Bees Reduce PovertyBees are an essential part of global agricultural systems. Additionally, bees reduce poverty around the world as they are responsible for pollinating 80% of the world’s plant species, including 90 different types of crops.

Study by the FAO

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) studied 344 plots of land in parts of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The plots revealed a positive correlation between the number of bees that visited a particular plot of land and its agricultural productivity. For small farms with a landmass of fewer than two hectares, the study concluded that farmers could increase their crop production by an average of 24% by increasing pollinator traffic.

The results of the FAO study could affect approximately two billion farmers worldwide. Because of their importance to agricultural production, increasing the number of bees on agrarian lands could improve global food security. Bees also provide a valuable way to reduce rates of poverty. Bees can be especially valuable to people living in rural poverty, a very important issue to address as approximately 63% of people in poverty worldwide live in rural areas.

5 Ways Bees Reduce Poverty

  1. Beekeeping helps households increase their income. Rural families living in regions with poor agricultural yields may struggle to make ends meet. However, raising bees can help these families earn more money. In addition to potentially increasing their annual crop production, bees produce honey and beeswax which families can sell. For example, Bees Abroad and the Poverty Abroad for the Poor Initiative taught farmers living in extreme poverty how to run bee farms. As a result of this training, 30 of those farmers went on to run their own bee farms afterward, which helped increase their incomes.
  2. Beekeeping creates opportunities for entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs use bee by-products to make commodities such as shoe polish, candles and ointments. More importantly, beekeeping presents opportunities for entrepreneurship, which helps people escape poverty and support themselves and their families. Entrepreneurs are finding ways they can use bees to reduce poverty and improve living conditions.
  3. Food insecurity and poverty are linked. Poverty is the main driving factor behind food insecurity worldwide. Across the world, roughly 80% of chronically undernourished people live in rural areas of developing countries, making food insecurity a particularly important aspect of ending rural poverty. Increasing bee populations can enhance food security by increasing crop yields. By improving food security, bees reduce poverty in a way that is especially beneficial to rural communities.
  4. Beekeeping is an effective form of occupational therapy. Occupational therapy helps people with disabilities accomplish goals such as working and attending school. People with disabilities are disproportionately affected by poverty, which makes addressing their needs critical to reducing poverty. Additionally, inaccessible work and education opportunities are major contributing factors to this problem, which occupational therapy can help address. Fortunately, beekeeping requires little capital and helps occupational therapy participants become financially independent, making it an effective form of occupational therapy.
  5. Protecting the global environment keeps people out of poverty. Environmental degradation can increase levels of poverty. For example, the loss of natural resources to environmental degradation leaves communities with fewer means to support themselves. However, bees are critical pollinators that support ecosystems and natural resources across the globe. Additionally, bees can even improve habitat restoration efforts. So, by preserving and restoring vital resources, bees reduce poverty.

Overall, bees provide unique benefits that have the potential to reduce global poverty. By garnering the help of pollinators, impoverished communities can rise out of poverty.

– Caroline Kuntzman
Photo: Flickr

Self-sustainability in EritreaSalesian Missions, an organization part of the Salesians of Don Bosco, has provided the Don Bosco Technical School in Eritrea with funding to buy two cows. The funding, which also enabled students to buy food supplies, will help the school work toward self-sustainability. In the future, the Salesian missionaries hope to gain funding to purchase two additional cows and renovate the barn housing the cows. The funding is part of a long-term self-sustainability project. Members of the school and the community have also been growing their own vegetables, selling milk and making furniture to sell. Self-sustainability in Eritrea is important as nearly 70% of Eritreans live in poverty.

Don Bosco Technical School

The Don Bosco Technical School is located in Dekemhare, 25 miles away from the Eritrean capital, Asmara. The education facility teaches technical skills in “automotive work, general metal, general mechanics, carpentry, building construction, woodwork or furniture making, electricity, electronics and surveying.” The school also teaches courses in information technology and academic subjects. After completing a course, students participate in “military training for six months” and the Eritrean government allocates jobs to them. Salesian Missions’ funding plays a vital role in the school’s flourishing self-sustainability project.

Salesians of Don Bosco and Salesian Missions

The Salesians of Don Bosco is a global Catholic organization founded by an Italian Catholic priest, Don Bosco, to “serve the young,” especially impoverished and marginalized people. It is now the second-largest order within the Catholic Church. Salesian Missions, its U.S. developmental branch, is made up of more than 30,000 religious members dedicated to serving the world’s most impoverished people. Salesian Missions’ overall goal is to equip children with the skills needed to secure employment and achieve self-sufficiency in order to break cycles of poverty.

