the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets for childhood or maternal mortality. With the proper support, Tanzania is on track to excel. The country’s future looks brighter (and older) than it did a mere decade ago.

– Sarah Fodero
Photo: Flickr

Elderly Care in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina has been slowly recovering from the conflict that took place in the country during the late 1990s. The war took a toll on the country economically, politically, socially and physically. On top of its high levels of poverty, the country is also becoming a victim of the aging population epidemic and elderly care in Bosnia and Herzegovina is a huge concern. The country is facing issues of a dip in fertility rate and an increase in the rate of the elderly people, leaving a large number of older population with a small population of working-age people to support them. This issue coming from the uneven age distribution grew due to a fall in birth rates, a decrease in population from deaths during the war years and an increase in life expectancy.

The Increase of Elderly Population

Currently, people over the age of 65 make up 17 percent of the total population. Moreover, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs estimated that the number of persons aged 65 and more than 65 will reach 30 percent of the population in 2060, comparative with the 15 percent it sat at in 2010. With a population of only 3.5 million, this is a daunting number.

The older population in Bosnia and Herzegovina is extremely vulnerable for many reasons. Some of the issues they face include low income and increased living expenses. Obtaining employment is difficult as well. Due to the high unemployment rate the country faces, many employers prefer younger workers. This means that many of the elderly face poverty and have been unemployed since before retirement age, leaving them with subsequently less to provide for themselves as they age.

The situation for elderly women is worse than it is for men, as women lose rights with the loss of a husband. They also face higher rates of poverty as they are usually unable to economically provide for themselves alone. The elderly are ailed by illnesses such as cardiovascular and malignant diseases, neurological and mental disorders like Alzheimer’s, as well as sensory and physical disabilities. Many of these diseases and the lack of care for them result in a higher rate of depression amongst the elderly.

The Exodus of Medical Workers

On top of all this, Bosnia and Herzegovina is facing an exodus of its medical workers. Many young doctors and medical professionals are leaving the country after their schooling is complete and migrating toward Germany and other Western countries because these countries offer better job opportunities and more competitive salaries. More than 10,000 nurses, doctors, caregivers have gone to Germany alone. Only about 6,000 doctors work in Bosnia, meaning for every six doctors, one works in Germany. Not only is this leading to a lack of medical professionals, but the country is also losing money as they put millions into medical training facilities that students use and then leave behind as they migrate their services.

Bosnia is being forced to send patients abroad for care, so in the last two years, the country has spent around $37 million on patients that were sent outwards. Not only is this epidemic draining the country’s money, leaving it with less available funding to put towards elderly care in Bosnia and Herzegovina, it also means there are not enough doctors to perform geriatric care. It’s a negative feedback loop that hinders the country’s ability to care for its citizens, especially the elderly ones.

The Solutions for the Problems

The growing number of the elderly population in combination with the exodus of medical workers leaves the country with many people suffering and few resources to help them. Thankfully though, Bosnia and Herzegovina has not turned a blind eye towards these issues and instead has begun to search for solutions. Members of the United Nations adopted the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing that aims to address the issues of aging in the 21st century. The plan focuses on three main aspects: older persons and development, advancing health and well-being into old age and ensuring enabling and supportive environments.

With support from the United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs and the Swiss Cooperation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country has developed its own strategies, inspired by the structure of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing. It plans to improve social and health protections, promote activism and volunteerism in local communities, as well as inter-generational support. The country aims to improve access to public services, especially for those in rural areas and prevent violence, neglect and abuse against older persons. The execution of this initiative will require a great deal of money and resources, but the government is dedicated to the improvement of elderly care in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

This plan of action shows that the government is making this issue a focal point in national policy and beginning to address the problems that will address the aging population. Elderly care in Bosnia and Herzegovina has a long way to go before the older population is secure and comfortable. With initiative from the government to care for the elderly, social attention will be turned towards this problem that will encourage the younger generation to aid the older and make room for various organizations to provide help and resources to the country’s older population.

– Mary Spindler
Photo: Flickr

Mental Health in Lebanon
In 2011, it was estimated that approximately 17 percent of Lebanon’s population suffered from a mental illness of some kind. Among them, 90 percent of people went untreated. Mental health in Lebanon was not always a priority. However, with rising issues of mental illness, the Lebanese government is finding new ways to combat the misconceptions and stigmas surrounding mental health.

