Healthcare Reform in GeorgiaHealthcare reform in Georgia has contributed greatly to its population’s quality of life. Located east of the Black Sea in Europe, the country of Georgia finally gained independence in 1991 from the Soviet Union. In recent centuries, Turkey, Persia and Russia fought over control of its land, and the region still experiences tensions with Russia. The United States’ political and economic involvement with Georgia was a cause of concern to Russia, especially given Georgia’s interest in joining NATO and the EU. The Georgian- and Russian-speaking country has a population of 4.3 million, with a life expectancy of 71 for males and 77 for females.

Privately Funded Healthcare

After making the transition from a communist regime to a market economy, healthcare in Georgia was primarily privately financed. By the year 2002, healthcare spending per capita was $64. Over the period from 2002 to 2013, that figure saw an increase to $350. The country has been alleviating regulations ever since 2003, easing private companies’ entry into the market.

Recently there have been further reforms, such as the government supporting private insurers to invest and operate in 2010. This led to the private ownership of 84.3% of hospital beds by the end of 2014. Additionally, private insurers generated 43.2% of written premiums that same year.

Rising Standards of Health

Ever since its independence, Georgia has been one of the poorer countries of the region, its population subject to mainly noncommunicable diseases. However, the country’s standards have been slowly catching up to the rest of Europe. For example, the poverty rate went from 33.2% in 2005 to 21.3% in 2016.

One issue with healthcare in Georgia, and with the general health of the population, has been the flawed death reporting system. This system has led to an exaggerated rate of illness-induced deaths. It reached 55% in 2010, even though research suggests that a rate higher than 20% should be considered unreliable. While the rate remains high and unreliable, the country made tremendous progress after improving software systems, resulting in a rate of 27.3% in 2015.

A New Universal Healthcare System

Healthcare in Georgia took a big leap in 2013, when the government introduced a universal healthcare system for which the entire population qualified. Healthcare reform in Georgia downsized the role of private insurers and changed the system’s entire financing and funding structure. Instead of supporting private companies, government funds were allocated directly to the healthcare providers. The vast majority – 96.4% – of patients reported satisfaction with the system.

One of the main diseases affecting the country during this century is Hepatitis C. According to the CDC and the NCDC, “in 2015, estimated national seroprevalence of hepatitis C is 7.7% and the prevalence of active disease is 5.4%.” Healthcare reform in Georgia sought to combat the disease through a national program initiated in 2015. This program electronically improved screening and data collection from national and local agencies. From 2015 until 2017, the cure rate reached 98.2% and 38,506 patients were treated.

Healthcare in Georgia has undergone many reforms since 2003. It began with the support of privatization, but eventually the government transitioned to a single-payer universal healthcare system that serves approximately 90% of citizens. The current system also took measures to address the effects of the Hepatitis C disease. Even though the country still lags behind other European countries in poverty and health standards, recent years have seen significant progress.

Fahad Saad
Photo: Pixabay

hunger in GeorgiaNestled in the Caucasus Mountains of Eastern Europe, the people of Georgia receive a sufficient quantity of food. However, the population suffers from stunted growth and undernourishment because of the quality of their diet. This leads to a condition called hidden hunger, in Georgia.

Background

Hidden hunger in Georgia results from a lack of essential vitamins and minerals in its accessible food. The people there often do not consume enough protein, iron and vitamin A. This can cause tangible issues. For example, half a million Georgians are malnourished and infant mortality is twice the EU average. Additionally, a significant number of children under five years old are anemic.

Most of the foods that Georgians eat are quite high in starch and have little nutritional value. The two most popular dishes in rural Georgia are fried potatoes and lobio, which is made of boiled beans. Overreliance on these types of foods have made cardiovascular disease the most common chronic disease in the country. Currently, it accounts for 69% of Georgia’s mortality.

The main cause of the dietary insufficiencies in Georgia is a lack of access to meat and meat-based products. Unfortunately, these products are rather expensive at local markets. With the average household income being just $6 per day (⅓ of the population earns only $2.5 per day), the consumption of meat is rather impractical for most people.

Furthermore, the gross domestic product of Georgia was just $16.21 billion in 2018, with a per capita GDP of $4,723. For comparison, the 2018 GDP per capita for the European Union was $35,616.

