Living Conditions in Poland
Situated in Central Europe, Poland neighbors Slovakia, Ukraine and the Czech Republic to the North, Russia, Lithuania and the Baltic Sea to the South, Belarus to the East and Germany to the West. Home to the eighth largest economy in the European Union, 30 percent of the nation’s landscape is covered with forests partially due to the national reforestation program. While the nation has begun to gradually reduce poverty, nearly 15 percent of the Polish population face poverty. Listed below are the top 10 facts about the living conditions in Poland.

Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions in Poland

  1. Poland boasts one of Europe’s best education systems with a 96.8 percent primary school enrollment rate leading to a 99.7 percent adult literacy rate. The nation has taken part in education reforms stemming from the 1990s which have led to positive improvements on students’ educational performance. Twelve Poles have won the Nobel Prize, causing Poland to be ranked 17th for the number of wins in the world.
  2. Young people in Poland face high unemployment and when employed, often take temporary jobs. Temporary positions employ 66 percent of young Poles leading to layoffs in the 2009 economic downturn. To combat the rising rates of youth unemployment, the Tripartite Commission, a labor relations forum in Poland, introduced an anti-crisis package that focused on increasing minimum wage and co-financing training. Polish trade unions highlighted the importance of equal treatment of different contracts and implementing the same tax rates.
  3. The average earnings of high earners (earning greater than 90 percent of workers) is 4.7 times greater than a low earner (earning less than 90 percent of workers) in Poland. This high-to-low ratio is among the highest in the European Union. Three primary factors impacting wage dispersion include the disparity in pay due to levels of education, low levels of compensation (often below minimum wage) and low density of trade unions in the nation. Polish people have seen a decrease in social inequality due to a focus on reforms regarding the tax-benefit system and family allowance system as well as a fall in wage dispersion.
  4. Poland is one of 58 countries worldwide to offer its citizens universal health care. Treatment of sudden illnesses and emergencies is typically free. Costs in the private medical sector are higher than in the public medical sector.
  5. One in four Polish children faces poverty, one of the highest childhood poverty rates in Europe. This particularly affects large families and single-parent families. In 2016, the Polish government introduced the Family 500+ program which provides a monthly payment of 500 Zlotys ($130.00) for every child after the first until the age of 18. The first child in families whose income is below a defined threshold receives this benefit. The program predicts that it will initiate a significant decrease in childhood poverty.
  6. Poland’s national minimum wage increased from 2,100 Zlotys ($548.66) in 2018 to 2,250 Zlotys ($587.85) in 2019. The nation’s annual variation rate of the Consumer Price Index increased 1.2 percent, granting Poles buying power in the economy. The cost of living in Poland is 44.9 percent lower than the United States.
  7. Ranked 189 out of 200, Poland’s fertility rate is among the lowest in the world. The nation is in the first stages of initiating a family policy.
  8. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development suggests that Poles are less than satisfied with their lives as they rank their life satisfaction an average of six which is less than the average of a six and a half. Particular noteworthy factors within Polish lives include strong personal security and education, and below average health status and income.
  9. According to the World Health Organization in 2016, Poland’s life expectancy stood at 78 years old. Women have a life expectancy of 82 years while men have a life expectancy of 74 years. Looking over the past several years, Poland’s life expectancy has seen a minimal decrease. Researchers from the Medical University of Lodz divided the major causes of death into three groups. The first group was comprised of infectious diseases, diseases related to childbirth/pregnancy and malnutrition which are the least common causes of death. Chronic noninfectious diseases such as cancer or heart disease made up group two which are the most common causes of death in Poland. External causes of death such as accidents and suicide contribute to 15.7 percent of male lives lost and 5.3 percent of females. External causes of death have seen a decrease.
  10. World Bank Data shows that Poland’s GDP growth has reached 5.1 percent in 2018, improving the Polish economy. Challenges still face the Poles in “shortage of labor in the economy, procyclical government policies encourage by the political calendar, and adverse global factors.” These issues could weigh on the continuance of Poland’s GDP growth.

The Eastern European country finds itself prospering economically amidst below average life satisfaction, high unemployment in young adults and low fertility rates. The good fortune of the Polish people is a central interest of the government. These 10 facts about living conditions in Poland indicate that contributions to the sustainment of the country are helping as literacy rates are on the rise, the minimum wage has increased and poverty has waned in recent years.

– Gwendolin Schemm
Photo: Flickr

OVERPOPULATION IN UGANDA

Overpopulation is often one of the major causes of poverty. A lack of educational resources along with high death rates often go hand in hand with higher birth rates, resulting in large booms in population growth. The United Nations predicted that the poorest countries in the world are the biggest contributors to population growth. Uganda is one of the poorest developing countries in the world. There are many problems associated with overpopulation In Uganda.

High Fertility Rates

The poorest developing countries are usually the ones with the highest fertility rates and the ones with the least amount of resources to support their population growth. It has been proven that fertility rates in African nations are higher than in Western nations. One of the problems is that more developed nations are the ones that consume most of the resources, leaving the least possible amount to support the populations in African nations.

In addition to this, the lack of sexual education and family planning is a major cause of overpopulation in this region. Only 20 percent of Uganda’s women have access to contraception. Women in Uganda have an average of 7 children, which is higher the African average of 5.1 but more than double that of the global average of 2.7. Ugandan government’s lack of responsibility in improving family planning is a major reason for the country’s exponential population growth.