Role of Education in Understanding Mental Health

According to two researchers from the Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, Lebanon, there is a distinct difference in the perception of mental illness depending on education. People who had higher educational attainment, as well as higher socioeconomic status, were more likely to have positive attitudes towards mentally ill patients. On the other hand, people who lacked education due to lower socioeconomic status had a negative outlook towards mental illness.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health and socioeconomic factors cannot be separated from each other. Socioeconomic factors can hinder educational attainment, and this may limit the lack of awareness people have about mental health.

Lack of awareness perpetuates the stigma around mental illness which stops people from receiving treatment. It even prevents them from talking about their feelings as they fail to be validated by others. Another reason why mental illness goes untreated is that many cannot afford it.

New Programmes to Help Improve Mental Health in Lebanon

The perception of mental health in Lebanon is changing and getting better. Historically, mental illness was considered something that could be solved only by the private sector. This meant that mental health care was reserved for those that could afford it.

Over the years, the government has realized that any person in need of help should be able to access mental health care. So, while mental health care will remain in part in the private sector, the health ministry in Lebanon is creating various programmes to help those who cannot afford it.

In 2014, the Lebanese health ministry created the National Mental Health Programme. This programme works with WHO, UNICEF and the International Medical Corps in order to help those with mental illness in Lebanon. It aims to incorporate mental health into general medicine more completely. This will hopefully help eradicate some of the bias that exists. It will help make mental health part of the discourse.

The programme also aims to help vulnerable populations in Lebanon such as refugees, people in prison and survivors of war and torture. This will be a huge help to these communities because it will allow them to have access to mental health care which they did not have before. It will create the perception that mental health deserves to be taken care of.

The National Mental Health Programme organized events such as “Time to Talk” in 2018. It was a way to directly combat incorrect perceptions about mental health by simply talking about mental health under ordinary contexts. Another similar event was “Depression: Let’s Talk About It to Get Out of It”. It was held in 2017 in order to discuss rising depression rates and help people heal. “My Mental Health is My Right” which was organized in 2014 aimed to enforce the fact that mental health in Lebanon is important and that every person has a right to receive treatment.

Thus, with such advanced programmes and new developments, the future of mental health care in Lebanon looks bright. It is important to remove the stigma surrounding mental health to improve people’s well being and foster a healthier and happier society.

– Isabella Niemeyer
 Photo: Unsplash

Diabetics in Uganda
Living with Type 1 diabetes is hard. Anyone who lives with it knows that managing this condition requires checking one’s blood sugar multiple times a day, injecting just the right amount of insulin at mealtimes, eating and exercising when appropriate to keep the blood sugar number manageable and keeping plenty of emergency supplies on hand when things inevitably go wrong. However, diabetes is much harder for people living in Uganda, as life-saving supplies in this African nation are expensive and hard to come by. Fortunately, Myabetic, a small retail company helps diabetics in Uganda to earn money and afford these incredibly important supplies.

Diabetes in Uganda

Diabetes is poorly understood in Uganda and is often misdiagnosed as yellow fever, malaria, or cerebral meningitis. Those who are diagnosed correctly are often forbidden from going to school or even work because communities are often scared of their condition. They usually go to clinics once a month to have their blood sugar tested and receive their insulin supplies. However, many people do not give themselves enough insulin because they don’t know their own blood sugar number most of the time, and that is when the real trouble begins.

In Uganda, to be told that one has Type 1 diabetes is to be told that one will live a hard, painful life that will slowly lead to an equally painful death. Most diabetics in Uganda cannot afford the insulin and blood sugar supplies that they need to live. Changing Diabetes in Children used to give diabetic children these supplies for free, but the program was shut down in 2017. Insulin for Life also works to gives supplies to Ugandans who need it. But a shortage remains. To make things even worse the fact remains that without insulin, an individual with Type 1 diabetes will live a week or two at most.