Although the country’s GDP is growing overall, economic downturns, such as the 2008 Russo-Georgian War, the 2015 stagnation and the 2020 pandemic, reduce the value of the Georgian Lari. These kinds of shifts can create vulnerable conditions for Georgia’s population and reduce food security.

Solutions

Fortunately, governmental and nonprofit organizations across the world are taking steps to improve the dietary standards and hunger in Georgia. Action Against Hunger has had a Food Security Program in the country since 1994, established shortly after the dissolution of the USSR and the collapse of collective farming in the region. It was able to help 5,937 people in 2018.

BRIDGE is a Georgia-based NGO that publishes comprehensive studies detailing the dietary habits of Georgians. It also publishes policy recommendations, which range from developing monitoring systems for the Georgian diet to embedding nutrition into the Ministry of Education’s agenda.

The Georgian Agricultural and Rural Development Alliance (GAARD), of which BRIDGE is a member, was able to register a “Food Security Bill” in Parliament in 2017. This bill aims to reduce Georgia’s reliance on imported food and improve the country’s nutrition self-sustainably.

The Impact of COVID-19

Although the country has only 879 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 14 deaths as of June 16 2020, the global pandemic may put national food security at risk if another wave of the virus hits the region.

There are some subsistence farmers in the country, but many people buy their food from street markets or bazaars. Places like these are potential hotspots where the virus can spread. However, it is essential that these markets remain open because if they were shut down by a government mandate, many people would struggle to achieve their daily food quantity as well as combat hidden hunger in Georgia.


Hidden hunger presents itself in Georgia due to a lack of essential minerals and vitamins in its available food. Cardiovascular disease accounts for 69% of Georgia’s mortality. COVID-19 has the potential to increase the impact of hidden hunger if markets are shut down. While Georgia is facing a struggle with hidden hunger, organizations like Action Against Hunger, BRIDGE and GAARD are working to improve the quality of food in the country in order to make a positive impact.

– Christopher Bresnahan 

Photo: Flickr

Poverty in Georgia
Sitting between Turkey and Russia, the nation of Georgia tells a unique story about successfully fighting poverty. Although the country’s poverty rate sits at around 20.1%, the current figure represents a steep decline from the 2010 rate of 37.4%. A more complete understanding of the decline of poverty in Georgia requires an understanding of the nation’s history.

Recent Georgian History

Throughout the 19th century, the Russian empire slowly annexed Georgia. In 1918, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, the Democratic Republic of Georgia declared its independence. In 1921, the Soviet Union forcibly incorporated Georgia. Under Soviet rule, the economy of Georgia modernized and diversified from being largely agrarian to featuring a prominent industrial sector.

In 1936, Georgia became a constituent republic and remained so until the collapse of the Soviet Union. After the collapse in 1991, Georgia regained its independence, but instability, civil unrest and a falling GDP plagued the nation. After the Rose Revolution of 2003, the government of Georgia attempted to liberalize the nation’s economy and pursue cooperation with the West. Russia invaded the South Ossetia and Abkhazia regions in 2008 due to a territorial dispute, which is still ongoing.

When viewing the recent history, it is clear that the decline of poverty in Georgia deeply intertwines with its reforms after emerging from the Soviet Union. With a government focussed on stability and economic development, Georgia has been able to make strides to downsize poverty.

Success in Fighting Poverty

When the Georgian government made an attempt to liberalize the nation’s economy and pursue international cooperation after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the nation sought trade agreements with China and the European Union (E.U.) and made reforms to eliminate corruption and simplify taxes. As a result, Georgia’s GDP per capita has expanded at an average rate of 4.8% per year.

In 2007, The World Bank ranked Georgia as the world’s number one economic reformer due to its successful policies focussing on promoting competition and diversifying the financial sector. In 2014, it found that poverty in Georgia had decreased for the fourth consecutive year. Since 2014, Georgia has joined the E.U.’s Free Trade Area, and the E.U. has become the country’s largest trading partner.

Georgia has also been working with the United Nations Development Programme to pursue democratic reforms, inclusive growth, conflict transformation, green solutions and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. In 2012, Georgia demonstrated positive growth, conducting a democratic election with a peaceful transition of power.