Poverty and Agriculture in Eritrea

Eritrea’s economy depends, in part, on agriculture. While agriculture makes up about one-third of the country’s economy, it accounts for about 63% of total employment. Eritrea’s agriculture sector is highly dependant on rainfall, making it a volatile sector due to increasing droughts.

According to the World Population Review, 69% of Eritrea’s population lives in poverty. Eritrea ranks fifth for global poverty, behind only South Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Madagascar and Guinea-Bissau. Due to high rates of poverty, self-sustainability in Eritrea is the surest means of survival.

Eritrea is also known for its strict government. Dubbed by many as the “Africa’s North Korea,” Eritrea has been subject to several U.N. and EU sanctions, some of which have been lifted. However, Eritrea was recently hit with sanctions for human rights violations tied to the conflict in Ethiopia. As an isolated nation, Eritrea is cut off from many of the advantages of globalism and does not enjoy the same opportunities for global trade.

A Future of Self-Sustainability

Because of its high poverty rates and struggling agricultural sector, any funding into agricultural resources greatly helps the citizens of Eritrea, allowing them to work toward self-sustainability and thrive for far longer than short-term food aid would allow. Salesian Missions is doing important work since self-sustainability in Eritrea is vital for the survival of many.

– Augustus Bambridge-Sutton
Photo: Flickr

Nanotechnology Can Transform Agriculture
Combined with the impacts of climate control, production increases and scarce land have become prominent issues in agriculture on a global scale. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has predicted that the world population will approach 10 billion by 2050. As a result, the growing population will need to explore new ways of agriculture efficiency. Agrochemicals are the current method of intense crop production. However, these agrochemicals negatively affect the environment, as they contain pesticides and growth hormones which have toxic effects on consumers. Fortunately, a new solution has risen, as nanotechnology has the potential to be the answer to both efficient fertilization and crop protection. Here is some information about how nanotechnology can transform agriculture.

Current Sustainability Methods

Developing nations currently use three main sustainable methods of agriculture. First, sustainable agriculture is a farming philosophy that focuses on resource maintenance. Unlike intensive agriculture, sustainable agriculture follows natural harvest cycles, reducing the use of agrochemicals and recycling water and nutrients. Permaculture, hydroponics and agroforestry are all methods of sustainable agriculture. These three tools allow farmers to recreate natural ecosystems and help raise livestock in safe grasslands. This healthy environment produces better food quality and plant health, as livestock manure, soils and fertilizers get proper nutrients from the excrement recycling system.

Precision farming is another form of agriculture that aims to improve sustainability. This method focuses on monitoring pest and disease management, something smallholder farms in developing countries cannot regulate as much. One benefit is that precision farming aids farmers in developing cropping plans. Farmers are thus able to “combin[e] forecast data with the crop models, allow[ing] [farmers] to present data-supported recommendations that are implementable at small and large scales.” Overall, these cropping plans allow farmers to improve their environmental efforts of sustainability in an economically beneficial way.

Lastly, Climate Smart-Villages exist within rural farms in India, Columbia and Nepal. These villages deal with climate fluctuation data to anticipate participatory methods. Smart technologies, forecast services and adoption planning all help to improve harvesting techniques and plant planning. In order to increase water retention and reduce the risk of fertilizer loss, climate-smart farming reduces greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. With these villages in place, farmers can find alternative wetting and drying methods in rice paddies, thus “reduc[ing] water consumption by 50% and reduce[ing] GHG emissions by 30-50%.” Overall, the method is able to limit consumption and improve crop growth, thus making it a more sustainable farming technique.

The Nano-Particle Solution

Climate Villages, precision farming and sustainable agriculture offer solutions to the environmental crisis in developing countries. A new method of nanotechnology that can transform agriculture is undergoing development to create materials from biological nano-structures that work within gases, liquids and solids to manipulate atomic properties. The medical field, cosmetics and electronics already use nanoparticles (NPs) due to their expansive chemical and biological properties.

When applied to agriculture, NPs work through the cellular system so they can remain within the farm’s ecosystem. NPs also help change the rate of a plant’s retainment of water, oxygen growth, sun absorption and chromosomal activity. Other developments like nano-pesticides help to regulate the number of pesticides that negatively affect food production and nano-fertilizers. Nano-fertilizers are thus able to enhance agricultural yield and reduce the use of zinc, silica and titanium dioxide.