Population Increases

Presently there are 27.7 million people living in Uganda. By 2025, this number is estimated to double to 56 million people, making Uganda the nation with the world’s biggest population growth (at a rate of 3.3 percent). This kind of growth definitely continues to make resources more scarce in this region of the world. With already 19.5 percent of Uganda’s population living in poverty, efforts to decrease poverty rates will fail unless measures are taken.

As much as 78 percent of the population in Uganda are under the age of 30. Experts say that such big population will be a burden to the economy unless it is transformed into a working force. One major reason for the vast increase in the youth population was a need for family security, often to help with labor. There is minimal industrialization in many developing countries, so people have kids in order to have more help on the farm.

Unemployment and Overpopulation

Currently, 83 percent of young people have no formal employment. This is partly due to low economic growth, slow labor markets, high population growth rates, the rigid education system, rural-urban migration and limited access to capital. This boom in population growth is bound to put pressure on the economy by straining resources if the high birth rates are not controlled.

The major problem of Uganda’s young population is an increasing dependency burden at the household level with a related increase in demand for social services like health and education, which are not growing at the same pace as its population.  For example, classrooms in public schools are overcrowded due to growth in school populations. One cause for the growth in the population has been an increase in unwanted births, leading back to the idea that family planning is an essential part of reducing overpopulation in Uganda.

Solutions to Overpopulation in Uganda

There are many possible solutions to overcoming the overpopulation crisis in Uganda. Experts highlight the need for a long-term plan that focuses on the role of the family, the government, the private sector and society in helping young people to become productive. By reducing the problems with overpopulation in Uganda, the economy will benefit through taxes and more sustained production of goods and services.

Family planning services would reduce fertility levels and increase the proportion of employed adults to young dependents.  Furthermore, promoting family planning by educating men and women about contraception will play a key role in reducing fertility rates. A reduction in “fertility was achieved in the West over the course of a century of female education, national family planning services and the introduction of job opportunities for women.” Therefore, it is important to empower women by giving them access to reproductive health services as well as better economic options. The United Nations aims to tackle this issue by running microcredit projects to turn young women into advocates for reproductive health.

Another solution is government incentives. Governments must promote responsible parenthood and limit subsidies to the first two children unless the family is living in poverty. This can also be accomplished by promoting child spacing and having fewer children. In certain urban regions of the country, there are ads showing happy couples with just one or two children.

Cutting exponential population growth will give Uganda’s natural resources a higher chance of supporting the human burden. Government intervention through family planning by educating people on contraception methods and empowering women by enhancing female education are important steps towards reducing problems associated with overpopulation in Uganda and decreasing poverty.

Mayra Vega

Photo: Google

Fertility Rates in Developing Countries
Reducing fertility rates in developing countries is critical for ending global poverty. Common methods of doing so include education, contraception and women’s empowerment. However, another important factor affecting fertility rates is child survival.

There are many biological and behavioral factors that affect women and families when children die early. Physiologically, the early death of an infant triggers the resumption in ovulation, leaving the mother at early risk of conceiving again. Additionally, parents who lose children early are more likely to attempt to replace lost children or have extra children as insurance or compensation.

To fight high fertility rates in developing countries and around the world, it is important to understand the rates, causes and prevention efforts of stillbirths and under-five mortality.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a stillbirth as “a baby born with no signs of life at or after 28 weeks’ gestation.” There are an estimated 2.6 million stillbirths per year across the globe, which equates to more than 7,178 occurring daily.

The majority of stillbirths happen in developing countries with little or no access to skilled health professionals during pregnancy and labor. The WHO estimates that of the 2.6 million yearly stillbirths, 90 percent occur in low and middle-income countries, 75 percent occur in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and 60 percent occur in rural areas of those Asian and African regions.

Stillbirths are caused by child birth complications, post-term pregnancy, maternal infections during pregnancy (such as malaria, syphilis and HIV), maternal disorders (such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes), fetal growth restrictions and congenital abnormalities.

Most stillbirths can be prevented with improved access to maternal healthcare. The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP) aims to prevent these avoidable deaths and has a target of 12 stillbirths per 1,000 live births by 2030. To compare, today, the stillbirth rate in sub-Saharan Africa is 29 per 1,000 live births and, in developed countries, is three stillbirths per 1,000 live births on average.

An estimated 5.9 million children under five die every year around the world. However, instances in developing countries are higher. In low-income countries, the under-five mortality rate is about 76 deaths per 1,000 live births. To compare, in high-income countries, the under-five mortality rate is about seven deaths per 1,000 live births. Seventy percent of these deaths in developing countries are preventable and caused by acute lower respiratory infections (such as pneumonia), diarrhea, malaria, measles, HIV/AIDS, malnutrition and neonatal conditions.

About 2.7 million children die annually during the first month of life. Seventy-five percent of these newborn deaths happen during the first week and up to 50 percent during the first 24 hours. Causes of neonatal and infant mortality include prematurity, low birth weight, infections, birth asphyxia, HIV-infected mothers and birth trauma.

The majority of these infant deaths are preventable with health measures and care during and after birth, particularly during the first week of life. Additionally, most deaths under the age of five can be prevented with access to basic goods and services such as nutrition, water, sanitation, shelter, education, healthcare and information. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to decrease instances of under-five mortality as well as stillbirths. Part of SDG goal three is to end preventable infant and child mortality by 2030.

Improving fertility rates has positive effects on economics, health, environment and education. And, contrary to a popular foreign aid myth, improving child survival rates can actually decrease population growth rates around the world. Ironically, fertility rates in developing countries and around the world can, in turn, affect stillbirth and under-five mortality rates. Addressing this perceivably unending cycle is critical to ending global poverty.

Francesca Montalto

Photo: Flickr