Fighting Poverty in the Future

Though the nation holds many statistical successes, poverty in Georgia is still a pressing matter. According to the Asian Development Bank, 20.1% of the population still lived below the national poverty line in 2018.

Unemployment remains a contributing factor to poverty in Georgia. The national rate sits at about 13.9%, though in some regions it is as high as 40%. Young people especially struggle economically in Georgia, and the country is currently working with the United Nations to improve vocational education and training. In 2017, the Georgian government put forth a rural development strategy, emphasizing its focus on the growth and diversification of the rural economy.

Despite the nation’s economic improvements, Georgia’s standard of living has decreased dramatically due to the loss of the cheap sources of energy previously received in the Soviet era. The country recognizes this problem and has made efforts to rebuild the energy sector in a sustainable way. In 2015, Georgia joined the EU4Energy Programme, which is dedicated to making effective, research-based policy decisions in the energy sector.

Healthcare also remains a contributing factor to poverty in Georgia, especially among children. The nation struggles with both a high infant mortality rate and a high rate of infections and parasitic diseases. In 2013, the country adopted a universal healthcare plan, which represents a significant step in making health care more accessible. The nation is currently working to expand the service to all areas of the population.

The previous victories in the decline of poverty in Georgia are laudable. Though Georgia still requires more work, the nation continues to make reform efforts and strives to ensure that the next chapter of economic history is one of continued success.

Michael Messina
Photo: Flickr

Life Expectancy in Georgia 

Georgia, located between Western Asia and Eastern Europe, has made significant progress over the past several decades when it comes to the life expectancy of its nearly 4 million citizens. Since around the 1990s, the country has experienced many health reforms that helped to improve the general health of its population as well as lower maternal and infant mortality rates. However, despite these improvements, Georgia still faces multiple health-related challenges that pose a threat to the life expectancy of its citizens. Listed below are five facts about life expectancy in Georgia.

5 Facts About Life Expectancy in Georgia

  1. According to a survey carried out by the United Nations in 2012, the average lifespan for Georgian women stood at 79 years, while the average life span for men was lower, at around 70 years. The average lifespan in Georgia is expected to increase to 80.6 years for women and 74.1 years for men by 2035. 
  2. As of 2019, the life expectancy in Georgia at birth is approximately 73.66 years. This marks a percentage increase of approximately 20 percent over 69 years. Back in 1950, the U.N. estimated that the life expectancy in Georgia at birth was less than 60 years in total. 
  3. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the probability of death for people between ages 15 and 60 stands at 238 for males and 83 for females. The probability of children dying before the age of 5 per 1,000 births was around 11 in 2017.
  4. Georgia developed the Maternal and Newborn Health Strategy, as well as a short term action plan in 2017 to provide direction and guidance in improving maternal and newborn health. According to UNICEF, the three-year initiative “envisages that by 2030, there will be no preventable deaths of mothers and newborns or stillbirths, every child will be a wanted child, and every unwanted pregnancy will be prevented through appropriate education and full access for all to high quality integrated services.”
  5. In 2010, the leading causes of premature death in Georgia were cardiovascular and circulatory diseases, including ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. It was reported that in 2010, the three most prominent risk factors for the disease burdened people in Georgia were related to diet, high blood pressure and tobacco smoking. It was also reported that the leading risk factors for children who were younger than 5 and people between ages 15 to 49 were suboptimal breastfeeding and the aforementioned dietary risks.

As a whole, life expectancy in Georgia has improved significantly compared to the mid 20th century. With that being said, there is no denying that there is still work that needs to be done in a number of areas including maternal health. Hopefully, with strong investments from the government, life expectancy in Georgia will continue its upward trajectory. 

Adam Abuelheiga
Photo: Flickr

Georgia's integration into the E.U.Since the end of the Russo-Georgian War in 2008, poverty reduction and higher employment have accompanied an expanding Georgian economy. However, fears of renewed conflict with Russia, Georgia’s northern-neighbor, jeopardize the progress the nation has made in curtailing poverty and handling the refugee crisis. Georgia’s integration into the E.U. will not only reap economic benefits and accelerate a decline in poverty levels, but also provide Georgia security from Russian aggression.