Improving Precision Farming with NPs

One of the best features of nano-particles is the opportunity to increase funding and popularity with seed treatment. In order to improve the environmental impact of agriculture in developing countries, implementing the use of NPs into popular methods of agriculture, such as precision farming, is a feasible solution. This form of agriculture uses GPS satellite signals to gain information about harvest fluctuations by interpreting the position, velocity and time of the surrounding climate.

Nano-sensors pair well with GPS technology. These sensors work as small monitors that confirm the soil’s conditions and plant growth during changing climate. With nano-sensors, precision farming can increase production quickly with minimal cost. The United States and Australia are currently profiting from nano-sensors. Both countries have been using this technology in vineyards to grow high-quality grapes at an optimal price point.

Being able to apply nanotechnology to well-running methods of sustainable agriculture has proven to be successful so far. Developing countries such as India, Iran and Thailand have experienced economic growth with the use of nanotechnology. In India, the production of efficient water fertilizers, soil conservation, livestock nutrients and plant health monitoring have been positive changes for agriculture there. Going forward, nanotechnology can be the new solution that allows farmers to be successful in their farming without using toxic GMOs or agrochemicals. Nanotechnology can transform agriculture and is the future of farming. When applied sustainably, it can produce major changes in the world of agriculture.

Matthew Martinez
Photo: Flickr

Environmental Sustainability in Croatia
By way of investing in environmental sustainability in Croatia, hotels like Villa Dvor are serving Croatia’s poor beyond job creation. Some efforts include the creation of urban gardens as well as improved sanitation, among other factors of aid. As a result, hotels and NGOs are driving eco-friendly innovations that make for a healthier Croatia, from delivering affordable, healthy food to impoverished communities to preventing pollution within neighborhoods.

Urban Gardens for Hotels

As towns turn into tourist hotspots, hotels are moving toward increased environmental sustainability in Croatia. A nearly century-old castle-turned hotel in Omiš, Croatia, is now home to some of the newest advancements in environmental technology. Complete from water flow reducers to solar-powered thermal panels, the Villa Dvor has committed to an eco-friendly operation that is now benefitting the Adriatic coastline and beyond.

Upon its 2013 entrance to the European Union, the city of Zagreb, Croatia, announced a piece of legislation planning to reserve 2,000 land plots in 10 locations for urban gardening that encompasses several of the U.N.’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since then, the number of urban gardens in the city has steadily increased. The practice of urban gardens has become so successful a waitlist is needed specifically for these gardening-related plot allotments.

Facilitating sizable monthly savings on healthy food products makes urban gardens of particular benefit to the poor. Eight pounds of tomatoes at the supermarket cost about $20.48. However, when one sources them from a single home-grown tomato plant, that cost comes to just $4. According to Energy Cities, the European government network, disadvantaged groups are now some of the primary beneficiaries of the project and in turn, receive priority access.

Gardening and Nonprofit Organizations

In regards to education on seasonal and harvesting techniques, nonprofit organizations such as Udruga Oaza are here to help. The nonprofit educates children and youth on environmental sustainability in Croatia via school gardening programs. In 2017, it started the “Oasis for Kids” initiative. Mile Drača, head of Udruga Oaza, told The Borgen Project that while cooking workshops on veganism and vegetarianism have slowly, they surely incorporate healthier options into school lunches.

Irena Burba, the president of NGO Zelena Istra, emphasized urban gardening’s potential to assist the poor in her own district. “Our local community is also a tourist center and food prices are very high. Markets are becoming inaccessible to poor citizens. Even fish, an important source of protein, although we are at sea, is too expensive for many citizens because they are tourist prices,” explained Burba. “In times of crisis, communities need to find quick and efficient solutions, so urban gardens are certainly one of them.” With limited food availability due to the novel coronavirus, more citizens are vouching for the establishment of urban gardening areas.

Improved Sanitation

With urban gardens uniquely serving each community, they have the ability to promote environmental sustainability in Croatia via contribution to nationwide improvements in sanitation. Attracting some 21,000,000 tourists in 2019 alone, Croatia has experienced rapid development of its tourism industry and subsequent sanitation. Thus, industrial developments are also growing, such as hotel complexes which have increasingly aroused alarm as they continue to proliferate.

For instance, in the summer of 2019, protests regarding mayor Milan Bandić’s Urban Development Plan largely characterized Zagreb. It sought to double or triple the cost of waste collection. Additionally, Croatia’s easternmost region encountered issues surrounding illegal landfills, which nearly always tops the list of concerns, reported Burba.