Diabetic Neuropathy

With too little insulin, blood sugar numbers will run high, leading to a host of complications, including diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy is nerve damage caused by having consistently high blood sugar numbers. This is all too common among diabetics in Uganda. There are four types of diabetic neuropathy: peripheral, autonomic, proximal and focal. Peripheral neuropathy causes tingling, numbness, or pain in the feet, legs and occasionally arms. Autonomic neuropathy causes digestive problems- from heartburn to vomiting, dizziness, low blood pressure, faster heartbeat, genital problems in both sexes, either increased or decreased urination and/or bloating. Proximal neuropathy causes weakness in the legs and pain in the thighs, hips, or rear. Focal neuropathy causes muscle weakness, muscle pains, eye pains, double vision, facial paralysis, chest or belly pain and/or severe pain in one specific area. All of these forms of diabetic neuropathy ravage diabetics in Uganda, causing their bodies to slowly shut down due to chronically high blood sugar numbers.

About Myabetic

Myabetic is a retail company founded by Kyrra Richards. When she was first diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at age 24, she was embarrassed. She hid her condition from everyone by not checking her blood sugar or doing insulin in public, which threatened her life. Part of the problem was her standard black supply case, which looked ugly and made her fear stigma even more. She founded Myabetic to sell aesthetically pleasing cases and other devices in which to carry diabetes supplies.

Although the company’s main goal is to make diabetics feel better about themselves by giving them prettier carrying cases, they sell other diabetes paraphernalia as well. Among these items are bracelets handcrafted by diabetic artists in Uganda. The bracelets come in red, blue, yellow, and green and they cost $15 each. These profits go directly back to the artists, allowing them to buy the supplies they need to survive.

Life with diabetes is hard. Life with diabetes in Uganda is even worse. Those who do not die are shunned, given barely enough supplies to survive and are left to die. Fortunately, Myabetic helps diabetics in Uganda to afford supplies by selling the bracelets that diabetic Ugandans make. The bracelets may be inexpensive by American standards, but every penny counts when someone needs diabetes supplies to live. Thanks to Myabetic, these Ugandan artists have a new chance to hope for a better life.

– Cassie Parvaz
Photo: Flickr

Private Sector Key to Eliminating Malaria in Cambodia
Having already made substantial progress in the effort to eradicate malaria, Cambodia is one of the 17 countries in Southeast Asia looking to continue finding solutions to this problem and putting an end to this disease by 2025. The strategy of eliminating malaria in Cambodia hinges on a joint effort between the public sector and the private sector. With proposed solutions made by this collaboration, Cambodia is on the road to eliminating the disease by its projected period.

Malaria in Cambodia Numbers

In Cambodia, 1 million people become infected with malaria every year. Despite this high number of infections, there has been substantial progress made in working to find solutions to eradicating malaria. For example, in 2015, Youyou Tu received The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for her discovery of artemisinin, a type of anti-malarial medicine that is being used today.

While efforts have been made in eradicating malaria in Cambodia, there is still a lot that needs to be done in order to achieve this goal. Of the 1 million people who become affected by malaria, around 1.5 percent and 10 percent of people that are located in distant provinces die. The parasite responsible for these deaths is the Plasmodium falciparum. To prevent the occurrence and spread of this disease, early intervention with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the key. Yet, distribution of antimalarial medicines remains a challenge. While there are immediate and positive effects of ACT therapy, many people are not able to receive this medicine.

PSI/Cambodia

One organization that working on ending malaria in Cambodia is Population Services International/Cambodia (PSI/Cambodia). The purpose of this initiative is to work on health issues caused by HIV/AIDS, malaria and reproductive health of women who are going to give birth. In 2003, a program of PSI/Cambodia started to offer malaria treatment with the help of private clinics, pharmacies and shops in many parts of rural Cambodia. Of total Cambodia’s population, the poor are particularly at risk of getting the disease. As shown by this initiative, the private sector remains crucial for ending malaria in Cambodia.

Solutions to Ending Malaria in Cambodia

To meet the need for antimalarial medicines, the Global Fund, an international partnership organization, has proposed some essential solutions by the public sector working with the private sector for eradicating malaria in Cambodia. The first is to make sure there is access to effective antimalarial medicines that the private sector provides. This proposal also means the dispose of fake antimalarial drugs that are currently in the market. In addition, this means also the disposal of antimalarial drugs that do not meet the national guidelines.

Secondly, the report of the Global Fund urges organizations in the private sector to make sure they provide effective diagnostic testing. Lastly, the Global Fund recommends that there is widespread access to affordable antimalarial medicines for eradicating malaria in Cambodia, in order to allow for those living on less than $1.25 a day to purchase afford this life-saving treatment.