Georgia’s Relationship to the EU

Despite being a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Council of Europe, Georgia is not a member-state of the European Union. Since Georgia’s Rose Revolution in 2003, politicians of diverse ideologies have prioritized E.U. membership as an ultimate goal. In fact, a 2009 survey of over 2,400 Georgians found that 50 percent of the population believed that Georgia would join the E.U. within 10 years. While Georgia has yet to join the E.U. in 2019, the Georgian government continues to introduce various reforms to align the country with the tenets of E.U. institutional structures. E.U. membership would help Georgia tackle poverty and inequality.

Free Trade with Europe Increasing National Welfare

Poverty in Georgia remains at 16.3 percent and unemployment at 12.7 percent. Currently, Georgia is allowed to trade in certain industries with the E.U. as a part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA). Once the E.U. admits Georgia and Georgia is able to trade freely with E.U. member-states in all industries, poverty and unemployment will likely decline.

Free trade makes a country more productive by selecting a country’s most productive industries for exporting. Import competition will replace less productive industries, but Georgians will specialize in their more productive exporting sectors and reap the benefits of specialization. Enhanced specialization from trade will raise Georgia’s gross domestic product and increase consumer welfare because Georgians will be able to purchase foreign-produced goods at cheaper prices while specializing in exporting sectors, such as copper ores and wine. Coupled with appropriate distributional policies, free trade will have a positive impact on reducing poverty and unemployment.

EU Membership Shielding Georgia from Russian Aggression

During the 2008 war, 130,000 Georgians became displaced; Action Against Hunger reports that the number of refugees has increased over time. If Russia were to invade again, there would be serious economic consequences. Furthermore, the refugee crisis would deteriorate substantially. Georgia’s integration into the E.U. provides a security agreement under the auspices of the European Defence Union; if Russia interferes with one E.U. member-country, it faces the backlash of Europe. George could reverse its progress in reducing poverty over the past decade. E.U. membership will serve as a security buffer from Russian aggression and a defender of the nation’s recent economic progress.

Because of the protection and economic boost E.U. membership would bring, many political scientists and economists agree with the 67 percent of Georgians who advocate for Georgia’s integration into the E.U.

– Grayson Cox
Photo: Flickr

Infrastructure projects in the Republic of Georgia

The Republic of Georgia has been doing fairly well despite a shaky recovery after gaining independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991. The Republic of Georgia and the Russian Federation are still important trade partners despite past conflicts. Trade between Russia and Georgia accounted for 14.5 percent of Georgia’s exports in 2017.  The government has recognized this and, in 2017, it laid out a 3-year plan outlining infrastructure projects in the Republic of Georgia. Its goal is not only to increase the ease of trade but also increase the standard of living for Georgians.

Infrastructure Projects in the Republic of Georgia

Railroads, roadways, seaports, airports, pipelines and electrical transmission lines are all in need of either an upgrade or an overhaul. Infrastructure projects in the Republic of Georgia are being handled organized by the Georgian government, but they are being financed by companies and countries all around the world. For example, Japan signed $38 million agreement to fund investments for improvements on one of Georgia’s main highways.

Much of this investment is organized and promoted by the Georgian International Investment Agency. The agency was developed and established in 2002 outside of direct government control due to the laws at the time. In 2015, the agency was moved under the direct control of the office of Prime Minister as a result of its growing importance and investments. The job of the agency is to ensure that investors and the nation are treated fairly.

Western Trade Partners

As the government of Georgia is seeking closer ties to the west by looking to join both the European Union and NATO, it has formed an important trading partnership with the United States. USAID has been working with Tetra Tech, an international engineering firm, on infrastructure projects in the Republic of Georgia, specifically in the energy sector.

USAID along with Tetra Tech have been working together with the government of Georgia, and other nations in the Caucasus region, on the Georgia Power and Gas Infrastructure Oversight Project (PGIOP). The project includes the construction of 119 kilometers of gas pipelines and the replacement of substations and power lines that were damaged or dismantled during the 1992 Georgian Civil War.

Improved Infrastructure Benefits Trade

Georgia’s other neighbors, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia, Bulgaria and Ukraine, are all important trade partners that share either a land or sea border with the Republic of Georgia. Improving infrastructure in Georgia will facilitate important trade between the county and its neighbors, helping the economies of all countries involved. The World Bank is working with the government of Georgia to help improve the infrastructure needed for this trade.