Despite being the second most sought-after tourist destination, the Splitsko-dalmatinska counties remain home to the highest percentage of Croatia’s poor. When analyzing the effects of pollution in Croatia, the burgeoning tourist industry constantly hits low-income districts the hardest. This includes access to commercial fish. Overfishing and pollution have led to a substantial decrease in commercially important fish species like the Surmullet, further hurting the prospects of local fishermen who are a mainly self-employed group. They are two to three times more likely to experience “in-work poverty.”

Certifications for Eco-Friendly Hotels

Evaluating these statistics prepared another NGO, Sunce Dalmacija (“Sun Dalmatia”), for one of its most well-known projects yet: certifications for eco-friendly hotels. With the name “Dalmatia Green” diplomas, Sunce Dalmacija issues these certifications to incentivize hotel owners’ adoption of environmental sustainability in Croatia via techniques like energy-saving lights.

E.U. funds generally upheld eco-friendly practices. The Croatian Ministry of Environmental and Nature Protection was able to chip away at its 2007-2015 Waste Management Plan, which saw the centralization of waste management in national facilities. Whether these practices undergo enforcement on the individual level is a different matter, Mile Drača reported. Although institutions like Hrvatske Vode have facilitated a stricter public oversight of environmental sustainability in Croatia, privatization of the coastline by large hotel chains remains a glaring concern to NGOs like Zelena Istra.

Moving Forward

Numerous challenges related to balancing tourism with environmental sustainability in Croatia exist. However, despite these obstacles, the E.U.’s newest member continues to make progress with its urban gardening and waste management initiatives. Moving forward, “broad, quality public debate,” together with transparency, has the power to develop quality solutions to this age-long struggle, said Burba.

She concluded that “Citizens are ready to unite and jointly respond to the problem in their local community through actions, petitions and protests. We, as an association, provide them with support and help with our knowledge and experience.”

– Petra Dujmic
Photo: Flickr

Environmental Impacts on DiseaseHuman health and environmental concerns are commonly thought of and treated as unrelated issues. However, environmental degradation has an unquestionable impact on a community’s health. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) recently released a report underscoring this point. The UNEP finds environmental impacts on disease are especially apparent in Africa, where large numbers of people are directly reliant on natural resources. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 35% of the total burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa is caused by environmental hazards. For example, contaminated water and air pollution commonly cause diarrhea and respiratory issues.

Indoor Air Pollution

Indoor air pollution is one of the leading environmental impacts on disease and death in Sub-Saharan Africa. People living in extreme poverty primarily depend directly on solid fuels (i.e. biomass fuels) for their heating and cooking needs. The harmful biomass fuels such as crop waste, coal and wood cause significant air pollution, especially when burned by inefficient and poorly ventilated stoves. Biomass smoke contains thousands of health-damaging substances. These pollutants penetrate deep into the lungs and initiate the development of acute lower respiratory disease, cancer and multiple other diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Women and young children are at the highest exposure to the fumes and have the highest rates of mortality resulting from indoor air pollution. WHO estimates that Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of indoor air pollution deaths in the world, along with parts of Southeast Asia.

Improving the Environment and Fighting Disease

Shifting from solid fuels to cleaner energy technologies can have a major impact on indoor air pollution levels. For instance, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), biogas and solar power generation all produce less indoor air pollution. Governments and NGOs alike should plan to help communities make this transition. However, air pollution is just one environmental concern that needs addressing.

Simple solutions to environmental concerns include safer storage of water and dangerous chemicals; these relatively cheap improvements can be highly effective in reducing disease. Ultimately, providing low-cost storage containers to urban and rural communities will result in prominent and lasting gains in health and economic development. Additionally, improving common household appliances can reduce indoor air pollution in poor communities; for example, stoves and ventilation systems often contribute to or fail to reduce indoor air pollution. Lastly, increasing education and public awareness about the environmental impacts on disease is critical; many environment-related health issues are preventable. For instance, educations can encourage mothers to keep small children away from constant contact with fires while cooking.

In Conclusion

It is imperative to address the upstream determinants of Sub-Saharan Africa’s high morbidity and mortality rates. Clean water and air are powerful preventative medicines. Implementing simple, yet effective solutions and sustainable management of natural resources is crucial to ending poverty. By helping people to treat the environment well, governments and NGOs can reduce diseases and child mortality; additionally, their work will improve maternal health and education across sub-Saharan Africa.

Samantha Johnson
Photo: Flickr