One way to achieve these proposals is subsidizing antimalarial medicines in order to allow consumers to be able to buy them. Another way to increase distribution of antimalarial medicine is through social marketing. In addition to making sure there is an effective treatment at a cost that people can afford, these same two strategies can be used for diagnostic testing.

With much progress having been made to end malaria in Cambodia, there is room for more improvement in order to reach the goal of eradicating the disease by 2025. With more joint effort between the public sector and private sector through subsidizing prices of antimalarial medicine, Cambodia can move one step closer to eradicating malaria.

– Daniel McAndrew-Greiner
Photo: Flickr

Primary Care in Developing Countries
The lives of 6 million children could be saved globally each year through more effective primary care. However, half of the world’s population cannot access essential health services. In fact, 800 million people spend at least 10 percent of their income on health expenses for themselves or a family member which can push them further into poverty.

Blockchain Technology and Primary Care Services

Despite these overwhelming statistics, blockchain technology is beginning to transform the health care sector in Europe and Africa through virtual health assistance. The European Commission has launched CareAi in June 2018, which is a digital computer system that uses a patient’s blood sample to quickly diagnose diseases without the presence of a physical doctor.

Harvard University Chemistry Professor George Whiteside created the machine to feature a small finger prick device. The patient experiences a quick poke from a sterilized needle, then places their fingerprint onto a chip that is inserted into the machine. The intelligent CareAi system has the ability to diagnose diseases like typhoid fever, malaria and tuberculosis in seconds and quickly prints results, which directs ill patients to nearby pharmacies for medicine. The machine’s intelligence is expected to evolve over time and could even surpass human proficiency in 2-3 years.

CareAi ensures that all patient information and results are kept anonymous so it will be able to help undocumented migrants and populations secluded from the health care system who fear deportation. However, if the government wishes to access data for policy purposes, it will pay participating healthcare NGOs and machine maintenance costs. CareAi machines will be placed in public places such as mosques, churches and markets so people who lack primary care in developing countries will be able to benefit.

CareAi Targets the Most Vulnerable Groups

Creators of this new invention are targeting refugee camps in Europe and are giving specific attention to India which only has one doctor for every 921 people as well as Africa. According to the World Health Organization, across the globe, 50 percent of the children under age five who die of pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, HIV, tuberculous and malaria each year, are from Africa. CareAi will allow easy access and accurate diagnoses to these people who are in quick and desperate need of health results.

Looking Forward

AI projects are taking place all over the world and opening up exciting possibilities in the not so distant future. In a piece titled, 10 Promising AI Applications in Health Care, Harvard Business Review highlights an AI-powered nurse avatar called “Molly” which is being used to “interact with patients, ask them questions about their health, assess their symptoms, and direct them to the most effective care setting”.

In addition, the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center is using AI processes to predict which patients will be no-shows and to reduce readmission rates. Artificial intelligence will continue to change the way we practice medicine and will open up new diagnostic possibilities for primary care in developing countries.

– Grace Klein
Photo: Pixabay

Health Care Reform in Turkey
In a very revolutionary move, Turkey has made cancer treatment essentially accessible for all. Labour and Social Security Minister Jülide Sarıeroğlu announced in a written statement that the country has abolished all extra fees that were charged in treatment, surgery and medication of cancer.

This new shift in policy is part of a longstanding effort to improve health care in Turkey and make health care coverage available for all, particularly the nation’s poor.

Universal Health Care in Turkey

The policy was approved earlier this year and shows further commitment to universal health care in Turkey. Sarıeroğlu added that Turkey will continue to make improvements to its health care system regardless of costs.

The impact this will have on the population is significant as 20 percent of deaths in Turkey are caused by cancer and 450 individuals are diagnosed with cancer on a daily basis, totaling to approximately 164,000 cases every year. As part of the shift, the government also increased cancer treatment payments in private hospitals by 200 percent for those with social benefits.

The Labour and Social Security minister has additionally committed to improving the conditions of public health care providers and state universities. Lastly, to avoid overcrowding, hospitals owned by the Health Ministry and the Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu (Social Security Institution) were merged.

The History of Health Care in Turkey

In 2002, Turkey’s health care system was riddled with inefficiencies. The country’s allocation towards cancer treatment was a paltry 3 percent in overall spending. The infant mortality rate was at 26.1 per 1,000 live births, and two-thirds of the population had no access to health insurance.