The World Banks has been investing millions into the Republic of Georgia not only to help stimulate trade within Georgia’s sphere of influence but also though the Caucasus Transit Corridor. The area is an important corridor between Asia and Europe. Modern infrastructure will help facilitate trade across the Black Sea and through all of the nations that border it. Both natural gas and trade goods will need to move faster as consumption increases.

Georgia is a nation tucked in a region with ever-growing tensions. The wars in Iraq and Syria are not far away. Its neighbors Armenia and Azerbaijan are in a constant state of alert. Russia, Turkey and Iran are all beginning to flex their muscles on the world stage more freely. Through improving infrastructure projects in the Republic of Georgia, the country can hope to become too important for any side to lose, allowing it to continue to grow freely and democratically.

Nicholas Anthony DeMarco
Photo: Unsplash

Sustainable Agriculture in the Republic of Georgia
The beautiful Republic of Georgia is nestled in the picturesque Caucasus region between Russia in the north and Turkey in the south.

Much of the land between the sea and the peaks is green and fertile. Here, sustainable agriculture in the Republic of Georgia thrives.

In 2015, the Government of the Republic of Georgia began a push to improve its agricultural production for both economic and environmental benefit. The country’s agriculture strategy also aims to reduce Georgia’s dependence on grain imports, one of the country’s top import products.

The importance of agriculture in Georgian history, specifically winemaking, stretches back over 8,000 years. Wine has been and continues to be one of the most important aspects of Georgian agriculture.

The Strategy

The strategy has the vision to create an environment that will increase competitiveness in agro-food sector, promote stable growth of high-quality agricultural production, ensure food safety and security and eliminate rural poverty through sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas.

Each section outlines plans to implement everything from better irrigation, saving water and reducing water pollution, to improved animal husbandry.

On top of embracing modern techniques, they outline improving both industrial agricultural techniques and educating and helping smaller rural farms embrace these techniques.

The most important steps in the strategy from an economic standpoint are not just introducing techniques that will benefit the farmers’ crop yields while lowering their total overhead cost but the government’s idea to help bring crops to market within the country and for export.

The FAO and EU Help

The development of sustainable agriculture in the Republic of Georgia is not a solo mission.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), along with the European Union is partnering with the Republic of Georgia to bring its dream to fruition.

The European Union is helping the Georgian government by providing both money and expertise. The FAO has been working with the Republic of Georgia on promoting and implementing programs aimed at increasing food security since 1995.

From 2013 to 2015 the sustainable agriculture in the Republic of Georgia was spearheaded by a joint FAO and Georgian government venture. FAO assistance in Georgia has mainly focused on technical development and the livestock industry.

Wine Industry

It is nearly impossible not to talk about the connection between wine and Georgian agriculture.

Georgia and the surrounding area has been continuously producing wine for over 8,000 years. Grapes are one of the most produced agricultural products in Georgia and wine is one of the most produced industrial products. The country is known as the first wine-making region in the world.

While the wine exports do not hit the numbers that more notable wine countries like Italy, France, or Spain do, it should not go unnoted.

Georgian wine is beginning to gain more and more international recognition. This has the potential to grow the export industry surrounding wine and increase tourism of the country, both potentially big economic benefits.

Sustainable agriculture in the Republic of Georgia has been and always will be an uphill battle. Russian pressure from the North has historically put pressure on the region. Only eight years ago, the two nations were at war.

Georgia is pulling itself up by its boots straps and beginning to shake off the dust of the Soviet Union. The country is forging its own future from the ground up.

– Nicholas Anthony DeMarco
Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Georgia
Rising out of years of economic stagnation, Georgia finds itself in a period of transition. Despite enduring the 2008 conflict with Russia and bearing the collateral damage of the Crimean war, the economic impacts of which are still felt, life in is improving. This list of top 10 facts about living conditions in Georgia examines how.

Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Georgia

  1. Georgia has expanded economic ties with the European Union. As of 2014, Georgia signed two important economic treaties with the EU, an Association Agreement as well as a separate Free Trade Agreement. Now enabling citizens to travel more freely, and opened the EU market to Georgian businesses.
  2. The country is a regional leader in anti-corruption. Corruption incentivizes shady dealings, dangerous products and mistrust – ultimately leading to poverty. Both the World Bank and U.S. State Department recognize Georgia’s role as an anti-corruption leader, citing a long-standing commitment to reform and several glowing reports.
  3. Poverty is decreasing. The percentage of Georgians living below the national standard for poverty has declined considerably: 37.3 percent in 2010 to 21.9 percent in 2017.
  4. There is moderate inequality. With a GINI coefficient of 36.5, Georgia has greater inequality than most of its neighbors: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. Despite this, the share of national income earned by the poorest fifth of society has increased over time.
  5. Students are returning to complete secondary education. In the early 2000s Georgia had a high rate of non-enrollment in secondary education. More than one in five students would stop attending school after age 15. Now secondary schools have a 104 percent enrollment rate, meaning that many former students have decided to finish their education.
  6. Access to clean drinking water is common. For many years a significant number of Georgians (11 to 15 percent) lacked modern drinking water facilities. In 2015 Global nutrition reported that virtually 100 percent of citizens had proper access to drinking water with the vast majority receiving it via indoor plumbing.
  7. Obesity affects more people than starvation. According to a 2015 Global Nutrition report, more than half of all Georgians are overweight and one in five are obese. With undernourishment in decline, heart disease and similar problems are likely to be the next challenge.
  8. Life expectancy is increasing. Life expectancy at birth has been above 70 years old since the 1990s. A Georgian born today can now expect to reach age 74, living a fully active lifestyle well into their sixties.
  9. The 2008 Russian conflict has had a lasting impact. During the conflict, 130,000 Georgians became internal refugees displaced from the Abkhazia, Sidha Kartli and South Ossetia regions. While some have returned home, Action Against Hunger reports that the number of internally displaced persons has only gotten worse over time.
  10. Bugs are threatening crop harvests. For the past three years, the Abkhazia region has been struggling with an insect outbreak. In 2017, almost three-quarters of walnut farms had some of their germinating plants eaten before they were ready for sale. Russia even imposed a six-day import ban on Abkhazia to keep the bugs from spreading.

Despite setbacks in the past, Georgians are working hard to better their lives. Their efforts have begun to show in cities, schools, and fields as Georgia prospers as a strong, independent nation.

– John Glade
Photo: Flickr

Top 10 Facts About Poverty in Georgia
The country of Georgia is on the eastern end of the Black Sea, right in between Turkey and Russia. It is an underexplored nation for some, but it is known for its beautiful scenery as well as its delicious wine. Poverty in Georgia has decreased in recent years, but the country is still affected by economic and social factors that have led to most of its population living below the poverty line. Here are the top 10 facts about poverty in Georgia.

List of Top 10 Facts About Poverty in Georgia

  1. While poverty decreased in 2014 for the fourth consecutive year, according to the World Bank, it still affects one-third of Georgia’s population.
  2. According to the World Bank, the overall population living in poverty in Georgia is 32 percent. Out of which, 28 percent are children. The good news is that people suffering from poverty in Georgia usually get out of it in less than a year.
  3. Unemployment remains one of the biggest challenges in the country, according to UNDP. The unemployment rate has increased to 12 percent, and 68 percent of the population consider themselves unemployed.
  4. The top three causes of death in the country are stroke, heart disease and cancer according to the CDC. Tuberculosis and other infectious diseases are other major health problems affecting the country. In the last few years, the number of HIV/AIDS cases and deaths have decreased significantly, according to the WHO.
  5. Since the fall of the USSR, Georgia’s standard of living has decreased dramatically because it lost its cheap source of energy, according to SOS Children’s Villages.
  6. Pervasive income inequality happens to be one of the top 10 facts about poverty in Georgia that cannot be ignored. Even if their economy went up by 11 percent each year, it would take almost 10 years for the poverty rate to reduce dramatically.
  7. Labor market status is another big reason for a large number of Georgia’s population living in poverty. According to The World Bank, people still rely on self-employment as the main source of income.
  8. Children living in rural areas of the country are less likely to have access to a proper education or healthcare, according to SOS Children’s Villages. The infant mortality rate is also quite high.
  9. Georgia ranked 140 in the world for their GDP per capita, right between Guatemala and Paraguay, according to Limes. Even if Georgia used its GDP for consumption, the average person would only receive about $200 per month.
  10. The Georgian government has started growing their healthcare system, which includes low-cost health insurance and pensions for daycare. However, according to The World Bank, only about 30 percent of people who require government aid actually receive it.

Since 2004, Georgia has made democratic reforms in public service and economic development, according to UNDP. The Georgian government has implemented many ongoing reforms to help with human rights and the election system, which will in return assist with poverty reduction. 

– McKenzie Hamby
Photo: Flickr

Georgia
Twenty-three years ago, Georgia committed itself to the goal of removing all discrimination against women. This pledge occurred at the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, where the involved nations signed an international convention that called on each country to create an action plan.

While social norms continue to reinforce a gender divide that undermines girls’ education in Georgia, a lot has changed since the momentous convention. Here are seven things to know about girls’ education in Georgia.

7 Important Facts About Girls’ Education in Georgia

  1. Georgian girls outperform boys in reading, mathematics and science. Indeed, the average mathematics score for 4th-grade girls was seven percent more than that for boys; in addition, the average science scores favored 4th-grade girls by nine percent.
  2. The graduation rate from upper secondary schools in 2012-2013 was 74.4 percent for females, compared to 68.8 percent for males. In those same years, 91.2 percent of all females transitioned from lower secondary to upper secondary schools, compared to 85.8 percent of males. The dropout and repeat rates, on the other hand, were the same for both girls and boys, with a dropout rate of 0.2 percent and a repeat rate of 0.1 percent in grade three.
  3. Despite their academic achievements, Georgian girls are underrepresented in STEM and entrepreneurial occupations. In fact, 58 percent of all respondents to a research report by the U.N. Development Program saying that a man would make a better business leader. According to the World Bank, Georgian girls are brought up to believe that STEM careers are more suitable for men; young Georgian women overwhelmingly major in arts, education and healthcare. Men, on the other hand, tend to major in high-wage sectors like engineering and manufacturing. Organizations like the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) and Girls Up are stepping up to fill in the gap in Georgian girls’ STEM education. Since 2015, MCC has arranged exchange programs between Georgian and American students, placing a special emphasis on women participation and allowing Georgians to earn reputable STEM degrees. The global initiative Girls Up has organized a Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts & Design and Mathematics camp to help girls realize their leadership potential and explore new disciplines.
  4. In some cases, early marriages have prevented teenage girls from completing their education. In 2015 alone, 224 girls aged 14 – 16 left school on the grounds of marriage. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) found that 17 percent of Georgian women married before the age of 18. Recognizing that early marriage carries adverse effects for girls’ education in Georgia, the Georgian Parliament ruled in a law passed on January 1, 2017 that only individuals who have reached the age of 18 are legally allowed to marry.
  5. Girls from ethnic minorities — Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Russians, Ossetians — are more likely to drop out of school. In an effort to engage these ethnic minorities with the school curriculum, Georgia’s Ministry of Education and Science has supported bilingual education programs and professional development for teachers residing in ethnic enclaves. In 2014, the Ministry awarded certificates to 80 teachers for their completion of the “Teach Georgian as a Second Language” program, which offered professional development for educators in non-Georgian schools.
  6. While Georgian girls are more likely than boys to enroll in tertiary education, educated women make up the largest category of underemployed women. Once employed, these women face a 37 percent earnings gap with their male counterparts. Diminishing this gap will incentivize more girls to pursue higher education. The Law on Gender Equality — passed on January 1, 2014 — sought to do just that by raising paid maternity leave from 126 to 183 calendar days.
  7. U.N. bodies have collaborated with Georgia’s Ministry of Education and Science to foster gender equality at school. The U.N. Women initiative, which took root in Georgia in 2001, supports girls’ education in Georgia by hosting training sessions for women interested in entrepreneurial careers. On July 25, 2018, a U.N. Women training on organizational management and leadership brought together 25 aspiring women entrepreneurs. Likewise, the Peace Corps sent 114 volunteers to Georgia to assist with English education in geographically remote areas of Georgia. After being assigned to a public school, volunteers work with teachers to organize after-school English clubs and teacher workshops in regional centers.

Increased Opportunities

With more national awareness and international assistance, Georgia has worked to promote educational opportunities for girls. Laws like the ban on early marriages help keep girls in school for longer and further their career goals.

– Mark Blekherman
Photo: Flickr