With the support of the World Bank Group, the Health Transformation Programme was initiated. The programme’s main goal was to overhaul the previous health care infrastructure and equalize access to health facilities in rural and urban areas alike. Along with addressing systemic regional imbalances, the World Bank has helped Turkey confront non-communicable diseases, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Reform of the Health Care in Turkey

Since the implementation of better and more comprehensive health care in Turkey, the citizens of the country have seen an increase in insurance coverage from 2.4 million people in 2003 to 10.2 million people in 2011. Coverage specifically for Turkey’s poorest decile jumped from 24 percent in 2003 to 85 percent in 2011. The enhanced financial protection provided by insurance has reduced the relative number of out-of-pocket payments, especially for lowest-income households, subsequently leading to a decline in exorbitant health expenditures.

Furthermore, life expectancy at birth is now close to the average level proposed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). An average Turkish newborn in 2014 has the chance to live 6 years longer than a Turkish baby born in 2002. This is an increase from 71.9 to 77.7 years. Only 39 percent of the population was content with health services in 2003, whereas 2011 saw satisfaction bloom to 75.9 percent.

This upward trajectory of health care in Turkey has validated the optimism of citizens looking forward to universal health care. The country’s existing hospitals are experiencing a reformation period and 500 new hospitals have opened in recent years. In her written statement, Jülide Sarıeroğlu assured that there are more improvements to come in the future period.

Yumi Wilson
Photo: Flickr

Anganwadi Workers in India
Anganwadi is a child and health care system in India, initiated by the government to promote nutrition, education and health care to its citizens, particularly in rural areas. Anganwadi workers in India are the first point of contact between organized health care and the poor people in rural India. The responsibilities of these workers include caring for the health and well being of nursing women, children and socioeconomically deprived groups.

The Anganwadi Workers

There are over one million Anganwadi centers in India with 2 million workers, benefiting over 70 million people. Each worker is responsible for the well-being of around 1,000 people in villages across India. The workers are from the community they operate in and thus have an intimate understanding of the issues surrounding patients. They are able to gain the trust of the patients and are thus able to provide for their needs.

This workforce includes mostly women and is regarded as an acceptable and effective means of employment for women in rural areas. Nursing women and children are comfortable being treated by these workers and find it easier to seek help. The workers participate in rudimentary training and skills to care for the people in their village.

The workers are often the only source of help for villagers and thus allow more people to gain access to health care. Rural India suffers from issues such as overpopulation, lack of sanitation and illiteracy, and these workers are able to ease the overburdened health care system of the country.

Benefits for the Children

Anganwadi centers also serve as free-of-cost preschool centers for children in the area. These centers also organize immunization programs for children and provide information on how to attain adequate nutrition. The mission of the organization is to remove malnutrition in India by 2022. The successes of polio and leprosy eradication programs in the country owe a great deal to the efforts of the Anganwadi workers.

The Ministry of Women and Child Development provides different types of training for workers, including classroom training. Some workers receive up to 3 months of training. Workers are also provided with refresher training from time to time. This ensures that workers have some understanding of health care and social development of children and are able to provide assistance to families.

Educational and Environmental Role

There has been a recent focus on sanitation measures that include providing drinking water, promoting personal hygiene practices and establishing practices of environmental sanitation. This provides people with tools to care for themselves and their environment. Workers provide advice on preventing open defecation, unhygienic food preparation and unsanitary living.

Anganwadi centers also organize workshops to empower adolescent girls through education, skill development and personal hygiene. By promoting literacy and nutrition, the centers are providing resources to young girls to develop themselves personally and professionally. This is also a means to reduce child marriages by providing skills to be economically and socially empowered.

Workers also utilize technology such as smartphones to create a database of residents of the village and schedule home visits for those who are immobile. Technology is also used to track activities, attendance and growth. This is also a good way to track progress and keep workers accountable.

Despite their helpful service, Anganwadi workers in India are severely underpaid. The government of India has provided greater incentives and salary to these workers so they are able to provide for themselves adequately.

Anganwadi workers in India provide the systematically oppressed with access to health care, education and sanitation facilities. This allows for an improvement in the quality of life of Indians and provides many women with employment opportunities. Continuous work of this organization will benefit the country in its goal of eradicating poverty.

– Isha Kakar
Photo: Flickr